Extra Questions 10th History Chapter 2 : Nationalism in India

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. In which movement did Gandhi see an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement :
(a) the oppressive plantation system in Champaran movement
(b) A satyagraha movement to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat
(c) A nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919
(d) A non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj
Ans. (d) A non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj

Question.2. Which pact resolved the issue of separate electorates for dalits between Gandhi and Ambedkar in 1932?
(a) Lucknow pact
(b) Nagpur pact
(c) Poona pact
(d) Surat pact
Ans. (c) Poona pact

Question.3. Which was the main cause for boycotting foreign goods during Non-Coopeartion Movement ?
(a) A symbol of western economic and cultural dominations
(b) A symbol of foreign rule
(c) A symbol of western political domination
(d) A symbol of oppressive rule
Ans. (b) A symbol of foreign rule

Question.4. Which of the following was the cause for business classes to participate in Civil Disobedience Movement ?
(a) To buy foreign goods without any restrictions
(b) To sell Indian goods without any restrictions
(c) Protection against import of foreign goods
(d) To export their goods
Ans. (c) Protection against import of foreign goods

Question.5. Which one of the following is not true regarding the impact of the First World War on India ?
(a) Defence expenditure resulted in increased taxes.
(b) Forced recruitment of soldiers was introduced in the villages
(c) Income tax was introduced and customs duties increased
(d) The hardships ended with the war as the British introduced the Rowlatt Act
Ans. (d) The hardships ended with the war as the British introduced the Rowlatt Act

Question.6. Which one of the following is not true regarding the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
(a) It took place on 10th April, 1919
(b) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground and crawl on the streets
(c) Its aim was to create a ‘moral effect’ in the minds of the satyagrahis
(d) Its aim was to create a feeling of terror
Ans. (a) It took place on 10th April, 1919

Question.7. Which one of the following is not true regarding the Rowlatt Act ?
(a) It barred Indians from carrying weapons and arms
(b) It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial, for two years
(c) Its aim was to give power to the government to repress political activities
(d) It was passed by the Imperial Legislative Councils in 1919
Ans. (d) It was passed by the Imperial Legislative Councils in 1919

Question.8. Which one of the following is not true regarding the Khilafat Movement ?
(a) It aimed at bringing the Hindus and Muslims together in the Non-Cooperation Movement
(b) It aimed at defending the Ottoman Emperor’s temporal powers
(c) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali led the movement in India
(d) It resulted in the restoration of the power of the Khilafat of Turkey
Ans. (d) It resulted in the restoration of the power of the Khilafat of Turkey

Question.9. Why did the rich peasant community actively participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Choose the most appropriate answer from the following :
(a) Failure of talks in the 2nd Round Table Conference
(b) The Government’s refusal to reduce the revenue demand
(c) Khadi cloth was more expensive than mill cloth
(d) Racial discrimination
Ans. (b) The Government’s refusal to reduce the revenue demand

Question.10. Which one of the following leaders headed Abadh Kisan Sabha?
(a) Jawahar lal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) Motilal Nehru
Ans. (a) Jawahar lal Nehru

Question.11. Which one of the following statements is not the basic concept of ‘Satyagraha’?
(a) Emphasis on the power of truth
(b) Emphasis on the need to restrain oneself
(c) Emphasis on non-violence
(d) Emphasis on enduring the British dominance
Ans. (d) Emphasis on enduring the British dominance

Question.12. Which one of the following was the main reason behind the start of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 ?
(a) To fulfil the demand for Swaraj.
(b) To oppose the arrival of Prince of Wales.
(c) To surrender the titles vested by British.
(d) To boycott the civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils.
Ans. (a) To fulfil the demand for Swaraj.

Question.13. The event that marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement was:
(a) The demand for Poorna Swaraj of 1929
(b) The Independence Day pledge of 1930
(c) The violation of Salt Law in 1930
(d) All of these
Ans. (d) All of these

Question.14. In 1916, Gandhiji travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasant to struggle against the :
(a) Upper caste people
(b) Landless agriculture labourers
(c) Oppressive plantation system
(d) None of them
Ans. (c) Oppressive plantation system

Question.15. Who was the President of Muslim League in 1930 ?
(a) Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(b) Muhammad Iqbal
(c) Muhammad Ali
(d) Shaukat Ali
Ans. (b) Muhammad Iqbal

Question.16. In 1905, who painted the image of Bharat Mata shown as dispensing learning, food and clothing?
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Abnindranath Tagore
(c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(d) None of these
Ans. (b) Abnindranath Tagore

Question.17. Why did General Dyer open fire on the peaceful gathering at Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April, 1919 ?
(a) General Dyer wanted to enforce martial law very strictly in Amritsar.
(b) He wanted to create feeling of terror and awe in the minds of satyagrahis.
(c) He wanted to demoralise the local Congress leaders.
(d) He wanted to gain prominence in the eyes of British government.
Ans. (b) He wanted to create feeling of terror and awe in the minds of satyagrahis.

Question.18. Gandhiji began fast unto death when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar demanded separate electorate for dalits because
(a) Separate electorates would create division in the society.
(b) Separate electrorates would slow down the progress of integration into society.
(c) With separate electrorates, dalits would gain respect in society.
(d) The condition of dalits would become better.
Ans. (a) Separate electorates would create division in the society.

Question.19. ‘Hind Swaraj’ was written by :
(a) Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Sardar Patel
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose
Ans. (b) Mahatma Gandhi

Question.20. Who amongst the following led the Civil Disobedience in Peshawar ?
(a) Abdul Gaffar Khan
(b) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Ans. (a) Abdul Gaffar Khan

Question.21. The resolution of Poorna Swaraj was adopted at which session of the Congress ?
(a) Karachi
(b) Haripur
(c) Lahore
(d) Lucknow
Ans. (c) Lahore

Question.22. Who led the peasants movement in Oudh during the Non-Co-Operation Movement ?
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Baba Ramchandra
(d) Sardar Patel
Ans. (c) Baba Ramchandra

Question.23. The Simon Commission was boycotted in India because :
(a) There was no Indian member in the Commission.
(b) It supported the Muslim League
(c) Congress felt that people deserved Swaraj
(d) There were differences among the members
Ans. (a) There was no Indian member in the Commission.

Question.24. Which of the following best describes Satyagraha as an idea ?
(a) Practising civil disobedience
(b) Resignation from official posts
(c) Appealing to the conscience of the adversary without physical force
(d) Boycott of schools and colleges
Ans. (a) Practising civil disobedience

Question.25. Which of the following in not true about the Rowlatt Act ?
(a) It allowed the detention of prisoners for five years without trial.
(b) Gave the government powers to repress political activity
(c) It passed the Act despite opposition from the Indian members in the Imperial Legislative Council.
(d) Led to the launch of a movement under Gandhiji’s leadership.
Ans. (a) It allowed the detention of prisoners for five years without trial.

Question.26. Which of the following was a cause for the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) Lack of coordination among the satyagrahi
(b) Outbreak of violence at Chauri Chaura.
(c) Gandhiji wanted to start Civil Disobedience
(d) Other nationalists persuaded Gandhiji
Ans. (b) Outbreak of violence at Chauri Chaura.

Question.27. Gandhiji in his work ‘Hind Swaraj’ said that:
(a) The British must Quit India
(b) Indians must not cooperate with the British
(c) The Government must concede the right to make salt
(d) Indians must be involved in the governance of India
Ans. (b) Indians must not cooperate with the British

Question.28. Which one of the following is not true regarding the Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931?
(a) Mahatma Gandhiji decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement
(b) Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference
(c) The British government agreed to release the political prisoners
(d) The British government agreed to grant independence
Ans. (d) The British government agreed to grant independence

Question.29. Who among the following was the author of the famous novel ‘Anandamath’?
(a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(b) Abanindranath Tagore
(c) Natesa Sastri
(d) Rabindranath Tagore
Ans. (a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Question.30. Who among the following were associated with ‘Swaraj Party’ formed during India’s freedom struggle ?
(a) C.R. Das and Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das
(c) Motilal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali
Ans. (b) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das

Question.31. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in :
(a) 1920
(b) 1913
(c) 1910
(d) 1915
Ans. (d) 1915

Question.32. The concept of Non-Cooperation was turned into a movement through the :
(a) surrender of government awarded titles
(b) boycott of foreign goods and schools
(c) boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils
(d) all of these
Ans. (d) all of these

Question.33. How did the Indian people belonging to different communities, regions or languages develop a sense of collective belonging?
(a) Through the experience of united struggles
(b) Through cultural process
(c) Through the several of Indian folklores.
(d) All of these
Ans. (d) All of these

Question.34. Indians boycotted the Simon Commission because:
(a) It was an all-British Commission
(b) It was formed in Britain
(c) It was set up to oppose the nationalist movement
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) It was an all-British Commission

