Extra Questions 10th History Chapter 3 : The Making of Global World

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. ‘Globalisation’ today mainly refers to :
(a) Trade, migration of people in search of work
(b) Movement of capital
(c) An economic system that has emerged in the last 50 years
(d) Cultural links among world societies
Ans. (c) An economic system that has emerged in the last 50 years

Question.2. Who were the first people to link the world in ancient times and why?
(a) Priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge and spiritual fulfilment
(b) Travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity, spiritual fulfilment or to escape persecution
(c) Traders
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity, spiritual fulfilment or to escape persecution

Question.3. The main reason why the world “shrank” in the 1500s is :
(a) Emergence of Europe as the centre of world trade
(b) China’s retreat into isolation and its reduced role in politics
(c) Slaves working in plantations, growing sugar and cotton for European markets
(d) European sailors found a sea route to Asia, and also crossed the Atlantic and discovered America.
Ans. (d) European sailors found a sea route to Asia, and also crossed the Atlantic and discovered America.

Question.4. Which of the following statements is a true definition of what the economists identify as “flows”?
(a) Trade in goods (cloth or wheat), migration of people in search of employment and movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances
(b) Economic, social, cultural and technological exchanges
(c) Self-sufficiency in food and no imports of food
(d) All the above
Ans. (a) Trade in goods (cloth or wheat), migration of people in search of employment and movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances

Question.5. The two evidences we have of India carrying on an active coastal trade in ancient times are :
(a) Indians carried goods, money, skills and ideas abroad
(b) An active coastal trade, as early as 3000 BC, linked Indus Valley Civilisation with presentday West Asia
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) For more than a millennium, cowries (a form of Indian currency) found its way from Maldives, to China and East Africa.
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.6. The most powerful weapon, which the Spanish conquerors of America had, was :
(a) superiority in conventional weapons
(b) germs, such as those of small pox, proved a deadly killer and paved the way for conquest
(c) America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against diseases that came from Europe
(d) both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) both (b) and (c)

Question.7. Beside clearing land, what else was needed to increase food production in the world in the 19th century?
(a) Railways to link agricultural regions, harbours to be expanded or built for new cargoes
(b) Building homes and settlements for those working on land
(c) Capital and labour
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.8. The number of people who migrated from Europe to America and Australia and other parts of the world in the 19th century was nearly
(a) 10 million from Europe and 100 million from all over the world.
(b) 20 million from Europe and about 150 million from all over the world
(c) 50 million people from Europe to America and Australia and 150 million from all over the world migrate
(d) The number is not certain, not enough proof
Ans. (c) 50 million people from Europe to America and Australia and 150 million from all over the world migrate

Question.9. The dramatic changes in global agricultural economy by 1890, were :
(a) Food no longer came from a nearby village but from thousands of miles away, grown by a migrant recently arrived
(b) Food was transported by railways recently built and ships manned by low-paid workers from southern Europe, Asia, Africa
(c) Forests were converted into large farms, leading to ecological changes
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.10. Indentured labour means :
(a) Labour, which is marked by identification marks on their bodies
(b) A bonded labourer, under contract to work for a specific time for his employer, to pay off his passage to a new country or home
(c) A slave brought in a share market
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) A bonded labourer, under contract to work for a specific time for his employer, to pay off his passage to a new country or home

Question.11. The example of indentured labour’s migration from India illustrates :
(a) The two-sided nature of the 19th century world
(b) A world of faster economic growth as well as great misery, higher income for some and poverty for others
(c) Technological advances in some areas, new forms of coercion in others
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.12. In the 19th century hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on :
(a) Farms all around the world
(b) In factories, in Africa
(c) In mines, plantations, road and railway construction projects around the world
(d) In the diamond and gold mines of South America
Ans. (c) In mines, plantations, road and railway construction projects around the world

