Discuss (Page 56)
Q.1. Explain what we man when we say that the World “Shrank” in the 1500s?
- The word ‘Shrank’ stands for increased interaction among the people of various continents of the world.
- Before 1500s there was not much interconnectedness, trade and commerce among the residents of various continents.
- But after 1500s the commercial cultural exchange of ideas and people increased in the continents of the world that stretched from America to the Asia through Europe and Africa.
Activity (Page 59)
Q.2. Prepare a flow chart to show how Britain’s decision to import food led to increased migration to America and Australia.
Q.3. Imagine that you are an agricultural worker who has arrived in America from Ireland. Write a paragraph on why you choose to come and how you are earning you living.
Hi! I am mack (supposed name), I am from Ireland. I have come to America. I was a peasant in Ireland. But I had to migrate to America. The main reason behind this was the unemployment of peasants in Ireland. This occurred due to the import of chapter food items in our country. Thus, we were out berated by the imported food grain and became unemployed. Then I decided to migrate to America, as here peasants were required to work on large farms, and I got employment. In America I live near my employer’s farm. I work in his field and grow crops. In this way, I earn my living.
Discuss (Page 64)
Q.4. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
- A person is identified by his language and traditional practices because the language that he speaks belongs to a nation, his motherland. It is the nation that is important than an individual.
- Also the language and traditional practices of land or territory develop in a long time, thus get firmly established.
- People are born and die but language and traditions stay. They are always alive.
- They give an identity to an individual, wherever he goes.
Therefore, the language and popular traditions are important in creating the national identity of an individual.
Discuss (Page 73)
Q.5. Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Explain.
Answer : The impact of the Great Depression in India was felt especially in the agricultural sector.
- It was evident that the Indian economy was closely becoming integrated to the global economy. India was a British colony and exported agricultural goods and imported manufactured goods. The depression affected the Indian trade as India’s exports and imports declined extensively between 1928 and 1934. As international prices fell, prices in India also fell.
- The jute growers of Bengal lamented that the traders sitting at home benefitted from growing jute while the peasants suffered from the rising costs of production and debts. Despite the falling prices of agricultural goods, the colonial power refused to reduce the revenue demands in cash. Peasants and farmers involved in cash crops were the worst hit.
- The urban salaried class and the landlords benefitted from the falling prices of agricultural products and the value of rent increased. Large scale migration from villages to towns and cities also affected the urban life-styles
Discuss (Page 75)
Q.4. Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience?
Answer : The inter-war economic experience was very bad.
- Most of the countries were devastated and cities were destroyed.
- The economists and politicians learned that they had to ensure economic stability of the industrial countries.
- Also they understood the interdependence of national economies all over the world.
Hence, they drew up an internationally accepted framework to recover and consolidate the world economy.