Question.35. What was the effect of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the plantation workers in Assam?
(a) They left the plantations and headed towards home
(b) They went on strike
(c) They destroyed the plantations
(d) They started using violence
Ans. (a) They left the plantations and headed towards home

Question.36. By whom was the song ‘Vande Mataram’ composed ?
(a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Sarat Chandra Chatterjee
(d) Natesa Sastri
Ans. (a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Question.37. Name the Sanyasi who was an indentured labourer in Fiji :
(a) Baba Ramchandra
(b) Baba Ramdev
(c) Baba Sitaraman
(d) Baba Jaidev
Ans. (a) Baba Ramchandra

Question.38. The peasants of Kheda district could not pay the revenue because they were affected by:
(a) extreme poverty
(b) the crop failure
(c) a plague epidemic
(d) all the above
Ans. (d) all the above

Question.39. Justice Party of Madras was a party of :
(a) non-Muslims
(b) non-Brahmins
(c) non-Tamils
(d) judges
Ans. (b) non-Brahmins

Question.40. Why was Simon Commission sent to India in 1928 ?
(a) To look into the functioning of Indian constitutional system and suggest reforms.
(b) To try Indian revolutionary leaders.
(c) To frame a new Constitution for India.
(d) To persuade Gandhiji to attend the Round Table Conference.
Ans. (c) To frame a new Constitution for India.

Question.41. In what order did the following three movements take place during 1916-1918 by Gandhiji ?
(a) Champaran, Kheda, and Ahmedabad
(b) Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda
(c) Kheda, Champaran, and Ahmedabad
(d) Ahmedabad, Champaran and Kheda
Ans. (a) Champaran, Kheda, and Ahmedabad

Question.42. Who among the following organised the dalits in the Depressed Classes Association in 1930?
(a) Gandhiji
(b) Alluri Sitarm Raju
(c) Kansi Ram
(d) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Ans. (d) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Question.43. In the countryside, rich peasants and Jats of Uttar Pradesh actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement because
(a) They wanted Poorna Swaraj
(b) They were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
(c) They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted
(d) The government was forcing land ceiling
Ans. (b) They were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.

Question.44. Which one of the following provisions is related to Gandhi-Irwin Pact ?
(a) Not to arrest Gandhiji
(b) To release the political prisoners
(c) To abolish Salt Act
(d) To arrest Sir John Simon
Ans. (b) To release the political prisoners

Question.45. The relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain during the Civil Disobedience Movement because
(a) The poor peasants were interested in the lowering of the revenue demand
(b) They launched a no rent campaigns
(c) They were hard hit by the depression
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) They launched a no rent campaigns

Question.46. Who said, “The Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability is not eliminated”?
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Subhash Chandra Bose
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) B.R. Ambedkar
Ans. (c) Mahatma Gandhi

Question.47. ‘Swaraj’ for the plantation workers in Assam meant
(a) political freedom
(b) more wages
(c) retaining a link with the village from which they had come
(d) none of the above
Ans. (c) retaining a link with the village from which they had come

Question.48. Which one of the following was the main reason for calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhiji in 1922 ?
(a) The Chauri Chaura incident
(b) The passing of the Rowlatt Act
(c) Khilafat Movement
(d) The Jallianwala Bagh incident
Ans. (a) The Chauri Chaura incident

Question.49. Who one of the following took command, when martial law was imposed in Amritsar in 1919?
(a) General Dyer
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) William Bentinck
(d) Sir John Simon
Ans. (a) General Dyer

Question.50. ‘Forced recruitment’ means a process by which
(a) Indians were forced by the British rulers to finance the British army
(b) The Indian princes had to supply soldiers to fight for the British
(c) The colonial state forced people in rural areas to join the army
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) The colonial state forced people in rural areas to join the army

Question.51. The growth of modern nationalism in India, as in Vietnam, is closely connected to :
(a) A sense of oppression under colonialism
(b) An anti-colonial movement
(c) A discovery of unity in their struggle against colonialism
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.52. Which of the following statements is not true about the Jallianwalla Bagh incident?
(a) General Dyer blocked all exit points, and opened fire on the peaceful crowd, killing hundreds
(b) Gandhiji went on indefinite fast to stop the repression by the British
(c) As a reaction, crowds took to the streets in many Indian towns, attacking the police and government buildings
(d) Dyer’s aim was to produce a moral effect of great terror and awe in the minds of the satyagrahis
Ans. (b) Gandhiji went on indefinite fast to stop the repression by the British

Question.53. Which of the following was not a part of Gandhiji’s satyagraha?
(a) Emphasis on the power of truth and search for truth
(b) Satyagraha as a pure soul-force
(c) A physical force which sought destruction of the enemy
(d) Not a weapon of the weak but a weapon which forced the adversary to accept the truth without violence
Ans. (c) A physical force which sought destruction of the enemy

Question.54. The first three successful Satyagraha movements by Gandhiji in India were :
(a) Against the Rowlatt Act, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India
(b) Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Khilafat
(c) Peasants Movements in Champaran in Bihar, Kheda district in Gujarat and in Ahmedabad by cotton mill workers
(d) Khilafat movement, Non-Cooperation and Quit India movement
Ans. (c) Peasants Movements in Champaran in Bihar, Kheda district in Gujarat and in Ahmedabad by cotton mill workers

Question.55. When was the Non-Cooperation programme adopted by the Congress?
(a) At Surat in December 1920
(b) At Nagpur in December 1920
(c) At Calcutta in January 1921
(d) At Bombay in December 1920
Ans. (b) At Nagpur in December 1920

Question.56. The various social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement of 1921, were :
(a) The rich in the cities, the poor in the villages and the workers in plantations
(b) The middle class in cities, the peasants and the tribals in the countryside and plantation workers
(c) The students in cities, the farmers in villages and the workers in the plantations
(d) The Brahmans in cities, the peasants in the villages and workers in plantations
Ans. (b) The middle class in cities, the peasants and the tribals in the countryside and plantation workers

Question.57. Why did Gandhiji urge the Congress to join the Khilafat Movement?
(a) He wanted to support the Khilafat
(b) He saw this as an opportunity to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement
(c) He knew that without Hindu-Muslim unity no broad-based movement could be launched
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.58. The Non-Cooperation Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in support of :
(a) Khilafat
(b) Swaraj
(c) Khilafat and Swaraj
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Khilafat and Swaraj

Question.59. Why was the tribals’ chanting of Gandhiji’s name and raising slogans demanding “Swatantra Bharat” important ?
(a) It showed the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi
(b) They were going beyond their own locality and emotionally identifying with an all-India movement
(c) They were a unifying force of the Non-Cooperation Movement
(d) The various ways in which ‘Swaraj’ was interpreted by different people
Ans. (b) They were going beyond their own locality and emotionally identifying with an all-India movement

Question.60. The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra was :
(a) Baba Ramchandra
(b) Venkata Raju
(c) Alluri Sitaram Raju
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

Question.61. Baba Ramchandra was :
(a) A sanyasi, who was earlier an indentured labourer
(b) Leader of the peasants revolt in Awadh
(c) Founder of the Kishan Sabha of Awadh in October 1920 along with J.L. Nehru
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.62. Who started the Swaraj Party and why ?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose to oppose Gandhiji’s policies
(b) The young leaders in Congress who were against mass struggles
(c) Nehru and Bose who wanted full independence
(d) C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru. Because they wanted to enter the Provincial Councils and oppose British policies
Ans. (d) C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru. Because they wanted to enter the Provincial Councils and oppose British policies

Question.63. The two events which shaped Indian politics in the 1920s were :
(a) The setting up of the Simon Commission by the Tory Government in Britain which had not a single Indian member
(b) The worldwide economic depression which led to a fall in agricultural prices
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) The division within the Congress
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.64. Why did production of Indian textiles and handloom go up during the Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) Foreign cloth was burnt in huge bonfires
(b) People discarded imported clothes and wore only Indian ones
(c) The import of foreign clothes was halved between 1921-22 and the value dropped from Rs 102 crores to Rs 57 crores
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.65. Which of the following statements are not associated with the Non-Cooperation Movement in the towns?
(a) Only the Brahmans and the rich took part in the movement
(b) The council elections were boycotted even by the Justice Party of Madras
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Thousands of students left government-controlled schools; headmasters and teachers resigned; lawyers gave up their practice
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.66. Who presided over the December 1929 Session of the Congress at Lahore and what was its demand?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru. The demand was for Poorna Swaraj or full independence
(b) Subhas Chandra Bose and “Poorna Swaraj” was its demand
(c) Mahatma Gandhi. He asked for peaceful transfer of power by the British
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru, the demand was for more representation of Indians in the Councils
Ans. (a) Jawaharlal Nehru. The demand was for Poorna Swaraj or full independence

