Extra Questions 10th History Chapter 1 : The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. The first clear expression of Nationalism in Europe came with :
(a) The American Revolution
(b) The French Revolution
(c) The Russian Revolution
(d) The Industrial Revolution
Ans. (b) The French Revolution

Question.2. Nationalism brought about in Europe the emergence of :
(a) The Nation State
(b) The Modern State
(c) Multinational Dynastic State
(d) Alliances formed among many European states
Ans. (a) The Nation State

Question.3. Frederic Serrieu, a French artist, in his series of four prints (1848) visualised his dream of a world as :
(a) A world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’
(b) A world made up of one nation, one world
(c) A world with one absolute ruler
(d) A world following one religion, one language
Ans. (a) A world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’

Question.4. The ideas of a United Community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution were expressed by the French as :
(a) La Patrie
(b) Le Citoyen
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.5. The Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic Code, established :
(a) Equality before the law
(b) Secured the right to property
(c) Did away with all the privileges based on birth
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.6. What kind of political and constitutional change was brought about by the French Revolution?
(a) It ended the absolute monarchy
(b) It transferred power to a body of the French citizens
(c) It proclaimed that henceforth people would constitute the nation and shape its destiny
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.7. Name one kind of revolt that started in Europe in 1848.
(a) Linguistic Revolt in Germany
(b) Artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolted against economic hardships
(c) Revolt against monarchy in Switzerland
(d) Revolt for freedom in Greece
Ans. (b) Artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolted against economic hardships

Question.8. Socially and politically dominant class in Europe during mid-eighteenth century was __________ .
(a) The Nobility
(b) The landed aristocracy
(c) The Church
(d) The absolute monarchs
Ans. (a) The Nobility

Question.9. The denial of universal suffrage in Europe, led to _________________.
(a) Revolutions
(b) Women and non-propertied men organising opposition movements, demanding equal rights throughout 19th and early 20th centuries
(c) Demand of equal political rights
(d) Return of monarchy
Ans. (b) Women and non-propertied men organising opposition movements, demanding equal rights throughout 19th and early 20th centuries

Question.10. In politics, liberalism emphasised ______________ .
(a) End of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and a representative government through Parliament
(b) The inviolability of private property
(c) The right to vote
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.11. Friedrich List, a German professor of Economics, hoped to achieve two political ends through economic measures. They were ______________ .
(a) Increase in power in Europe
(b) Binding Germans economically into a nation
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Awakening national sentiment through a free economic system
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.12. Which new spirit guided European nations after Napoleon’s defeat?
(a) Fascism
(b) Conservatism
(c) Nazism
(d) Communism
Ans. (b) Conservatism

Question.13. All the new regimes, set up in 1815, were autocratic because :
(a) They did not tolerate criticism and dissent
(b) They imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, plays, songs etc.
(c) They curbed activities which questioned their legitimacy
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.14. Repression of liberal revolutionaries after 1815, in Europe, led to
(a) Armies being trained by revolutionaries
(b) All revolutionaries trained to overthrow monarchy
(c) Secret societies being formed in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) Secret societies being formed in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas

Question.15. The three leaders who helped unification of Italy were :
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini, Victor Emmanuel II, Cavour
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini, Cavour, Giuseppe Garibaldi
(c) Victor Emmanuel, Bismarck, Cavour
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Giuseppe Mazzini, Cavour, Giuseppe Garibaldi

Question.16. In the 19th century, the French artists symbolised the French nation as :
(a) Marianne, a popular Christian name for women
(b) Marianne, a female figure, with a red cap, the tricolour and the cockade
(c) As a female named Marianne, with characteristics of liberty (a red cap, a broken chair) and the Republic (the red cap, tricolour and the cockade)
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) As a female named Marianne, with characteristics of liberty (a red cap, a broken chair) and the Republic (the red cap, tricolour and the cockade)

Question.17. The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 AD were led by :
(a) Liberal nationalists belonging to the aristocratic class
(b) The peasants
(c) Liberal nationalists belonging to the educated middle class elite, consisting of professors, school teachers, clubs and members of the commercial middle class
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) Liberal nationalists belonging to the educated middle class elite, consisting of professors, school teachers, clubs and members of the commercial middle class

Question.18. The Nationalist Greeks got the support of the West European nations because:
(a) They were fighting against the Muslim Ottoman Empire
(b) They had sympathies for ancient Greek culture
(c) Greece was considered the cradle of European civilisation
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.19. Cavour’s contribution to Italian unification was :
(a) Diplomatic alliance with the enemies of Austria
(b) War with Austrians and Bourbons.
(c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont
(d) Defeated the Bourbon kings
Ans. (c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont

Question.20. Who was Giuseppe Mazzini? When and where he was born?
(a) Giueseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Rome in 1810
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian, born in Genoa, in 1807
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini was a Corsican, born in Genoa in 1807
(d) Giuseppe Mazzini was a famous Italian painter, born in Genoa in 1810
Ans. (b) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian, born in Genoa, in 1807

