Assertion Reason

History – India and Contemporary World II

Chapter 5: Print Culture and the Modern World

Class 10

Directions: Mark the option which is most suitable :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

Question.1.
Assertion (A) : In 1517, the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
Reason (R) :
This led to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

(a) A printed cojiy of the Theses was posted on a church door in Wittenberg. It challenged the Church to debate his ideas. Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in large numbers and read widely. The reason thus correctly justifies the assertion.

Question.2.
Assertion (A) : The new reading culture was accompanied by a new technology.
Reason (R) :
From hand printing there was a gradual shift to mechanical printing.

(a) The reason thus correctly justifies the assertion.

Question.3.
Assertion (A) : The production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books.
Reason (R) :
Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.

(b) Copying was laborious, expensive and time-consuming. Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Therefore, their circulation remained limited. The reason does not explain or justify the assertion.

Question.4.
Assertion (A) : The first book that Gutenberg printed was the Bible.
Reason (R) :
About 500 copies were printed and it took two years to produce them.

(c) About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. The reason is thus false.

Question.5.
Assertion (A) : Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretations of faith even among little-educated working people.
Reason (R) :
Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, literacy rates went up in most parts of Europe.

(b) 

Question.6.
Assertion (A) : As literacy and schools spread in African countries, there was a virtual reading mania.
Reason (R) :
Churches of different denominations set up schools in villages, carrying literacy to tribals.

(d) As literacy and schools spread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania. Churches of different denominations set up schools in villages, carrying literacy to peasants and artisans.

Question.7.
Assertion (A) : Children became an important category of readers.
Reason (R) :
Primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century.

(a) The reason justifies the assertion.

Question.8.
Assertion (A) : There was intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like-widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatory.
Reason (R) :
The Deoband Seminary founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands off at was telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in everyday lives, and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.

(b) The reason does not justify the assertion.

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