Question.67. Which of the following statements is/are true about the Dandi March of Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) It started on 11 March, 1930 and ended on 6 April, 1930
(b) Mahatma Gandhi marched over 240 miles with 78 of his trusted followers covering 10 miles a day
(c) On 6th April, Gandhiji ceremonially violated the Salt Law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater.
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.68. The two reasons why Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference of December 1931, were :
(a) The arrest of Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Violence of the Indian people against symbols of the British Raj like railways, police posts
(c) The signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in March 1931
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.69. Name two industrial organisations established by Indian merchants and industrialists to protect their business interests.
(a) The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
(b) The Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress (1922)
(c) The Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in 1927
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.70. The business groups and industrialists lost enthusiasm for the Civil Disobedience Movement because :
(a) They lost faith in Gandhiji’s methods
(b) They were frightened by the British repression
(c) The spread of violent activities worried them about prolonged disruption of business and the failure of the Round Table Conference made them afraid
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) The spread of violent activities worried them about prolonged disruption of business and the failure of the Round Table Conference made them afraid

Question.71. One important feature of Civil Disobedience Movement was :
(a) Gandhiji’s belief that women should not join it and remain at home.
(b) The complete change in the status of women in society.
(c) The large-scale participation of women in the movement, in protest marches, manufacturing salt, picketing, boycotting foreign cloth and even going to jail
(d) The large-scale participation of the Dalits or Harijans
Ans. (c) The large-scale participation of women in the movement, in protest marches, manufacturing salt, picketing, boycotting foreign cloth and even going to jail

Question.72. Who was the President of the Muslim League in 1930?
(a) Mr M.A. Jinnah
(b) Maulana Azad
(c) Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(d) Sir Muhammad Iqbal
Ans. (d) Sir Muhammad Iqbal

Question.73. Muslim leaders and intellectuals were concerned about the status of Muslims as a minority within India, because :
(a) There was distrust and suspicion between the two communities
(b) They feared that their culture and identity would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority
(c) Their leaders differed with the policies of the Congress
(d) The Congress was not ready to grant them a separate electorate
Ans. (b) They feared that their culture and identity would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority

Question.74. People belonging to different communities, regions or language groups developed a sense of collective belonging through
(a) Experiences of united struggles
(b) A variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination
(c) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols all developed nationalism
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.75. How did history help in creating a feeling of nationalism in India by the end of the 19th century?
(a) By reinterpreting history and refuting the British portrayal of Indians as backward, primitive and incapable of governing themselves
(b) By writing about India’s glorious past and urging people to take pride in their achievements
(c) By urging them to struggle and change the miserable conditions of life under British rule
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.76. Who was the first writer to create the image of ‘Bharat Mata’ as an identity of India and how?
(a) Abanindranath Tagore by his paintings of a mother figure in 1905
(b) Rabindranath Tagore through his collection of ballads, nursery rhymes and myths
(c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870, by writing the song “Vande Mataram” and later including it in his novel ‘Anand Math’
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870, by writing the song “Vande Mataram” and later including it in his novel ‘Anand Math’

Question.77. The two great writers of Bengal and Madras, who contributed to nationalism in the late nineteenth century through folklore were :
(a) Abanindranath Tagore and Ravi Verma
(b) Rabindranath Tagore and Natesa Sastri
(c) Jamini Roy and Ravi Verma
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Rabindranath Tagore and Natesa Sastri

Question.78. Name a leader of the Dalits and the association formed by him.
(a) Mahatma Gandhi and ‘Harijan’ association
(b) Baba Amte, ‘Dalit Association’
(c) Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Depressed Classes Association in 1930
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Depressed Classes Association in 1930

Question.79. The reason for Mahatma Gandhiji’s fast unto death in 1932, was
(a) the failure of the Civil Disobedience Movement
(b) the public resort to violence during the Civil Disobedience Movement
(c) the clash with Dr Ambedkar over his demand for a separate electorate for Dalits which he thought would halt their integration into society
(d) the failure of the Second Round Table Conference
Ans. (c) the clash with Dr Ambedkar over his demand for a separate electorate for Dalits which he thought would halt their integration into society

Question.80. The main features of the Poona Pact of September 1932 were :
(a) No separate electorates for Dalits, to be voted by the general electorates
(b) The Dalits to be called Depressed Classes and not Harijans
(c) Reserved seats for Depressed Classes in provincial and central legislative councils
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)

Question.81. Natesa Sastri expressed and proved his love for folklore by :
(a) Believing that folklore was national literature
(b) By calling it the most trustworthy manifestation of the people’s real thoughts and characteristics
(c) By publishing a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales ‘The Folklore of Southern India’
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) By publishing a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales ‘The Folklore of Southern India’

One Word Answers

Q.1. When did Mahatma Gandhi ji return to India from South Africa ?
Ans. 1915

Q.2. What does ‘Idea of Satyagraha’ mean ?
Ans. Power of truth.102

Q.3. Who financed the defence expenditure of World War I ?
Ans. War loans and raising taxes.

Q.4. In which city Mahatma Gandhi ji launched Satyagraha in 1918 ?
Ans. Kheda district, Gujarat

Q.5. Where did Champaran Movement take place ?
Ans. Bihar.

Q.6. When did Rowlatt Act pass ?
Ans. 1919

Q.7. Which Act gave the government power to suppress political activity and detain political prisoners without trial?
Ans. Rowlatt Act.

Q.8. When did Jallianwala Bagh incident take place ?
Ans. 13th April, 1919.

Q.9. Who was responsible for Jallianwala Bagh massacre ?
Ans. General Dyer.

Q.10. At which of the Congress Session was the noncooperation programme adopted?
Ans. Nagpur Session of Congress.

Q.11. Who started the Khilafat Movement ?
Ans. Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Q.12. Who is the author of the famous book, ‘Hind Swaraj’?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi Ji.

Q.13. When did the Non-Cooperation movement and Khilafat Movement begin?
Ans. 1919

Q.14. Who led a Peasant Movement during the Non-Cooperation Movement? OR
Who was the Sanyasi leader of the Awadh peasants?
Ans. Baba Ramchandra.

Q.15. In which year Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa?
Ans. In January, 1915 Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa.

Q.16. What is meant by ‘begar’?
Ans. Forced labour without payment.

Q.17. Who was the leader of Militant Guerrilla Movement in the Gudem hills?
Ans. Alluri Sitaram Raju.

Q.18. In which movement did the women participate in large numbers for the first time?
Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q.19. When did the Simon Commission arrive in India?
Ans. 1928

Q.20. Who announced a vague offer of ‘Dominion status’ for India in 1929?
Ans. Viceroy Lord Irwin.

Q.21. Who gave the call for ‘Purna Swaraj’?
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Q.22. At which session of Indian Congress the resolution of Purna Swaraj was adopted?
Ans. Lahore.

Q.23. Where did the congress session held in 1929?
Ans. Lahore.

Q.24. How many miles were covered in Gandhi ji’s Salt March?
Ans. 240 miles.

Q.25. Which incident marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. Violation of Salt Law.

Q.26. Who was known as the ‘Frontier Gandhi ji’?
Ans. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.

Q.27. When was the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries set-up?
Ans. 1927

Q.28. By what name were the Dalits referred by Gandhi ji?
Ans. Harijans.

Q.29. Who organised Dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930?
Ans. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.

Q.30. When was Poona Pact signed?
Ans. 24th September, 1932.

Q.31. Who were organised into Depressed Classes Association?
Ans. Dalits.

Q.32. Who was the President of Muslim League in 1930?
Ans. Sir Muhammad Iqbal.

Q.33. Who was the writer of ‘the Folklore of Southern India’?
Ans. Natesa Sastri.

Q.34. Who designed the Swaraj flag?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi ji.

Q.35. Who was known as ‘Lion of Punjab’?
Ans. Lala Lajpat Rai.

Q.36. In which year Mahatma Gandhi ji, Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad arrived at Sevagram Ashram, Wardha in Gujarat?
Ans. In year 1935 Mahatma Gandhi ji, Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad arrived at Sevagram Ashram, Wardha in Gujarat.

Q.37. Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932?
Ans. Poona Pact.

Q.38. Who among the muslim leaders was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Ans. Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Q.39. Who composed the song ‘Vande Mataram’?
Ans. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

Q.40. By whom was the first image of Bharat Mata painted?
Ans. Abanindranath Tagore.

Very Short Answers

Q.1. What is meant by Satyagraha ?
Ans. Satyagraha is the non-violent way of mass agitation against the oppressor. The notion of Satyagraha underscored the power of truth.

Q.2. How did Gandhi ji apply the method of Satyagraha in India?
Ans. Initially, Gandhi ji applied the method of Satyagraha in the Champaran district of Bihar. He aimed to help the exploited peasants from the clutch of torturous plantation owners.