Question.21. The purpose behind the painting “The Massacre at Chios” by Eugene Delacroix, 1824, was :
(a) To appeal to the emotions of the spectators and create sympathy for the Greeks
(b) To dramatise the incident in which 20,000 Greeks were killed
(c) To focus on the suffering of women and children
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.22. The aim of Romanticism, a cultural movement, was :
(a) To create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of the nation
(b) Glorification of science and reason
(c) To focus on emotions, intuitions and mystical feeling
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)

Question.23. German philosopher Johann Gotfried Herder claimed that true German culture was discovered through
(a) Folk songs, folk poetry, folk dances
(b) Common people — das volk
(c) Vernacular language
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.24. In France, 1848 was a year when :
(a) Louis Philippe of France was dethroned, and France declared a Republic
(b) Suffrage to all males above 21 was given and the right to work guaranteed
(c) Food shortages, widespread unemployment led to a revolt in Paris
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.25. The weavers of Silesia revolted in 1845 against contractors because:
(a) The contractors who gave them orders drastically reduced their payments.
(b) The contractors took advantage of their misery and desperate need for jobs.
(c) Both A and B.
(d) The contractors had killed eleven weavers.
Ans. (c) Both A and B.

Question.26. A ‘Feminist’ is:
(a) A person aware of women’s rights and believes in the social, political and economic equality of women
(b) A person who believes that women are the weaker sex
(c) A person who believes that gender equality would destroy the dignity of the family and endanger harmony
(d) A person ready to give social equality but not political or economic equality
Ans. (a) A person aware of women’s rights and believes in the social, political and economic equality of women

Question.27. How was the process of German unification completed and who was proclaimed the ruler?
(a) After many wars, Kaiser William became the ruler
(b) After 3 wars fought over 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France, Kaiser William I became the ruler of a unified Germany.
(c) The Germans defeated the Habsburg Empire and made Kaiser William I the ruler
(d) Otto von Bismarck became the ruler after defeating France
Ans. (b) After 3 wars fought over 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France, Kaiser William I became the ruler of a unified Germany.

Question.28. Garibaldi contributed to the Italian unification by :
(a) Declaring Victor Emmanuel as the king of united Italy in 1860
(b) Conquering Papal states in 1860.
(c) Conquering two Sicilies and South Italy in 1860.
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)

Question.29. Some historians consider Great Britain as a model of the nation state because :
(a) It was created after a long-drawn-out wars and political struggle
(b) It became a nation-state after forcing Scotland, Wales and Ireland to submit to it.
(c) It was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution, but the result of a long-drawn-out process.
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) It was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution, but the result of a long-drawn-out process.

Question.30. Under the British dominance, Scotland suffered because of :
(a) Systematic suppression of its cultural and political institutions
(b) The Catholics of Scottish Highlands were ruthlessly suppressed and lost independence
(c) Denial to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.31. Ireland suffered under the British, because :
(a) The English helped the Protestants in Ireland to dominate the Catholics who were in a majority
(b) Catholics’ revolts against the British were suppressed.
(c) Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801, after the failure of Wolfe Tone revolt in 1798
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.32. The symbols of the new ‘British nation’ were :
(a) The British flag (Union Jack) and the British national anthem (God Save the King).
(b) The English language and domination of English culture
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Subordination of the older nations
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.33. The artists of the 18th and 19th centuries personified a nation as :
(a) A particular woman to represent the nation
(b) A female figure
(c) A female figure as an allegory, to represent an abstract idea of a nation in concrete form
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) A female figure as an allegory, to represent an abstract idea of a nation in concrete form

Question.34. Who painted ‘Germania’ and for what occasion?
(a) Artist Phillip Veit painted it to celebrate the unification of Germany
(b) Phillip Veit painted it to hang from the ceiling of St Paul’s where the Frankfurt Parliament was held in 1848.
(c) Phillip Veit painted it to celebrate Bismarck’s victory
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Phillip Veit painted it to hang from the ceiling of St Paul’s where the Frankfurt Parliament was held in 1848.

Question.35. Phillip Veit used the following in his painting as symbols
(i) Broken chains,
(ii) Sword
(iii) Olive branch round the sword and
(iv) Rays of the rising sun.
They symbolised :
(a) (i) Heroism, (ii) readiness to fight (iii) strength (iv) hope
(b) (i) Freedom (ii) strength (iii) readiness to fight (iv) Beginning of a new era
(c) (i) Freedom (ii) readiness to fight (iii) willingness to make peace (iv) beginning of a new era
(d) (i) Heroism (ii) courage (iii) readiness to fight (iv) hope
Ans. (c) (i) Freedom (ii) readiness to fight (iii) willingness to make peace (iv) beginning of a new era

Question.36. A map celebrating the British Empire depict British domination of the world as :
(a) Britannia (symbol of British nation) sitting triumphantly over the globe
(b) Britannia surrounded by tigers, elephants, forests symbolising the colonies
(c) Angels carrying banner of freedom
(d) Through pictures of primitive people
Ans. (a) Britannia (symbol of British nation) sitting triumphantly over the globe

