Assertion Reason

History – India and Contemporary World II

Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Class 10

Directions: Mark the option which is most suitable :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

Question.1.
Assertion (A) : Giuseppe Mazzini worked with the conservatives for the monarchy.
Reason (R) : Italy had to continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.

(d) Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations/ It could not be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
Thus both assertion and reason are false.

Question.2.
Assertion (A) : Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one was ruled by an Italian princely house.
Reason (R) :
The north was under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain.

(c) Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs and the southern regions were under the domination of The Bourbon kings of Spain.
Therefore assertion is true but reason is false.

Question.3.
Assertion (A) : Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
Reason (R) :
They were closely bound to each other in spite of their autonomous rule.

(c) Germany, Italy land Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Diverse people lived within the territories. They did not share a collective identity or a common culture. They spoke different languages belonged to different ethnic groups, were were no close ties binding them.

Question.4.
Assertion (A) : Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
Reason (R) :
Weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.

(b) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. The year 1848 was a year when rise in food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. Earlier in 1845, a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages and led a revolt.
Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Question.5.
Assertion (A) : On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives revolted in the Frankfurt parliament.
Reason (R) :
The elected representatives revolted against the issue of extending political rights to women.

(d) On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Therefore, both assertion and reason are false.

Question.6.
Assertion (A) : The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
Reason (R) :
The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.

(b) This situation refers to the unification of Britain, Assertion refers to Scotland and how they suffered because of the long-drawn-out process. Their culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. However, the reason refers to how the Irishmen suffered in the hands of Englishmen as it was a country deeply divided between the Catholics and Protestants. It was largely a Catholic country but the Protestants got support from the English to suppress the Catholic revolts. It does not explain the assertion.

Question.7.
Assertion (A) : From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices like the idea of la patrie and le citoyen.
Reason (R) :
This was done to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

(a) The French Revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. From the very beginning, the French Revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that would create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The centralized administrative system was one of the measures taken for making uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.

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