Q.3. How can battles be fought with Satyagraha?
Ans. The notion of Satyagraha underscored that if the cause was true, then the physical might was not indispensable to fight the oppressor.

Q.4. Which was the third early Satyagrahi Movement?
Ans. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi ji travelled to Ahmedabad to organise Satyagraha Movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Q.5. What was ‘Champaran Movement’?
Ans. The Champaran Movement was the first Satyagraha Movement that took place in 1916 at Champaran district in Bihar, India.

Q.6. What was ‘Kheda Movement’?
Ans. The Kheda Movement was the second Satyagraha Movement that took place in 1917 at Kheda district in Gujarat, India.

Q.7. What did British do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahi?
Ans. Satyagrahi were compelled to rub their noses on the ground, squat on the streets and do salaam to all Britishers.

Q.8. Why Kheda farmers protested against Britishers?
Ans. Being affected by crop shortage and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue.

Q.9. Why people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April, 1919 ?
Ans. In order to attend Vaisakhi festival, a crowd of villagers assembled at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13th April, 1919.

Q.10. Why Mahatma Gandhi ji wanted to join Khilafat issue?
Ans. In order to spawn communal harmony, Mahatma Gandhi ji aimed to join Khilafat issue.

Q.11. Unfold the stages of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Ans. (i) Started with the surrender of titles that government awarded.
(ii) Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.

Q.12. Why many Congress leaders were reluctant to boycott council elections?
Ans. The Congress leaders were willing to boycott council elections scheduled for November 1920, as they feared if they joined Non-Cooperation Movement; it might lead to popular violence.

Q.13. Why people in rural areas were angry on Britishers?
Ans. There was a prevalence of conscription system or forced recruitment of soldiers in rural areas, culminating in acute dearth of food, accompanied by influenza epidemic.

Q.14. Correct the following statement and rewrite it:
Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Morley-Minto Reforms (1919).
Ans. Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).

Q.15. What was Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction on Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi aimed to start a non-violent Civil Disobedience Movement against such unjust laws that could initiate with a strike on 6th April, 1919.

Q.16. Why Martial Law was imposed in Amritsar?
Ans. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession that culminated widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so Martial Law was imposed.

Q.17. Why General Dyer fired upon innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?
Ans. General Dyer aimed to produce a moral effect and to strike terror in the minds of Satyagrahis.

Q.18. What resolution was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?
Ans. At the Calcutta Session of Congress, Gandhiji convinced other leaders to initiate a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.

Q.19. What decision was made at the Nagpur Session of Congress in 1920?
Ans. At the Nagpur Session of Congress in December 1920, a compromise was reached and the Non-Cooperation Movement was adopted.

Q.20. How middle classes participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Ans. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.

Q.21. What was the impact of Non-Cooperation Movement on imports?
Ans. The import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value declined from 102 crore to 57 crore.

Q.22. Why boycott of British institutions posed a problem?
Ans. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. But these were slow to come up and teachers and students started trickling back to government schools.

Q.23. Why people started buying mill clothes instead of Khadi?
Ans. Khadi clothes were relatively more expensive than mass produced mill clothes. Therefore, people preferred mill clothes over Khadi.

Q.24. What was Inland Emigration Act?
Ans. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea plantation without
permission.

Q.25. Who was Baba Ramchandra?
Ans. Baba Ramchandra, a Sanyasi, was the leader of the peasant’s revolt in Awadh.

Q.26. Why Awadh Movement of Peasants began?
Ans. The Awadh movement was launched against talukdars and landlords who demanded excessive high rents from peasants.

Q.27. What were the demands of peasants in Awadh?
Ans. The peasants of Awadh demanded lessening of revenues, elimination of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

Q.28. Who headed the ‘Awadh Kisan Sabha’?
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra headed the ‘Awadh Kisan Sabha’.

Q.29. How Awadh movement was materialised?
Ans. As the movement permeated in 1921, the houses of landlords and merchants were razed to the ground, bazaars were sacked and grain hoards were captured.

Q.30. Why did the militant guerrilla movement in Andhra Pradesh start?
Ans. In Gudem Hills, the colonial government had blocked large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests. This enraged the hill people and they revolted against the British.

Q.31. What do you know about Alluri Sitaram Raju?
Ans. Alluri Sitaram Raju was the pioneer of Andhra Pradesh. He could make astrological predictions and heal people.

Q.32. Why was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 troublesome for plantation workers?
Ans. The Inland Emigration Act of 1859 was troublesome for plantation workers because plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without official permission. In fact people rarely got such permissions. People were not allowed to go to their homes.

Q.33. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922?
Ans. Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 because in same year, at Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur), a peaceful mob turned violent and clashed with police resulting in death of several policemen.

Q.34. Who formed Swaraj Party?
Ans. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the congress.

Q.35. Who was Sir John Simon?
Ans. Six John Simon was the chairman of the simon commission in India.

Q.36. Why was Simon Commission rejected in India?
Ans. The Simon Commission was rejected in India because it did not have a single Indian member.

Q.37. Name two prominent industrialists of the early-twentieth century.
Ans. Purshottamdas Thakur and G.D. Birla were the two prominent industrialists of the early-twentieth century.

Q.38. How Simon Commission was greeted in India?
Ans. When Simon Commission entered India in 1928, it was welcomed with the roaring slogan in a black flag, ‘Go back, Simon’.

Q.39. When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed?
Ans. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin on March 5, 1931.

Q.40. Why were Dalits ignored by the Congress for the long time?
Ans. The Congress shunned the interests of Dalits for the fear of offending the Sanatanis, the Conservative High Caste Hindus.

Q.41. Why did Indians oppose the ‘Simon Commission‘?
Ans. Indians opposed the ‘Simon Commission’ because this commission was set up to give an account of how the Indian Constitution was working without having any Indian representation.

Q.42. Which is the most important factor for the growth of nationalism in India?
Ans. Exploitation of the British Raj is the most significant factor for the growth of nationalism in India.

Q.43. Correct the following statement and rewrite it: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1919.
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What were the three proposals regarding Noncooperation Movement, as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:
(i) Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
(ii) Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative, councils, schools, and foreign goods.
(iii) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Question.2. How had the First World War created a new economic situation in India? Explain with three examples.
Ans. Three points on the First World War’s impact on the economic situation in India are given below :
(i) It speeded up the process of industrialisation.
(ii) It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India.
(iii) It created a demand for industrial goods (jute bags, cloth, rails, etc.) and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.

Question.3. Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.
Ans. (i) The idea of ‘Satyagraha’ emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iii) According to Gandhiji, without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence.

Question.4. How did Mahatma Gandhi successfully organize Satyagraha Movement in various places just after arriving India? Explain by giving three examples.
Ans. After arriving India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organized Satyagraha Movement in various places :
(i) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation of Indigo.
(ii) In 1917, he organized a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat who were affected by crop failure and plague epidemic and could not pay the revenue.
(iii) In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize Satyagraha Movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Question.5. Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the Proposed Rowlatt Act :
(i) The Rowlatt Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.
(ii) Indian members unitedly opposed it.
(iii) It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iii) And allowed the detention of Indian Political prisoners without any trial for a period of up to two year.
(iv) It was an unjustful law.

Question.6. Write about the Rowlatt Act, 1919.
Ans. (i) In the year 1919, the British Government passed a new rule called Rowlatt Act, under which the Government had the authority and power to arrest people and keep them in prisons without any trial if they are suspected with the charge of terrorism.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi was extremely agitated by enactment of Rowlatt Act. He was extremely critical about the act and argued that everyone cannot be punished for isolated political crime.
(iii) The Act was ill famed as ‘Black Act’ by the people and Indians revolt in protest against the Rowlatt Act.

Question.7. How was the Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.
Ans. The Rowlatt Act of 1919 was opposed in the following manner :
(i) Rallies were organized in various cities.
(ii) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(iii) Shops were closed down.
On 10th April, two renowned leaders of the Congress, Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kithlew were arrested. A public meeting was held on 13th April at Jallianwala Bagh in a small park enclosed by buildings on all sides to protest against the arrest. General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on the innocent civilians who had gathered from the city of Amritsar and outside to attend a peaceful meeting.

Question.8. Describe any three suppressive measures taken by the British administration to clamp down on nationalists.
Ans. (i) Barring local leaders from Amritsar along with Mahatma Gandhi from entering Delhi.
(ii) Open firing upon a peaceful procession in Amritsar, which led to widespread attacks on banks, police stations, etc. Imposition of Martial Law.
(iii) Forcing the Satyagrahis to rub their noses on the ground, flogging people and bombing villages.