Question.37. The power struggle in Europe by the big powers (late 19th century) led to :
(a) A series of wars in the region and finally the First World War in 1914
(b) Opposition to imperial domination in the colonies
(c) The idea that societies should be organised into nation states
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.38. The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was :
(a) Area called the Austro-Hungary
(b) Area under the Prussians
(c) Area called the Balkans
(d) Area under the Russians
Ans. (c) Area called the Balkans

Question.39. The big power rivalry in the late 19th century was over :
(a) Trade and colonies
(b) Naval supremacy and military might
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Territories and naval might
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.40. Nationalism lost its liberal democratic sentiment in the last quarter of the 19th century, because :
(a) Major European powers manipulated nationalist sentiments of the people to further their own imperialistic designs
(b) Nationalist groups had become intolerant of each other
(c) Nationalism had become a narrow creed with limited ends
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.41. Which one of the following is not true regarding the history of the nationalist movement in Great Britain?
(a) It was the result of a long-drawn-out process and not of a sudden revolution.
(b) The wealthy and powerful English nation steadily extended its influence over the Welsh, the Scots and the Irish.
(c) Ireland and Scotland were equal partners in the union called the United Kingdoms.
(d) The British flag and national anthem were actively promoted in this Union.
Ans. (c) Ireland and Scotland were equal partners in the union called the United Kingdoms.

Question.42. Which one of the following is true regarding how the new artists depicted liberty during the French Revolution?
(a) As a female figure with a torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other hand.
(b) Blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
(c) The gold red and black tricolour.
(d) Rays of the rising sun.
Ans. (a) As a female figure with a torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other hand.

Question.43. Which of the following was the result of the Act of Union 1707?
(a) United Kingdom of Irish
(b) United Kingdom of Scotland
(c) United Kingdom of America
(d) United Kingdom of Great Britain
Ans. (d) United Kingdom of Great Britain

Question.44. Which of the following powers was not interested in Balkan peninsula?
(a) England
(b) Germany
(c) Russia
(d) Japan
Ans. (d) Japan

Question.45. What emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and material world of Europe in the nineteenth century?
(a) The emergence of the nation state
(b) The multinational dynastic empire
(c) Territorial state
(d) Absolute monarchy
Ans. (a) The emergence of the nation state

Question.46. Conservatives did not believe in establishing and preserving :
(a) the monarchy
(b) the democracy
(c) traditional institutions of state and society
(d) social hierarchies
Ans. (b) the democracy

Question.47. Which one of the following is not regarding the reforms carried out by the Union called Zollverein?
(a) Creation of a network of railways to promote nationalism
(b) Opposition to unhindered movement of goods, people and capital in member states
(c) Reduction of tariff barriers in states
(d) Reduction of number of currencies in Germany
Ans. (b) Opposition to unhindered movement of goods, people and capital in member states

Question.48. Which one of the following is true regarding the ideas promoted by Mazzini?
(a) Opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic
(b) To establish liberty and freedom under a monarchy
(c) Disintegration of the German confederation under 39 States
(d) Censorship of newspapers, books, plays and songs
Ans. (a) Opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic

Question.49. Which one of the following was NOT implemented under the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
(a) Restoration of Bourbon dynasty
(b) Setting up series of states on the boundaries of France
(c) Restoration of monarchies
(d) Diluting the German confederation of 39 states
Ans. (d) Diluting the German confederation of 39 states

Question.50. Which one of the following became the female allegory of the German Nation?
(a) Marianne
(b) Germania
(c) Britannia
(d) Mazzini
Ans. (b) Germania

Question.51. Who among the following was described as ‘the most dangerous enemy of social order’ by Duke Metternich?
(a) Louis Philippe
(b) Karol Kurpinski
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Johann Gottfried
Ans. (c) Giuseppe Mazzini

Question.52. Which one of the following was NOT the feature of Napoleonic Code ?
(a) Equality before the law
(b) Universal Adult Franchise
(c) Right to Property
(d) No privileges based on birth
Ans. (d) No privileges based on birth

Question.53. Which one of the following areas was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871?
(a) The Balkans
(b) The Romanians
(c) Great Britain
(d) Germania
Ans. (a) The Balkans

Question.54. Which of the following treaty recognised Greece as an independent nation ?
(a) Vienna Treaty of 1815
(b) Constantinople Treaty
(c) Diplomatic Treaty of SardeniaPiedmont
(d) None of these
Ans. (b) Constantinople Treaty

Question.55. Who amongst the following Italian leaders was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat?
(a) Mazzini
(b) Cavour
(b) Garibaldi
(d) Victor Emmanuel II
Ans. (b) Cavour

Question.56. What did the ideas of la patrie and le citoyen signify in the French Revolution?
(a) The motherland and the children
(b) The fatherland and the citizens
(c) The community and the citizens
(d) The state and the community
Ans. (b) The fatherland and the citizens

Question.57. Which one of the following is not true regarding the ‘Balkan Problem ?’
(a) The Balkan states were very jealous of each other
(b) Each state wanted to gain more territory at the expense of others
(c) The Balkans were also the scene of big power rivalry
(d) The Balkans were not under the control of Ottoman Empire
Ans. (d) The Balkans were not under the control of Ottoman Empire

Question.58. Elle, the measuring unit in Germany was used to measure
(a) Cloth
(b) Thread
(c) Land
(d) Height
Ans. (a) Cloth

