## Unit-wise Chapters

There are 16 chapters present in the NCERT Textbook for Class 10 Science which are divided into 5 units.

Unit I – Chemical Substances – Nature & Behaviour (5 chapters)

• Chapter 1: Chemical reactions and equations
• Chapter 2: Acids, bases and salt
• Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals
• Chapter 4: Carbon and Its Compounds
• Chapter 5: Periodic Classification Of Elements

Unit II – World of Living (4 chapters)

• Chapter 6: Life Processes
• Chapter 7: Control and Coordination
• Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce?
• Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution

Unit III – Natural Phenomenon (2 chapters)

• Chapter 10: Light Reflection and Refraction
• Chapter 11: The Human Eye and Colourful World

Unit IV – Effects of Current (2 chapters)

• Chapter 12: Electricity
• Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Unit V – Natural Resources (3 chapters)

• Chapter 14: Sources of Energy
• Chapter 15: Our Environment
• Chapter 16: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

## Latest Syllabus (2022-2023)

The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility.

Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation.

The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials; The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No attempt has been made to be comprehensive.

At this stage, while Science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject.

General Instructions:

• There will be an Annual Examination based on the entire syllabus.
• The Annual Examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for Internal Assessment.
• For Internal Assessment:
1. There will be Periodic Assessment that would include:
• For 5 marks- Three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 05 marks towards the final result.
• For 5 marks- Diverse methods of assessment as per the need of the class dynamics and curriculum transaction. These may include – short tests, oral test, quiz, concept maps, projects, posters, presentations and enquiry based scientific investigations etc. and use rubrics for arguing them objectively. This will also have a weightage of 05 marks towards the final result.
2. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in the syllabus must be completed.
3. Portfolio to be prepared by the student- This would include classwork and other sample of student work and will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results.

Theme: Materials
Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour

• Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, endothermic exothermic reactions, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples and uses, neutralization, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
• Metals and nonmetals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
• Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydro carbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds(combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.

Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: World of Living

• Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
• Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action;
• Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
• Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health – need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
• Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction: (topics excluded – evolution; evolution and classification and evolution should not be equated with progress).

Theme: Natural Phenomena
Unit III: Natural Phenomena

• Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification. Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens. Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life (excluding colour of the sun at sunrise and sunset).

Theme: How Things Work
Unit IV: Effects of Current

• Electric current: potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
• Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

Theme: Natural Resources
Unit V: Natural Resources

• Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

Note for the Teachers:

1. The chapter Management of Natural Resources (NCERT Chapter 16) will not be assessed in the year-end examination. However, learners may be assigned to read this chapter and encouraged to prepare a brief write up to any concept of this chapter in their Portfolio. This may be for Internal Assessment and credit may be given Periodic Assessment/Portfolio.
2. The NCERT text books present information in boxes across the book. These help students to get conceptual clarity. However, the information in these boxes would not be assessed in the year-end examination.

## Marks Distribution

COURSE STRUCTURE (2022-2023)
CLASS X
(Annual Examination)

Unit No.UnitMarks
IChemical Substances-Nature and Behaviour25
IIWorld of Living22
IIINatural Phenomena12
IVEffects of Current 13
VNatural Resources05
Total80
Internal assessment20
Grand Total100

## Practicals

Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS (2022-2023)

Unit-I: Chemical Substances-Nature and Behaviour

1. A. Finding the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator: Unit-I
(i) Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
(ii) Dilute NaOH solution
(iii) Dilute Ethanoic Acid solution
(iv) Lemon juice
(v) Water
(vi) Dilute Hydrogen Carbonate solution
B. Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) on the basis of their reaction with:
a) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
b) Zinc metal
c) Solid sodium carbonate
2. Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them into:
A. Combination reaction
B. Decomposition reaction
C. Displacement reaction
D. Double displacement reaction
(i) Action of water on quicklime
(ii) Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
(iii) Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
(iv) Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
3. Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions:
(i) ZnSO_{4}(aq)
(ii) FeSO_{4}(aq)
(iii) CuSO_{4}(aq)
(iv) Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}(aq)
Arranging Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
4. Study of the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid):
(i) Odour
(ii) solubility in water
(iii) effect on litmus
(iv) reaction with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
5. Study of the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.

Unit-II: World of Living

1. Preparing a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
2. Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
3. Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast and Hydra with the help of prepared slides.
4. Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).

Unit-III: Natural Phenomena

1. Determination of the focal length of:
i) Concave mirror
ii) Convex lens
by obtaining the image of a distant object.
2. Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
3. Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.

Unit-IV: Effects of Current

1. Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and I.
2. Determination of the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series and parallel.

## PRESCRIBED BOOKS

Science-Text book for class X- NCERT Publication
Exemplar Problems Class X – NCERT Publication
Assessment of Practical Skills in Science– Class X- CBSE Publication
Laboratory Manual-Science-Class X, NCERT Publication

## NCERT Solution

NCERT Solution of Class 10 Science all chapters

Chapter 1: Chemical reactions and equations
Chapter 2: Acids, bases and salt
Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals
Chapter 4: Carbon and Its Compounds
Chapter 5: Periodic Classification Of Elements
Chapter 6: Life Processes
Chapter 7: Control and Coordination
Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce?
Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution
Chapter 10: Light Reflection and Refraction
Chapter 11: The Human Eye and Colourful World
Chapter 12: Electricity
Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
Chapter 14: Sources of Energy
Chapter 15: Our Environment
Chapter 16: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

## Sample Papers

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