Question.9. Describe the incident of Jallianwala Bagh which took place during the British rule.
Ans. (i) The Rowlatt act was effective from 10th March, 1919. In Punjab the protest movement was vast and strong.
(ii) On 10th April, two renowned leaders of the Congress, Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kithlew were arrested and were taken to unknown place.
(iii) A public meeting was held on 13th April at Jallianwala Bagh in a small park enclosed by buildings on all sides to protest against the arrest.
(iv) General Dyer with his British troops entered the park, closed the entrance of the park and commanded his army to fire on the gathered people without any warning.
(v) The firing lasted for ten minutes and sixteen hundred rounds, killing about thousand people and more than two thousand people were left wounded and unattended.

Question.10. Explain the issue behind the Khilafat Movement. OR
What was the Khilafat Agitation? Why did Gandhiji gave support to this agitation?
Ans. Khilafat Agitation :
(i) The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) initiated by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was a mass movement against the reduction of temporal powers of Caliph after defeat of Ottoman-Turkey in the First World War.
(ii) To defend Khalifa’s temporal powers, Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 as he was considered as the spiritual head of Muslims.
(iii) Gandhiji supported it because he saw it as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified National Movement.

Question.11. “British rule in India would have collapsed if Indians had not cooperated”. How did this statement help in starting a mass movement in India against the British rule?
Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indian and if Indians had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have collapsed within a year.
(ii) He proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iii) It should begin with the surrendering of titles that the government had awarded to the Indians.
(iv) A boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative assemblies, schools and foreign goods would show their non-cooperation to the British empire.
Mahatma Gandhi felt that in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Question.12. How could Non-Cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion.
Ans. Non-Cooperation became a movement :
(i) It was the view of Gandhiji that the British rule was set in India with the cooperation of Indians.
(ii) If Indians refused cooperation, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
(iii) Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iv) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
(v) Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the movement.

Question.13. Discuss the various stages of the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages :
1st Stage–Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
2nd Stage–Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative, councils, schools, and foreign goods.
3rd Stage–Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Question.14. Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Explain.
Ans. The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities because :
(i) Khadi clothes were more expensive than mill clothes.
(ii) Poor people could not afford to buy it.
(iii) The boycott of British institutions posed a problem.
(iv) Students and teachers began trickling back to government schools.
(v) Lawyers joined back work in government courts.

Question.15. Describe the spread of Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside.
Ans. Non-Cooperation Movement spread in the countryside :
(i) In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. Here the movement was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasant’s exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses.
(ii) Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payments. As tenants they had no security of tenure and were regularly evicted so that they have no right over the leased land.
(iii) The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In the meantime, Jawaharlal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh.
(iv) The Awadh Kisan Sabha was set up in the villages. The peasant movement, however, developed in forms that the Congress leadership was unhappy with.
(v) As the movement spread, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked: bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

Question.16. Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Ans. Problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement were :
(i) Talukdars and landlords posed high rent on land and variety of cesses.
(ii) Various taxes were also implemented on them.
(iii) Peasants had to do begar and work at landlord’s farm without any payment.
(iv) They had no security of tenure and were evicted regularly.
(v) They had no right over leased land.

Question.17. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments.
Ans. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj” :
(i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
(ii) Swaraj meant retaining a link the village from which they had come.
(iii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.
(iv) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
(v) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.

Question.18. What were the causes of the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement? Explain. OR
Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922 ? Explain the reasons.
Ans. Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922 :
(i) Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places.
(ii) A clash took place at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh
(iii) A group of volunteers picketing a liquor shop were beaten up by a police officer.
(iv) In protest a group of peasants went to the police station, bolted the door and set fire to the police station killing 22 policemen.
(v) The incident shocked Gandhiji and he immediately withdrew the movement.

Question.19. Simon Commission was greeted with slogan ‘Go back Simon’ at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments.
Ans. Simon Commission :
(i) The new Tory government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.
(ii) It was set up in response to the nationalist movement.
(iii) The commission was to look in to the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
(iv) The problem was that the commission didn‘t have a single Indian member.
(v) When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
(vi) All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.

Question.20. What was the objective of Simon Commission? Why was it opposed in India?
Ans. Simon Commission was set up to look into the functioning of the Constitutional System in India and suggest changes. It was opposed because :
(i) It had no Indian member.
(ii) They were all whites.

Question.21. Explain in brief the ‘Dandi March’. OR
Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.
Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi started his famous ‘Salt March’ or ‘Dandi March’ on 11th March, 1930 accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.
(ii) The march was to cover 240 miles from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati Coastal town of Dandi.
(iii) On 6th April, 1930, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(iv) This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question.22. How did the Salt March become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain.
Ans. ‘Salt March’ became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism because :
(i) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
(ii) Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax.
(iii) Salt was the most essential item of foods and was consumed by rich and poor alike.
(iv) Irwin was unwilling to negotiate, so Gandhiji started Salt march with 78 volunteers. (On 6th April) he reached Dandi, violated law and made salt.
This March developed the feeling of nationalism, people in different parts of the country broke the salt law and manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.

Question.23. “The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.” Support the statement with examples. OR
How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement? State any three points of difference.
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement :
Non-Cooperation Movement :
(i) The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
(ii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iv) Foreign clothes were burnt in heap.
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade on foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
(vi) Students left the government owned schools and colleges.
(vii) Lawyers gave up legal practices.
Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) People were asked to break colonial laws.
(ii) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
(iv) Village officials resigned from their jobs.
(v) Forest people violated forest rules and laws.

Question.24. Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Ans. Different social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) Rich Peasantry Group : The Patidar and Jats demanded reduction in revenue and participated in the boycott program.
(ii) Poor peasantry Group : They wanted unpaid rent to be remitted, joined radical movement led by the socialist and communist.
(iii) Business Class Group : Prominent industrialist like Purshottamdas, G D Birla formed FICCI. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and rupee sterling exchange ratio and refused to sell imported goods.
(iv) Working Class Group : Nagpur Workers adopted boycott of foreign goods, against low wages and poor working conditions.
(v) Women : Participated in the protest marches, manufacturing of salt and boycotted foreign goods.

Question.25. How did women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Ans. Participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) Women in large number participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) During Salt March thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji.
(iii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt.
(iv) They picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
(v) Many went to jail.
(vi) They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

Question.26. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates for Muslims and the Dalits?
Ans. (i) Dalit began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organized the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
(ii) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s proposal and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(iii) After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

Question.27. Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact‘.
Ans. The main features of ‘Poona Pact’ were :
(i) The Poona Pact (September 1932) gave Depressed Classes (later to be known as Scheduled Caste) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
(ii) They were to be voted in by the general electorate.
(iii) The Act came into force due to Gandhiji’s fast unto death.
(iv) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s stand.

Question.28. Examine the events that led to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Why did the industrialists support this movement?
Ans. The events that led to the Civil Disobedience Movement include :
(i) Arrival of Simon Commission consisting of all British members, in 1928 and their report.
(ii) Successful peasant movement in Bardoli, Meerut and Lahore conspiracy cases in 1929.
(iii) Lahore session of Congress in 1929.
(iv) Nehru report in respect of Indian Constitution.
(v) Demonstrators being brutally assaulted in anti Simon Commission agitation.
Industrialists supported this movement because: During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and became powerful. Keen on expanding their business, they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.

Question.29. Explain the efforts made by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar for the political empowerment of the Dalits or Depressed Classes.
Ans. (i) Dr. B.R.Ambedkar organized the ‘Dalits’ into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
(ii) He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
(iii) In 1932, he signed Poona Pact which gave the depressed classes reserved seats in the provincial and central legislative councils.

Question.30. What were Mahatma Gandhi‘s views on women‘s participation in the national movements?
Ans. (i) According to Gandhiji, woman is companion of man and gifted with equal rights of freedom and liberty.
(ii) Woman is more fit than man to take exploration and bolder action in non-violence.
(iii) Woman is the better half of humanity, not the weaker sex.

Question.31. Explain any three features of the Peasant Movement organized in Awadh in the second decade of 20th century.
Ans. (i) In the second decade of 20th century, a Peasant Movement started against exploitation of talukdars and landlords.
(ii) The movement was led by Baba Ramchandra who was earlier a Sanyasi.
(iii) The peasants through this movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of ‘begar’ and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

Question.32. What were the demands of the Peasant Movement? Explain any two. What contribution did Jawaharlal Nehru make to this movement?
Ans. (i) Demands of the Peasant Movement were :
(a) Reduction of revenue.
(b) Abolition of begar.
(c) Social boycott of oppressive landlords.
(ii) Jawaharlal Nehru’s : He went around villages to understand the grievances of the villagers. Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and within a month 300 branches were set up.

Question.33. What was the limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. Limits of Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) The Dalits or the Untouchables did not actively participate in the movement, they demanded reservation of seats, separate electorates.
(ii) Dr B.R. Ambedkar clashed with Gandhiji.
(iii) Muslim political organisations also kept away from the Movement.
(iv) Congress seemed more visibly associated with Hindu religious nationalist groups.