Question.59. The main function of the Prussian Zollverein was to :
(a) impose customs duty on imported goods
(b) abolish tarrif barriers
(c) reduce customs duties
(d) introduce new rules for trade
Ans. (b) abolish tarrif barriers

Question.60. Who said “When France sneezes, the rest of the Europe catches cold”?
(a) Garibaldi
(b) Mazzini
(c) Metternich
(d) Bismarck
Ans. (c) Metternich

Question.61. Which of the following best explains a Utopian Society ?
(a) A Society where everybody is equal
(b) A democratic society
(c) An idealist society which can never be achieved
(d) A society with a comprehensive constitution
Ans. (c) An idealist society which can never be achieved

Question.62. What does a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales symbolise ?
(a) Peace
(b) Equality
(c) Justice
(d) Liberty
Ans. (c) Justice

Question.63. ‘Young Italy’, the secret society of Italy, was set up by :
(a) Garibaldi
(b) Cavour
(c) Mazzini
(d) Victor Emmanuel II
Ans. (c) Victor Emmanuel II

Question.64. Which one of the following is not true regarding the Civil Code of 1804 ?
(a) Abolition of all privileges based on birth
(b) Destruction of democracy in France
(c) Establishment of equality before law
(d) Securing right to property
Ans. (a) Abolition of all privileges based on birth

Question.65. Why was the treaty of Vienna (1815) drawn up?
(a) To establish tariff barriers
(b) To restore the monarchies
(c) To divide the German Confederation of 39 states
(d) To establish democracies
Ans. (b) To restore the monarchies

Question.66. Which one of the following countries was appreciated as ‘Cradle of European Civilisation’ by poets and artists ?
(a) Greece
(b) Italy
(c) France
(d) Switzerland
Ans. (a) Greece

Question.67. Which treaty was drawn up with the objective of undoing of most of the changes that had come about in Europe during Napoleonic wars ?
(a) Treaty of Versailles
(b) Treaty of Vienna
(c) Munich Pact
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Treaty of Vienna

Question.68. Napoleon invaded Italy in
(a) 1767
(b) 1777
(c) 1787
(d) 1797
Ans. (d) 1797

Question.69. Which one of the following is true regarding the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832?
(a) It recognised Turkey as an independent nation
(b) It recognised Germany as an independent nation
(c) It recognised France as an independent nation
(d) It recognised Greece as an independent nation
Ans. (d) It recognised Greece as an independent nation

Question.70. Who among the following was associated with the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
(a) Bismarck
(b) Duke Metternich
(c) Louis Philippe
(d) Victor Emmanuel II
Ans. (b) Duke Metternich

Question.71. The four European powers who collectively defeated Napoleon were :
(a) Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia
(b) Spain, Prussia, Britain and Russia
(c) Austria, Italy, Britain and Russia
(d) Austria, Prussia India and Russia
Ans. (a) Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia

Question.72. Name the customs union formed by Prussia to abolish tariff barriers.
(a) Elle
(b) Zollverein
(b) Zweibiicken
(d) La Patrie
Ans. (b) Zollverein

Question.73. Which one of the following was the basic aim of Zollverein ?
(a) The abolition of tariff barriers
(b) To reunite Germany
(c) To reunite Prussia
(d) To promote Democracy
Ans. (a) The abolition of tariff barriers

Question.74. What does the crown of oak leaves worn by Germania stand for ?
(a) Courage
(b) Heroism
(c) Freedom
(d) Unity
Ans. (b) Heroism

Question.75. An ideal vision which is unlikely to actually exist is called :
(a) Utopian
(b) Absolutist
(c) The best
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Utopian

Question.76. Who was proclaimed German Emperor after its unification ?
(a) The Prussian King – William-I
(b) The Russian King – William-I
(c) The chief minister of Otto von Bismarck
(d) Lenin
Ans. (a) The Prussian King – William-I

Question.77. Who led the protest movement against the Protestants in Ireland ?
(a) Garibaldi
(b) Wolfe Tone
(c) Mazzini
(d) Cavour
Ans. (b) Wolfe Tone

Question.78. Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861 ?
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Victor Emmanuel – II
(c) William-I
(d) Johann Gottfried
Ans. (b) Victor Emmanuel – II

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What views did Giuseppe Mazzini have about Italy?
Ans. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification from above could be the basis of Italian unity.

Question.2. What was the reaction to the Napoleonic Code?
Ans. Initially many people welcomed French armies as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies as required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Question.3. What kind of life did the aristocrats lead?
Ans. Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the European continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, a numerically small group.

Question.4. What was understood by the term ‘liberalism’?
Ans. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.

Question.5. When and why was the Zollverein formed?
Ans. In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German States. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.

Question.6. How did the Treaty of Vienna (1815) come into being?
Ans. In 1815, representatives of the European powers — Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria — who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.

Question.7. What was the nature of conservative regimes set up in 1815? OR
Enumerate any three features of conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815.
Ans. The conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French revolution.

Question.8. What led to the rise of the revolutionaries?
Ans. During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom. Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.

