Science 9th CBSE

Science 9th CBSE


The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility.

Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation.

The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials; The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No attempt has been made to be comprehensive.

At this stage, while Science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject.

General Instructions:

  • There will be an Annual Examination based on the entire syllabus.
  • The Annual Examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for Internal Assessment.
  • For Internal Assessment:
    1. There will be Periodic Assessment that would include:
      • For 5 marks- Three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 05 marks towards the final result.
      • For 5 marks- Diverse methods of assessment as per the need of the class dynamics and curriculum transaction. These may include – short tests, oral test, quiz, concept maps, projects, posters, presentations and enquiry based scientific investigations etc. and use rubrics for arguing them objectively. This will also have a weightage of 05 marks towards the final result.
    2. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in the syllabus must be completed.
    3. Portfolio to be prepared by the student- This would include classwork and other sample of student work and will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results.

Theme: Materials
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density; change of state- melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions. Physical and chemical changes (excluding separating the components of a mixture).
Particle nature and their basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of Chemical Combination, Chemical formula of common compounds, Atomic and molecular masses.
Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, Valency, Atomic Number and Mass Number, Isotopes and Isobars.

Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: Organization in the Living World
Cell – Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).

Theme: Moving Things, People and Ideas
Unit III: Motion, Force and Work
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration.
Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.
Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy.
Work, Energy and Power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy (excluding commercial unit of Energy).
Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo.

Theme: Food
Unit IV: Food Production
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.

Note for the Teachers:

  1. The chapter Natural Resources (NCERT Chapter 14) will not be assessed in the year-end examination. However, learners may be assigned to read this chapter and encouraged to prepare a brief write up on any concept of this chapter in their Portfolio. This may be for Internal Assessment and credit may be given for Periodic Assessment/Portfolio.
  2. The NCERT text books present information in boxes across the book. These help students to get conceptual clarity. However, the information in these boxes would not be assessed in the year-end examination.

Marks Distribution

(Annual Examination)

Unit No.UnitMarks
IMatter - Its Nature and Behaviour25
IIOrganization in the Living World22
IIIMotion, Force and Work27
IVFood; Food Production06
Internal assessment20
Grand Total100


Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.



  1. Preparation of: 
    a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
    b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
    c) a colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and distinguish between these on the basis of
    • transparency
    • filtration criterion
    • stability
  2. Preparation of
    a) A mixture
    b) A compound
    using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguishing between these on the basis of:
    (i) appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
    (ii) behaviour towards a magnet
    (iii) behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent
    (iv) effect of heat
  3. Perform the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes: 
    a) Iron with copper sulphate solution in water
    b) Burning of magnesium ribbon in air
    c) Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
    d) Heating of copper sulphate crystals
    e) Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water
  4. Determination of the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.


  1. Preparation of stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel, (b) human cheek cells & to record observations and draw their labeled diagrams. 
  2. Identification of Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped, smooth and cardiac muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals, from prepared slides. Draw their labeled diagrams. 


  1. Verification of the Laws of reflection of sound.
  2. Determination of the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder. 
  3. Establishing the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in 
    a) Tap water
    b) Strongly salty water with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids.
  4. Determination of the speed of a pulse propagated through a stretched string/slinky (helical spring). 
  5. Verification of the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction

Prescribed Books

  • Science-Textbook for class IX-NCERT Publication
  • Exemplar Problems Class IX – NCERT Publication
  • Assessment of Practical Skills in Science-Class IX – CBSE Publication
  • Laboratory Manual-Science-Class IX, NCERT Publication
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