Question.34. Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ in 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘Swaraj Flag’. OR
Which flag did Gandhiji design in 1921? Mention its special features.
Ans. (i) In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag.
(ii) It was a tricolour (red, green and white) flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(iii) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

Question.35. What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.
Ans. During the “Swadeshi Movement” in Bengal the flag designed was a Tricolour Flag. The two features of the flag were :
(i) The colour of the flag was-Red, Green and Yellow.
(ii) It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces in British India.
(iii) It had a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Explain the effects of First World War on India. OR
How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples. OR
Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India. OR
Examine the effects of the First World War on the National Movement of India.
Ans. (i) The war created a new economic and political situation.
(ii) It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes, custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
(iii) Prices increased, doubling between 1913 and 1918. This hit the common people.
(iv) Villagers were asked to supply soldiers and through force recruitment in rural areas.
(v) During 1918-19, crops failed in many parts of India which created shortage of food.
(vi) Spread of influenza epidemic and death of 12 to 13 million people.

Question.2. Explain Gandhiji’s view on Satyagraha. Which quality of Mahatma Gandhi turned the freedom struggle into a mass movement? OR
Explain the ideas of Gandhiji regarding ‘Satyagraha’ in five points.
Ans. Five points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘Satyagraha’:
(i) The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iv) This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
(iii) Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence.
(v) People including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.
(vi) Gandhiji believed that truth was bound to ultimately triumph.
(vii) He believed that the dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

Question.3. What was the impact of the First World War on the economic conditions in India.
Ans. (i) It created new economic and political problems. The war had led to huge expenditure which was financed by heavy loans and increase in taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
(ii) The prices had doubled between 1913 and 1918 and the common people underwent great hardships.
(iii) Crops had failed between 1918-19 and 1920-21 leading to famine and disease. There were epidemics killing between 12-13 million people (Census, 1921).
(iv) People’s hope that the end of war would bring an end to their goals were believed, and this led to their support to the national movement.
(v) The Muslims were antagonised by the British illtreatment of the Khalifa, after the First World War.
(vi) Indian villagers were also incensed by the British Government’s forced recruitment of men in the army.
(vii) The Congress and other parties were angry with the British for not consulting them before making India a party on their side against Germany.
(viii) Taking advantage of the First World War, many revolutionary parties cropped up and they incited the people to join the anti-colonial movement in India (i.e. the National Movement).

Question.4. How did Gandhiji convert the National Movement into a Mass Movement?
Ans. Gandhiji converted the National Movement into a Mass Movement by :
(i) His simple and saintly life and style of convincing the masses made him popular.
(ii) His undisputed leadership and magnetic personality.
(iii) His policy of non-violent Satyagraha.
(iv) His programmes of social reforms like fighting against untouchability.
(v) His commitment to Hindu-Muslim unity.

Question.5. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919? How was it organized? Explain.
Ans. Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919 :
(i) The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.
(ii) Indian members unitedly opposed it.
(iii) It gave government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iv) It allowed detention of political prisoners without trials for two years.
Organization of Satyagraha :
(i) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
(ii) It was started with a ‘Hartal’ on 6th April.
(iii) Rallies were organized in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(v) Shops were closed down.

Question.6. What was the impact of the Rowlatt Act Satyagraha on the political situation in India? Describe.
Ans. Impact of the Rowlatt Act on the political situation in India:
(i) People organised hartals in cities and railways went on strike.
(ii) Shops were closed down.
(iii) Leaders were arrested.
(iv) At Amritsar, police fired upon a peaceful procession.
(v) Martial law was imposed.

Question.7. Describe the incident and impact of the Jallianwala Bagh. OR
Explain the reason and effects of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. OR
Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people. OR
Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and the aftermath. Which basic human rights did the British violate?
Ans. Incident and Impact of the Jallianwala Bagh : On 13th April large crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh. Some of them had come to protest against the government’s new repressive measures and others had come to attend Baisakhi fair. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds to create a feeling of terror.
Impact :
(i) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in North Indian towns.
(ii) There were strikes, clashes with police.
(iii) Attacks on Government buildings.
(iv) The government responded with brutal repression to terrorize people.
(v) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
(vi) People were flogged and villages were bombed.
(vii) The British violated the freedom of speech and expression.

Question.8. Describe the development which led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Ans. Developments which led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movement :
(i) Mahatma Gandhi successfully organized Satyagraha movements in various places.
(ii) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(iii) Then in 1917, he organized a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat.
(iv) In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organize a Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
(v) In 1919, he decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act.
(vi) Rallies were organized in various places.
(vii) At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

Question.9. How did different social group conceive the idea of ‘Non-Cooperation’? Explain with examples.
Ans. Some of the leaders within Congress were reluctant to start Non-Cooperation Movement because they wanted to oppose the British government through legal and constitutional means.
For example, they wanted to contest the elections for legislative councils that were scheduled to be held in 1920 and oppose the government from inside the council once elected.

Question.10. How had Non–Cooperation Movement spread in cities. Explain. OR
How did the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front.
Ans. Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities across the country :
(i) The movement started with middle class participation in the cities.
(ii) Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.
(iii) Headmasters and teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(iv) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras where Justice Party took part in elections.
Effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front were :
(i) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(ii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iii) Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
(iv) The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922. In value the drop was from 102 crore to 57 crore.
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(vi) The people began discarding imported clothes and wore only Indian ones.
(vii) Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up tremendously.

Question.11. Explain the response of the plantation workers to the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji. What did freedom mean for them?
Ans. (a) The response of the plantation workers to the Non-Cooperation Movement was :
(i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
(ii) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
(iii) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.
(iv) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
(b) For them, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.

Question.12. Critically examine the main aspects of Indian National Movement during the period Delhi between 1920 and 1935.
Ans. Following are the main aspects of the Indian National Movement between 1920-1935 :
(i) Beginning of Mass Movement after Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
(ii) Application of Satyagraha to Mass Movement, new methods to protest, boycott, picketing, renunciation of titles, and non-payment of taxes.
(iii) People of different sections and parts shared a common bond of resistance—united in their hatred against the British rule.
(iv) Industrialists led by Purshottamdas, Thakurdas and G. D. Birla criticized colonialism.

Question.13. Explain the grievances of the peasants against the government. What steps were taken to organise Peasant Movement to fulfil their demands during the colonial rule?
Ans. Reasons of grievances of the peasants against the government were :
(i) Due to forest laws of the colonial government.
(ii) Depriving them of the traditional rights of entering the forest to graze their cattle or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
(iii) High land revenues.
(iv) Forced to perform begar.
Steps taken to organize Peasant Movement :
(i) Many Kisan Sabhas were organised.
(ii) Organized Guerrilla Militant Movement.
(iii) Attacked police Stations and attempted to kill British police officials.
(iv) Gandhiji declared that no tax to be paid.

Question.14. Which incident marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement? Why did the peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement : Violation of Salt Law by manufacturing salt from sea water by Gandhiji marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement. The peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the following reasons :
(i) Rich peasants (Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh) were active in the movement. They were hard hit by the trade depressions and falling prices. The refusal of the government to reduce the revenue led to widespread resentment.
(ii) For the rich peasants, fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenue.
(iii) Poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord be remitted so they joined the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question.15. Why did the poor peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34)? Why could not the Congress give full support to their demands?
Ans. The peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) because poor peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand. Many had rented land. They could not pay rent because of the depression and dwindling cash incomes. They wanted the unpaid rent to landlord remitted.
Congress could not give full support because they thought rich peasants and landlords would be upset. It was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaign in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

Question.16. Explain any five factors which gave rise to the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930.
Ans. Factors that gave rise to the Civil Disobedience Movement were :
(i) The problem with the Simon Commission.
(ii) Irwin’s vague offer of Dominion Status for India in an unspecified future.
(iii) Salt Law.
(iv) Neglect of eleven demands of Gandhiji by the British.
(v) Lahore Session of INC (1929).

Question.17. Describe the significance of the Civil Disobedience, Movement in the freedom struggle of India.
Ans. Significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) The Civil Disobedience Movement launched against the arrival of the Simon Commission. This continues between 1930 and 1934.
(ii) Complete Independence was the main aim of Civil Disobedience Movement which formulated this demand in the Lahore session.
(iii) It was fully fledged mass movement.
(iv) Mahatma Gandhi started the famous Salt March.
(v) On 6th April, he ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(vi) This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question.18. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘Salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi found ‘Salt’ a powerful symbol : Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands on 31st January, 1930. The most stirring of all was to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the most essential items of foods. It was consumed both by rich and poor alike. He urged them to peacefully defy the tax imposed on salt. On 6th April he reached Dandi and violated the law.