Question.9. Write briefly about conditions in Europe in the 1870s.
Ans.

  1. By the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism did not have its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of the first half of the century.
  2. Nationalism had become a narrow creed with limited ends.
  3. Nationalist groups were no longer trusting, nor tolerant of each other.
  4. They were always at each other’s throats.
  5. The major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject people in Europe to further their own imperialist aims.

Question.10. What has made the Balkan a source of nationalist tension?
Ans.

  1. The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans.
  2. The region had geographical and ethnic varieties.
  3. The Balkans included Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
  4. The inhabitants of the Balkan regions were called Slavs.
  5. Most of the Balkan region was under Ottoman rule.
  6. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.

Question.11. Explain liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the 19th century.
Ans. Politically, liberalism stood for

  1. Constitution;
  2. a representative government ruling by consent;
  3. a parliamentary system and;
  4. ownership of private property;
  5. end of the privileges of aristocracy.

Drawback over that it did not grant equal rights to men and women, women had to struggle for their political rights.

Economically, liberalism stood for

  1. Freedom of markets;
  2. End of state restrictions on movement of goods and capital;
  3. A customs union or Zollverein was formed by Prussia in 1834, which many German states joined
  4. This union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished tariff barriers;
  5. A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity. It boosted economic nationalism.

Question.12. How did Romanticism seek to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment during 18th century ? Explain. OR
“Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with examples.
Ans. Romanticism criticised glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings. The poets and romantic artists tried to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of nationalism. Some Romantics, like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder, tried through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularise the true spirit of the nation. The Polish artist, Karol Kurpinski encouraged National Struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the ‘polonaise’ and ‘mazurka’ into national symbols. Language also played an important role in developing nationalist feelings. The Grimm Brothers promoted German language to oppose French domination through their collection of folk tales. The Polish used language as a weapon against Russian domination.

Question.13. In which year was the unification of Italy completed ? Mention two features of the unification movement.
Ans. Unification of Italy took place in 1860. Despite formidable hurdles which beset the path of unification of Italy, the feeling of liberty, equality and patriotism could not remain suppressed among Italians for a long time. Some patriots, supporters of democracy, writers, philosophers and many secret institutions resolved to launch a combined struggle to achieve liberty and liberalism for Italy.

Question.14. Why were 1830s called the years of great economic hardship in Europe ? Give any three reasons.
Ans.

  1. The 1830’s called the year of great economic hardship in Europe. During the first half of the nineteenth century there was enormous growth of population required good amount of jobs. By the rise of population, unemployment also increased. The job seekers or unemployed people migrated from villages to cities for earning bread. The conditions of towns were also worse because of heavy production and cheap rates products of England (it happened because of industrial revolution of England).
  2. In agriculture, the peasants were suffered because of less agrarian facilities and high inflation.
  3. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread poverty.

Question.15. Explain any three reasons for the nationalist upsurge in the 19th century Europe.
Ans. War and territorial expansion definitely helped to create the environment of nationalism but cultural movement gave momentum to this feeling. The glorification of reason and science by the romantic artists and poets create a sense of shared collective heritage a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation. At the same time folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances promoted the spirit of the nation. Vernacular language is one of the important aspects which grows the feeling of nationalism.

Question.16. Explain the role of language in developing the nationalist sentiments in Europe.
Ans. At that time most of the people were illiterate. They were able to understand only vernacular regional or simple language. That is why use of the vernacular or regional language easily carry out the modern nationalist message to the large audience easily. Nationalist sentiment also attached with local language. The message conveyed in vernacular language affect powerfully. Folk lore, folk tales and the activities concerned with vernacular language gave the feeling of nationalism and tied the people by the thread of national love and honour.

Question.17. “Italy had a long history of political fragmentation”. Support the statement by giving any three points.
Ans. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one state – Sardinia – Piedmont – was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain. Even the Italian language had many regional and local variations.

Question.18. Explain how Ireland got incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801 ? What were the symbols of this new British nation ?
Ans. The population of Ireland was divided into two categories – Catholics and Protestants. The Britishers helped the Protestants to dominate the large Catholic population. Catholics opposed that suppression under the leadership of Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen but they were failed. At last, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. The symbols of new Britain Kingdom (Nation) was – the British flag, i.e., Union Jack, the national anthem, i.e., God Save the King, and the English language were actively promoted. Finally the Irish people were forced to live as subordinate in their own country.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Why was Balkans after 1871 the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe. Explain giving four reasons.
Ans.

  1. The Balkan region comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, and its inhabitants were broadly called Slavs.
  2. With a large area of Balkan region under the Ottoman Empire, the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the breaking up of the Ottoman Empire made the situation even more serious.
  3. The Ottoman Empire had not been able to become strong even after reforms and modern methods after an effort of nearly 91.00 years. Gradually, most of the European subject nationalities broke away from the Ottoman Empire’s control to declare themselves independent.
  4. The claim for independence and political rights by the Balkan people was based on nationality. They gave examples of history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
  5. Thus the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long lost independence.
  6. Soon various Slavic nationalities were struggling to define their identity and independence making Balkans region one having intense conflict.
  7. The internal rivalries and jealousies made the Balkan states distrust and fear each other.
  8. As the Balkans had become site for big power fights, the situation became even more serious. The fights were among the European powers who fought for trade and colonies and for naval and military powers.
  9. Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary wanted to gain control of the Balkan region causing many wars which culminated in the First World War.

