History – India and Contemporary World II
Chapter 2: Nationalism in India
Directions: Mark the option which is most suitable :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
Assertion (A) : In 1917, Gandhiji organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat.
Reason (R) : The peasants were affected by crop failure and plague epidemic. They could not pay the revenue and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.
(a) The peasants wanted that their revenue collection be relaxed because they were at a complete loss because of the epidemic. Gandhiji came forward and organized a Satyagraha to provide them with a platform to raise their voice.
Assertion (A) : The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
Reason (R) : In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(b) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmins, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmins hadaccess to. Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
Assertion (A) : The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons in the cities.
Reason (R) : As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
(b) Khadi cloth was often more expensive than massproduced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. Non-cooperation Movement was gradually turning violent, some leaders were by now, very tired of mass struggle, that is now it lost momentum. Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but the reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
Assertion (A) : In Awadh, the peasants were led by Alluri Sitaram Raju.
Reason (R) : The movement here was against Oudh Kisan Sabha.
(d) In Awadh, the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Thus, both the assertion and the reason are wrong.
Assertion (A) : When Simon Commission arrived in India, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
Reason (R) : This happened as Mahatma Gandhi was on Dandi March during that time.
(c) The Simon Commission was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’ because it did not have a single Indian member. They were all British but had come to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. Gandhiji went on Dandi March on 11 March 1930. The reason thus does not explain the assertion.
Assertion (A) : Gandhiji entered into Gandhi-Irwin Pact on 5 March 1931.
Reason (R) : Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both put in jail, the Congress was declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
(b) With the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in the Round Table Conference in London. However, the negotiations broke down and Gandhiji returned to India disappointed. New repressive measures by the government declared the Congress illegal and put Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru into jail. Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
Assertion (A) : Rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes.
Reason (R) : However, they were deeply happy when the movement was called off in 1931 with revenue rates being lowered.
(c) The peasants were deeply disappointed when the Civil Disobedience Movement was called off in 1931 without revenue rates being revised. They wanted the revenue rates revised and were thus actively participating in the movement but were deeply hurt when they could not achieve the same. Therefore, The assertion is true but reason is false.
Assertion (A) : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland and it was later included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement.
Reason (R) : Rabindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata, which is portrayed as an ascetic figure, who is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
(d) It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints, and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism, but this does not explain why he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’. Thus both of them are true, but reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.