Question.19. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:
(i) In December, 1931 Gandhiji went to London for the Round Table Conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
(ii) In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.

Question.20. How did the Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country? Explain with examples.
Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement came into force in various parts of the country :
(i) Gandhiji led the Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with his followers starting the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) Thousands in different parts of the country broke the Salt Law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(iii) In the country side like the rich Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
(iv) As rich peasant communities were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices, they became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(v) As the depression continued and cash invoice dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted and thus they joined the movement.
(vi) Merchants and industrialists supported the movement by giving the financial assistance and refused to buy and sell the imported goods.
(vii) The industrial working class of Nagpur region participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM).
(viii) Railway worker, dock workers, coal mine workers of Chhota Nagpur, etc. participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
(ix) Women also participated in large numbers.

Question.21. Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialists towards the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.
Ans. The attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialists towards the Civil Disobedience Movement was :
(i) During the 1st World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and became powerful.
(ii) They wanted protection against imports of foreign gods and a Rupee Sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage import.
(iii) To organize business interest they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress (in 1920) and the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries—FICCI ( in 1927).
(iv) They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported gods.
(v) Most businessmen came to see ‘Swaraj’ at a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(vi) After the failure of the Round Table Conference business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
(vii) They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities and worried about prolonged disruption of business.

Question.22. How did different Social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) In the countryside for the rich peasant communities fight, ‘Swaraj’ was a struggle against high revenue.
(ii) The countrymen broke the Salt Law.
(iii) Foreign clothes were boycotted and liquor shops were picketed.
(iv) Peasants refused to pay the land revenue.
(v) Village officials resigned from their jobs.
(vi) People violated forest laws.

Question.23. “Some of the Muslim political organizations in India, were lukewarm in their response to the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.” Examine the statement.
Ans. Large sections of Muslims were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the following factors :
(i) The decline of Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements led to alienation of Muslims from the Congress.
(ii) From the mid 1920’s, the Congress was seen to be visibly associated with Hindu nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(iii) Relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened and communal riots took place.
(iv) The Muslim League gained prominence with its claim of representing Muslims and demanding separate electorates for them.

Question.24. Critically examine the reasons of conflict between the Congress and the Muslim League. Why did the Muslim League fail to respond to the call of United Struggle during the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. The important differences between the Congress and the Muslim League were over the question of representation of Muslims in the future assemblies that were to be elected. Suspicion and distrust between the two communities was also a major reason.
(i) The Civil Disobedience Movement started under this atmosphere of distrust.
(ii) Negotiation over the question of representation continued but all hopes of resolving the issue in All Parties Conference in 1928, disappeared when Mr. R. Jayakar of Hindu Maha Sabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
(iii) Alienated from Congress, large sections of the Muslim failed to respond to the call of a united struggle.
(iv) The Muslim feared that the culture and identity of the minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

Question.25. How did the peasants of Awadh use different methods to achieve their goal? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) Peasants of Awadh were led by Baba Ram Chandra, a Sanyasi. The movement was against Talukdars and Landlords.
(ii) The landlords and talukdars demanded exorbitantly high rents and other cess. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlord’s farms without any payment.
(iii) As tenants, the farmers had no security of tenure. The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
(iv) In many places, nai-dhobi bandhs were organized by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of barbers and washermen.
(v) Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru; Baba Ram Chandra and few others. Within a month, over 300 branches were set up in the villages. The peasants developed in forms. In 1921, the houses of Talukdars and Merchants were attacked. Bazaars were looted. Grain hoards were taken over.

Question.26. Explain with examples the role of Industrialists in the freedom struggle of India.
Ans. (i) They lent their support to the Congress in protest against the colonial policies that restricted indigenous business enterprises.
(ii) They also gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell foreign goods. They formed associations like the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and FICCI in 1927.
(iii) They viewed Swaraj as freedom from the domination of market by foreign goods but withdrew their support when the Second Round Table Congress failed.
(iv) They were also concerned about the rise of the socialist ideology in the Congress.
(v) Purshottamdas, Thakurdas and G.D. Birla attacked the Colonial control over Indian economy.

Question.27. “Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement”. Examine the statement.
Ans. Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement. The causes for this are listed below :
(i) Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organized the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
(ii) When the British government conceded Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death.
(iii) Gandhiji believed that separate electorates for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into the society.
(iv) Dr. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(v) It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in Provincial and Central Legislative Councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Question.28. ”Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.
Ans. Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation. The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. Variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs helped with promotion of nationalism. Literature also helped to arouse national feelings. The ideas of nationalism also developed through the celebration of regional festivals. As the national movement developed nationalist leaders became more and more of icons and symbols in unifying and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.

Question.29. How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in the making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples. OR
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging?
Ans. (i) This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among people against the colonial government.
(ii) But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people‘s imagination :
(a) The identity of the nation symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings etc.
(b) Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
(c) Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(d) Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.

Question.30. Critically examine any four features of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. Four features of the Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) The most widespread non-violent mass movement led by Gandhiji.
(ii) Large scale participation of women.
(iii) Support given by commercial classes.
(iv) Workers’ participation in the movement, selectively adopting some of the ideas of Gandhian programme strikes of railways and dock workers.

Question.31. Describe the composition of tricolour flag designed during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.
Ans. (i) It was designed in Bengal.
(ii) It was tricolour flag.
(iii) Having red, yellow and green colours.
(iv) It had eight lotuses representing our eight provinces.
(v) A crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)

Question.1. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Ans. (i) The image of Bharat Mata created by Abanindranath Tagore is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Another image of Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephantboth are the symbols of power and authority.
(ii) Germania was the symbol of the German nation. She is depicted as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shine through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. Germania is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Question.2. What were the limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement? Elaborate.
Ans. Limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) Dalit participation was limited. They began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organized the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s proposal and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(ii) Muslim political groups were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was sudden atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

Question.3. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.“ Analyse the reasons.
Ans. The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle:
(i) The industrialists came closer to the Congress, but the workers stayed aloof.
(ii) Congress felt this would alienate industrialists.
(iii) It would divide its anti-imperial forces.
(iv) Civil Disobedience Movement would be weakened.

Question.4. How did the industrialists relate to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Analyse their role
Ans. Industrialists related to Civil-Disobedience Movement :
(i) Indian industrialists had made huge profits during the First World War.
(ii) They became powerful. They wanted to expand their business, they wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(iii) They formed the Indian Industries and Commercial Congress in 1920.
(iv) They formed Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries in 1927.
(v) Purshotamdas, Thakurdas and G.D. Birla attacked colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(vi) They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

Assertion and Reasoning based questions

Mark the option which is most suitable:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question.1. Assertion: In 1917, Gandhiji organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat.
Reason: The peasants were affected by crop failure and plague epidemic. They could not pay the revenue and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : The peasants wanted that their revenue collection be relaxed because they were at a complete loss because of the epidemic. Gandhiji came forward and organized a Satyagraha to provide them with a platform to raise their voice.

Question.2. Assertion: The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons in the cities.
Reason: As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. Non-Cooperation Movement was gradually turning violent, some leaders were by now, very tired of mass struggle, that is now it lost momentum. Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but the reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Question.3. Assertion : The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919.
Reason: The Act allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for three years.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation : Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 by the British government in India. This Act authorised the government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law, thus enabling the government to suspend the right of habeas corpus which had been the foundation of civil liberties. The Act allowed certain political cases to be tried without juries and permitted internment of suspects without trial for two years.

Question.4. Assertion (A): The non-cooperation movement was adopted in Madras Congress session in 1919.
Reason (R): Chauri Chaura was the place where noncooperation movement was called off.
Ans. (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : Madras Congress session was held in 1927. During this session, young leaders like Jawahar Lal Nehru had proposed the resolution for complete independence which was however defeated and the action of Jawahar Lal was not appreciated by Gandhi. Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement because of the violence in the Chauri Chaura outrage.

Question.5. Assertion: The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
Reason: In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where Justice Party, the party of the Non-Brahmins, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmins had access to. Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Question.6. Assertion: In Awadh, the peasants were led by Alluri Sitaram Raju.
Reason: The movement here was against talukdars and landlords.
Ans. (d) A is false but R is true.
Explanation : In Awadh, the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, a who had earlier been to Fiji as indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Thus assertion is true, but reason is false.

Question.7. Assertion: When Simon Commission arrived in India, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
Reason: This happened as Mahatma Gandhi was on Dandi March during that time.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation : The Simon Commission was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’ because it did not have a single Indian member. They were all British but had come to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. Gandhiji went on Dandi March on 11 March 1930. The reason thus does not explain the assertion.