Question.2. Explain any four provisions of Napoleon’s Civil Code of 1804. OR
State any three provisions of the Civil Code of 1804.
Ans. Napoleon incorporated revolutionary principles in the administrative field to make the whole system more rational and effective. His civil code of 1804 was known as Napoleonic Code.

  1. First, he did away with all the privileges based on birth. Everyone became equal before the law. He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial duties.
  2. He secured the right to property.
  3. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen found a new-found freedom as guild restrictions were removed in towns also.
  4. Uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, a common national currency facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

Question.3. How was the Habsburg Empire a patchwork of many different regions and peoples in Europe? Explain.
Ans. In the mid-eighteenth century Europe, there were no ‘nation-states’ as we know them today. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies, having people of diverse ethnic groups. The Habsburg Empire was one such example. It ruled over Austria-Hungary, a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included the Alpine regions — the Tayrol, Austria and Switzerland — as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking. It also included Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. In Hungary, half the population spoke Magyar, while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived within the territories a mass of subject peasant peoples — Bohemians, Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carinola, Croats to the south, the Roumans to the east in Transylvania. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Question.4. When did the first clear-cut expression of nationalism come in France? How did the French Revolution lead to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens? Explain any three measures taken by the French revolutionaries in this regard.
Ans. The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came to France with the French Revolution of 1789. The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices which proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

  1. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the royal standard.
  2. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed National Assembly.
  3. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all its citizens.

Question.5. How has French artist, Frederic Sorrieu, visualised in his first print, of the series of four prints, his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’? Explain. OR
Describe Frederic Sorrieu’s utopian vision of the world as depicted in his painting in 1848.
Ans. The French artist, Fredrick Sorrieu prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of the world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’. His First Print showed people of Europe and America – men and women of all ages and social classes – marching in a long train, and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by it. Liberty is of course personified as a woman, bearing the torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the charter of the Rights of Man in the other. (The artists of this time of French Revolution portrayed Liberty as a female figure.) On the earth, in the foreground of the image, lay the shattered remains of the symbols of Absolute institutions. Leading the procession, way past the statue of Liberty, are the United States and Switzerland which were at that time already nation states. In his print of Sorrieu; people of the world are grouped together as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. France, distinguished by its tricolour flag, has just reached the statue, and she is followed by Germany with their black and gold flag. (Germany was not yet united, but in 1848, when this painting was made, it expressed the hopes of the nation.) Peoples of Austria, kingdoms of two Sicilis, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia follow in that order. From the heavens, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene. They have been used to symbolise the fraternity among the nations of the world.

Question.6. Explain any four measures introduced by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the people of France.
Ans. The French revolutionaries introduced various measures to create a sense of collective identity.

  1. The idea of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the idea of united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
  2. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the old royal standard.
  3. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  4. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.

Question.7. Describe four stages of unification of Germany.
Ans.

  1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848, tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state.
  2. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister (Chancellor) Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this process, carried it out, with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  3. Three wars were fought over a span of seven years against Austria, Denmark and France, which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
  4. In January 1871, the Prussian King William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles. On 18 January, 1871, the new German empire headed by Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia was proclaimed.

Question.8. How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of a nation in Europe? Explain with four examples.
Ans. The feeling of nationalism was strengthened, developed and given encouragement by art, music, literature, drama. These played a big role in it. Their contribution was equal to the heroic battles fought by heroes.

  1. The Romantics like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder believed that true German culture could be discovered only among the common people — das volk.
  2. Language played a very important role in boosting nationalism. The Polish people opposed the Russian occupation and the ban on Polish language, by using it in the Churches for all religious ceremonies and for religious instruction. The Polish language became a weapon in the hands of the nationalists and no amount of Russian atrocities could stop them. Two Germans, Grimm Brothers, used stories and folktales written in German to promote the German spirit against the domination of the French. Grimm’s fairytales became instant classics.
  3. Operas and music, like that of the Polish Karol Kurpinski, kept the national spirit alive.
  4. Folk dances like the polonaise and mazurki became national symbols. 

Question.9. Mention any two economic obstacles that the liberal nationalists wanted to overcome. In what way did the Zollverein customs union of 1834 try to overcome these shortcomings?
Ans.

  1. During the early nineteenth century, Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. In reference to economy this liberalism denotes freedom of market, less restrictions of state on the movement of goods and capitals. To get rid of these economic problems that was the main demand of the new emerged middle class.
  2. Existence of countless small principalities, different currencies, number of customs barriers created obstacles to economic exchange and growth for the new commercial classes. To sort out that problem Prussia including with most of the German states formed a customs union or Zollverein in 1834.
  3. The Zollverein abolished tariff barriers, reduced number of currencies, create network of railways for fast and heavy mobility. So a single solution for all these economic problems was known by the name of Zollverein.

Question.10. What is the significance of 1848 for France and the rest of Europe ? What did the liberals demand? ]
Ans. With many revolts like revolts of the poor, unemployed workers and starving peasants during 1848 in Europe, educated middle class of France also started a revolution for the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe, men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation state on parliamentary principles — a constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association. The issue of extending political rights to women was most controversial subject matter within the liberal movement in which large number of women had participated actively.

Question.11. How did the Greek War of Independence mobilise nationalist feeling among the educated elite across Europe ? Give four points.
Ans. Greece was the part of Ottoman empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe motivated the Greeks to start a struggle for independence which began in 1821. Reaction of the struggle inspired the educated elite class of Europe and filled them with nationalistic feeling. Greece got support from other Greeks also residing at different countries. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. One of the English poets Lord Byron organised fund and participated in the war. Finally, the day of joy came in 1832 and Greece recognised as an independent nation by the Treaty of Constantinople.

Question.12. “Till mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe.” Support the statement with four examples.
Ans. During the mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe. Germany, Italy and Switzerland were ruled by different rulers with autonomous territories. Autocratic monarchies were there in eastern and central part of Europe. These areas were occupied by different peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or common culture. They spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups, like the area of Austria – Hungary included the Alpine region the Tyrol. Sudetenland and Bohemia were dominated by German-speaking people. It also included the province of Lombardy and Venetia which had Italian speaking people. In Hungary, the half of the population spoke Magyar and the other half of the population spoke different dialects. In the part of Galicia the aristocratic class spoke Polish.
Besides these three dominant groups, a mass of subject peasant people like –Roumans to the east in Transylvania, Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola and the Croats to the south lived within the boundary. The only tie binding those different groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Question.13. What was the main objective of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 ? Mention any three important features of the treaty.
Ans. The main objective of treaty of Vienna was to nullify all the changes that had come into existence during Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty restore its power which had been deposed during the French Revolution. To prevent the expansion of France in future, a number of states were set up on the boundaries of France. The kingdom of Netherland including Belgium was set up in the north and Genoa including Piedmont established in the south. Prussia was given important new territories on the western frontier, while Austria was given control of northern Italy. The German confederation of 39 states which was set up by Napoleon was left untouched. Prussia was given to Russia. The main intention was behind that set up was to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.

Question.14. Describe any four features of the landed aristocracy class of European continent.
Ans. European continent was dominated by the landed aristocratic class socially as well as politically. This landed aristocratic class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They had their own estates and town houses in the countryside. By playing the game of diplomacy in her society they spoke French language. The families of landed aristocratic class got married within their own class. The occupation of majority population was agriculture. Europe was divided into two major parts on the basis of occupation. The western part was served by tenants and small owners of land or small landlords. While in eastern and central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estate which were cultivated by serfs.

Question.15. How was the Habsburg Empire a patchwork of many different regions and peoples in Europe ? Explain.
Ans. The Habshurg Empire included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria, Sudentenland and Bohemia. It also included the Italian – speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke polish. Besides, there also lived a mass of subject peasant peoples—Bohemians, slovaks, slovenes, croats, Roumans. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Question.16. How did French territory undergo changes due to the Treaty of Vienna in 1815?
Ans. Representatives of European powers, i.e. Austria, Britain, Russia and Prussia, met at Vienna in 1815 after having defeated Napoleon. The Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich was the head of the Congress. Here the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was drawn up to undo the changes after the Napoleonic wars. Thus the Bourbon dynasty, deposed during the French Revolution, was put back in power even as France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. To prevent every future expansion of France, many states were set up on France’s boundaries. So the kingdom of Netherlands including Belgium came up in the north, while Genoa came together with Piedmont in the south. Prussia received some important new territories on its western frontiers. Austria gained control of northern Italy. The 39 states in the German Confederation as set up by Napoleon underwent no changes. In the east, Russia received a part of Poland and Prussia received a part of Saxony. The objective was to restore the monarchies overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.

Question.17. Discuss the lives of the aristocrats and the new middle class in 19th century France.
Ans. In the 19th century Europe, the landed aristocracy dominated all social and political spheres. They were united by a common lifestyle. They owned huge estates in the countryside and some had large town houses too. Their spoken language was French, both in high society and in diplomatic circles. Most of the aristocratic families were connected by marriage. The aristocrats formed a small group but held a lot of power.
Peasantry comprised the larger group of the population. To the west, most of the land was farmed by small owners and tenants. In Eastern and Central Europe, the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates cultivated by serfs. In the western and some part of Central Europe industrial production and trade was on the rise and with them towns grew and the commercial classes emerged. Their existence was based on the production for the market. Industrialisation took birth in England in the 1850s but France and Germany experienced it only during the 19th century. This caused emergence of new social groups — working class and middle class. The latter comprised industrialists, businessmen and professionals. These groups were not many in Central and Eastern Europe. So it was the liberal, educated middle-class which encouraged national unity after aristocratic privileges were abolished.