Question.8. Assertion: Gandhiji entered into Gandhi-Irwin Pact on 5 March 1931.
Reason: Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both put in jail, the Congress was declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : With the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in the Round Table Conference in London. However, the negotiations broke down and Gandhiji returned to India disappointed. New repressive measures by the government declared the Congress illegal and put Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru into jail. Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Question.9. Assertion: Rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes.
Reason: However, they were deeply happy when the movement was called off in 1931 with revenue rates being lowered.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation : The peasants were deeply disappointed when the Civil Disobedience Movement was called off in 1931 without revenue rates being revised. They wanted the revenue rates revised and were thus actively participating in the movement but were deeply hurt when they could not achieve the same. Therefore, The assertion is true but reason is false.

Question.10. Assertion: Provincial autonomy was introduced in the Government of India Act, 1935.
Reason: The Act itself made a clear-cut division of powers between the Centre and the Provinces.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation : Government of India Act 1935 under the British Act of Parliament. With regard to the provinces, the Act of 1935 was an improvement on the existing position. It introduced what is known as provincial autonomy. The ministers of the provincial governments, according to it, were to be responsible to the legislature. The other parts of the Act, particularly provincial Autonomy, came into force on 1st April 1937. So, Assertion is true but Reason is false.

Question.11. Assertion: The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Reason: People in the Civil Disobedience Movement were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : Civil Disobedience movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi. As the British Government did not show any interest in providing meaningful political concession to Indian, Gandhi decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement and launched the Satyagraha campaign by manufacturing salt at Dandi. The Movement involved non-payment of taxes and land revenue as well as the violation of the laws of different kinds in addition to Non-cooperation activities.

Question.12. Assertion: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland and it was later included
in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement.
Reason: Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata, which is portrayed as an ascetic figure, who is
calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints, and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism, but this does not explain why he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’. Thus both of them are true, but reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.

Question.13. Assertion: A growing anger against the colonial government was thus bringing together various groups and classes of Indians into a common struggle for freedom in the first half of the twentieth century.
Reason: Diverse groups were all tortured by British in one way or the other.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
Explanation : Colonisation affected people’s freedom and nationalist sentiment surged during process of struggle against Imperial domination. The anger for Britishers became a common bond for every religion as well as caste. So growth of colonialism is related to increase in struggle for freedom.

Case Study Based Questions

Question.1. Read the text given below and answer the questions that follow :
In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles. Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. But younger leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose pressed for more radical mass agitation and for full independence.
On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Some of these were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, Mahatma Gandhi declare, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) Which of the following options was the reason for suspension of the Non cooperation Movement ?

(a) Chauri-Chaura incident
(b) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
(c) Kakori conspiracy case
(d) All of the above

(ii) This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement :

(a) Simon Commission
(b) Lahore Congress
(c) Kheda Satyagraha
(d) Dandi March

(iii) In which of the following years the Swaraj Party was formed ?

(a) 1929
(b) 1923
(c) 1931
(d) 1932

(iv) ………… and the government monopoly over its production, Mahatma Gandhi declare, revealed the most oppressive face of
British rule.

(a) Tax on cotton
(b) Tax on salt
(c) Tax on crop
(d) Tax on property

Ans. (i) (a) Chauri-Chaura incidence.
(ii) (d) Dandi March.
(iii) (b) 1923.
(iv) (b) Tax on salt.

Question.2. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
While the Rowlatt Satyagraha had been a widespread movement, it was still limited mostly to cities and towns. Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broadbased movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919. A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) Which of the following was the main objective of Rowlatt Act of 1919?

(a) To suppress the resentment developed in Indian society.
(b) To put control on radical elements.
(c) To put control on Gandhi’s political activities.
(d) To stop Satyagrahis to take part in Non-Cooperation Movement.

(ii) During World War I, Ottoman Empire was the part of:

(a) Allies Powers
(b) Central Powers
(c) Axis Powers
(d) None of the above

(iii) Which of the following was the main reason behind launching of Non-Cooperation Movement?

(a) Suppression by the British government.
(b) Defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I.
(c) Now Gandhiji was popular enough to launch a nationwide movement.
(d) First time both major Indian communities were against the government.

(iv) Find out the incorrect statement from the following:

(a) At the end of World War II, Gandhiji became an important leader in Indian politics.
(b) Gandhiji toured India with Shaukat Ali to show Hindu-Muslim unity.
(c) In Nagpur session, Gandhiji succeeded to convince the Congress leaders to support Khilafat issue.
(d) Some of the leaders in Congress were not happy to take Khilafat issue.

Ans. (i) (a) To suppress the resentment developed in Indian society.
(ii) (a) Central Powers.
(iii) (d) First time both major Indian communities were against the government.
(iv) (a) At the end of World War II Gandhiji became an important leader in Indian politics.

Question.3. Read the source given below and answer the question that follows.
Source: The Movement in the Towns
The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power-something that usually only Brahmans had access to. The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from 102 crore. In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

(i) Explain the role of ‘Justice Party in boycotting of Council elections’.
(ii) How was the effect of ‘non-cooperation on the economic front dramatic’?
(iii) Explain the effect of ‘Boycott Movement on foreign textile trade’.

Ans. (i) The Justice Party members were non-Brahmans and so far had not been able to win elections, as the Brahman candidates always won. They thought it was a golden opportunity for them to enter the councils. So, they decided not to boycott council elections.
(ii) The effects of Non-Cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic because the movement was started with middle class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practice.
(iii) The effects of ‘Boycott Movement’ on foreign textile trade were that the foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonefires.

Question.4. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. The identity of the nation is most often symbolized in a figure or image. This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation. It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints, and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) Find out the real meaning of the nationalism from the following:

(a) To mobilize people to make a change in society.
(b) To develop a sense within Indians that British government in not good for them.
(c) To ignite the feeling that all Indians are one.
(d) To revive the glory which has been destroyed by colonial rulers.

(ii) Which of the following played important role to ignite feelings of nationalism?

(a) Anandmath
(b) Collection of folklore and folktale
(c) Image of Bharat Mata
(d) All of the above

(iii) The main motive behind the launching of Swadeshi Movement was:

(a) To promote Gandhian idea of self dependency.
(b) To oppose the arrest of nationalists by the government.
(c) To oppose the division of Bengal into two parts.
(d) To promote ‘Vande Mataram’ to unite Indians.

(iv) Which of the following statement is not correct about the image of Bharat Mata?

(a) The image was drawn by several artists at different times.
(b) Bharat Mata carries same symbols in all images.
(c) French and German allegories inspired to draw the image of Bharat Mata.
(d) Different artists used different symbols to show collective belongings.

Ans. (i) (c) To ignite the feeling that all Indians are one.
(ii) (d) All of the above.
(iii) (c) To oppose the division of Bengal into two parts.
(iv) (b) Bharat Mata carries same symbols in all images.

Question.5. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come. How could non-cooperation become a movement? Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods. Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. Through the summer of 1920 Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support for the movement. Many within the Congress were, however, concerned about the proposals. They were reluctant to boycott the council elections scheduled for November 1920, and they feared that the movement might lead to popular violence. In the months between September and December there was an intense tussle within the Congress. For a while there seemed no meeting point between the supporters and the opponents of the movement. Finally, at the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the NonCooperation programme was adopted. The Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different things to different people. The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power — something that usually only Brahmans had access to. The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

(i) What was the declaration of Mahatama Gandhi in his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909 AD)?
(ii) How was the Non-Cooperation Movement started?
Ans. (i) (a) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians.
(b) It had survived only because of this cooperation.
Ans. (ii) (a) The Non-Cooperation movement began with the surrender of titles that the government awarded.
(b) A boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.

Question.6. Read the Source carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?
In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as president of the Muslim League, reiterated the importance of separate electorates for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests. His statement is supposed to have provided the intellectual justification for the Pakistan demand that came up in subsequent years. This is what he said:
I have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that the Indian Muslim is entitled to full and free development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home lands is recognized as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedom of India. The principle that each group is entitled for free development on its own lines is not inspired by any feeling of narrow communalism. A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social institutions of other communities.
Nay, it is my duty according to the teachings of the Quran, even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Even though I love the communal group which is the source of life and behavior and which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, it’s thought, its culture and thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in my present consciousness. Communalism in its higher aspect, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India. The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries. The principle of European democracy can-not be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the separate electorates are contrary to the spirit of true nationalism, because he understands the word“nation” a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality.
Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is a land of racial and religious variety. Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and you will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates.
Ans. No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s notion of communalism. He thought that it was the search for a community to develop along its own lines. He felt that religion is the basis on which thought process is based. He felt that religion binds people in one thread. It gives person a unified culture and literature. In his opinion, Hindus and Muslims should live as separate entities in the country. This line of thought bolstered separatism and subsequently led to the partition of the country. In the modern period, communalism spawns a negative implication. It is projected as conflict between people of varied religions and ethnicities, leading to violence between them. In these days, it starts to influence politics and governmental relations

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