Question.18. What views did the conservatives hold?
Ans. Napoleon was defeated in 1815 and soon European governments adopted the idea of conservatism. The conservatives held the belief that established, traditional institutions of state and society like monarchy, church, social hierarchies, property and family must be protected and preserved. They never proposed a pre-revolutionary period to return to but they knew that as Napoleon had carried out changes, modernisation would in fact contribute to a strong monarchy. They believed that it would strengthen power of the state and make it much more effective. For them it was a firm belief that aristocratic monarchies of Europe would gain much from a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom.

Question.19. Friedrich List, Professor of Economics at the University of Tübingen in Germany, wrote in 1834.
“The aim of the Zollverein is to bind the Germans economically into a nation. It will strengthen the nation materially as much by protecting its interests externally as by stimulating its internal productivity. It ought to awaken and raise national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests. The German people have realised that a free economic system is the only means to engender national feeling.”
Read the statement by Professor List and discuss what political ends he hoped, would be achieved by economic measures.
Ans. Professor List was sure that economic measures could result in certain political ends :

  1. A national economy binds the nation together. For example, Zollverein abolished tariff barriers. It also reduced the currencies from thirty to two. This economic union was joined by most of the German states and brought them together and created a national feeling.
  2. It also promoted internal productivity, for example, to help trade growth, a network of railways was needed for increased mobility. This also brought people together.
  3. Economic measures like the Zollverein also protected nation’s external interests (the use of common currency and abolishing of tariffs).

This fusion of individual and provincial interests aroused national sentiments in people.

Question.20. The French philosopher Ernst Renan (1823-92) outlined his understanding of what a nation is in this way :
“A nation is the result of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite …
A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitants.
A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will.
The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.”
(i) What, according to Renan, are the attributes of a nation?
(ii) Why does he think nations are important ?
(iii) How is his idea different from others? Do you agree with him?
Ans. (i) According to Renan, a nation must have people who have shared “a glorious past,” and have a desire, a will to perform deeds together for the glory of the country in the present and in the future also. There is unity, a solidarity. They belong to the nation and have to be consulted on any issue, they exercise their rights daily. A nation does not want to grab territories, it does not want to conquer any country or dominate it against the will of the people.
(ii) A nation is necessary because it guarantees freedom to every citizen. This liberty (individual) would be lost, if there was uniform law for everyone and only one ruler.
(iii) He differs from others as he does not believe that a nation speaks the same language, follows the same religion, belongs to the same race and occupies the same territory.
I agree with him. India is a nation made of different races, different religions, we speak different languages, follow different cultures. Yet, we have unity in diversity as we have a common past and a desire to live together.

Question.21. What is the significance of symbols given in this picture?
Ans. Each symbol has a meaning and a significance.

  1. The broken chains represent freedom, freedom from slavery.
  2. The breast plate with eagle on it represents the German Empire and its strength (the eagle is a strong bird).
  3. The tricolour — black, red and gold — was the flag of liberal nationalists in 1848. It was banned by Dukes of the German states. A flag always unites people and arouses national feelings.
  4. The sword symbolises a readiness to fight. The German nation was ever ready to fight for its honour.
  5. The crown of oak leaves stands for courage, bravery and heroism.
  6. The olive branch around the sword shows that Germans are as eager for peace as they are eager to fight.
  7. The rays of the rising sun symbolise the beginning of a new era as a united German nation.

Question.22. Read the two opinions about the role of women in society :

  1. Carl Welcker : A liberal politician member of the Frankfurt Parliament : ‘Nature has created men and women to carry out different functions … Man, the stronger, the bolder and freer of the two, has been designated as protector of the family, its provider, meant for public tasks in the domain of law, production, defence. Woman, the weaker, dependent and timid, requires the protection of man. Her sphere is the home, the care of the children, the nurturing of the family … Do we require any further proof that given such differences, equality between the sexes would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family?’
  2. Louise Otto Peters, a political activist, wrote in a journal (21 April, 1849) : ‘Let us ask how many men, possessed by thoughts of living and dying for the sake of Liberty, would be prepared to fight for the freedom of the entire people, of all human beings? When asked this question, they would all too easily respond with a “Yes”, though their untiring efforts are intended for the benefit of only one half of humanity — men. But Liberty is indivisible! Free men therefore must not tolerate to be surrounded by the unfree.
    (a) What according to Carl Welcker is a woman’s function? Does he think women should be given equality and liberty.
    (b) Louise Otto Peters asks a question in his article. What is the significance of his question? How does he define liberty?
    Ans. (a) A woman, according to Carl Welcker, is weak, timid and needs protection of the strong, bold, free man. He confines the woman to the kitchen, home and children. He does not support equality and liberty for woman. A woman must remain subservient to a man.
    (b) Louise Otto Peters is certainly a feminist. He wants to know whether men are prepared to fight for “freedom of the entire people, all human beings”?
    His question is significant because though the men will unanimously answer “yes” but they are not ready to grant this freedom to women, who constitute half the population of the world.
    For him Liberty is indivisible, it cannot be given to some and not to others. He certainly holds a totally different view from Carl Welcker, who is a male chauvinist!

Question.23. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe? OR
How was the formation of the nation-state the result of a long-drawn-out process in Britain? Explain.
Ans.

  1. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
  2. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. All the ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it extended influence over other nations of the island.
  3. The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
  4. Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants. The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed.

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