Question.13. Indian nationalist leaders began opposing the system of indentured labour migration from the 1900s because :
(a) They considered it abusive, cruel and a new form of slavery
(b) Indian indentured workers were considered “coolies” in the Caribbean
(c) The minority migrants were given few legal rights, and their living and working conditions were harsh
(d) All the above.
Ans. (a) They considered it abusive, cruel and a new form of slavery

Question.14. Name one Nobel Prize winning writer who was a descendant of indentured labour migrants :
(a) Shivnaraine Chander Paul
(b) Ramnaresh Sarwan
(c) V.S. Naipaul
(d) Ram Narain Tewary
Ans. (c) V.S. Naipaul

Question.15. Indentured labour system was abolished in India in :
(a) 1900
(b) 1920
(c) 1921
(d) 1922
Ans. (c) 1921

Question.16. The reasons why the inflow of fine Indian cotton into Britain and other countries declined in the 19th century were :
(a) Industrialisation and expansion of cotton manufacture in Britain
(b) Imposition of tariff on cloth imported into Britain to protect local industries
(c) British manufacturers began to seek overseas markets for their cloth, Indians faced stiff competition in international markets
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.17. Which Indian town is shown in the picture and why ?
(a) Mumbai, it was a big industrial city in India
(b) Kolkata, a distant view with the river in background
(c) A distant view of Surat and its river— in the 17th and early 18th centuries, it was the centre of overseas trade in western Indian ocean.
(d) Goa, a seaport, which traded with other countries
Ans. (c) A distant view of Surat and its river— in the 17th and early 18th centuries, it was the centre of overseas trade in western Indian ocean.

Question.18. The British ‘trade surplus’ with India in the 19th century helped Britain :
(a) To balance its trade deficits with other countries
(b) It helped to pay home charges that included private remittances by British officials and traders
(c) Britain could pay interest payments on India’s external debts and pensions of British officials in India
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.19. The foods introduced in Europe after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent, later known as America, were :
(a) Spaghetti and noodles
(b) Potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies and sweet potatoes
(c) Pasta and potatoes
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies and sweet potatoes

Question.20. The Europeans brought to Africa a devastating disease which destroyed :
(a) Rinderpest, a disease carried by infected cattle, imported from British Asia to feed Italian soldiers
(b) 90 percent of cattle in Africa by 1897
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.21. The Second World War was fought between :
(a) America and Europe
(b) USA & England and Germany & Japan
(c) The Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the US) and the Axis powers (Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy)
(d) The USA, England and France and Germany and Italy
Ans. (c) The Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the US) and the Axis powers (Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy)

Question.22. From whom could a humble Indian peasant borrow capital for growing food and other crops for the world market?
(a) From Indian bankers like Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattu Kotai
(b) From traders and moneylenders like Hyderabadi Sindhis, who followed European colonisers into Africa
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.23. Which of the following statements support the view that the Second World War was unlike other wars?
(a) More civilians than soldiers died from war-related causes
(b) Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardments and artillery attacks 
(c) Most of the deaths took place outside the battlefields
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.24. Post-war reconstruction was shaped by two crucial influences. They were :
(a) The US emerged as the dominant economic, political and military power in the western world
(b) The capitalist world collapsed
(c) The Soviet Union emerged as a world power
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)

Question.25. The dramatic change in global agricultural economy occurred in West Punjab, India. The similarity was :
(a) Building of irrigation canals to transform semi-deserts into fertile agricultural lands for growing wheat and cotton for export
(b) Peasants from other parts of Punjab were settled in these canal colonies
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Importing labour from southern India
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.26. Trade in meat is chosen as an example of the role of technology in global agricultural economy because :
(a) technology promoted better living conditions at home and support for imperialism abroad
(b) frozen meat transported to Europe reduced the cost of shipping meat and made it affordable for the poor
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Live animals were shipped from America to Europe, then slaughtered on arrival, this led to meat being unfit to be eaten.
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.27. The decision-making in the IMF and the World Bank is controlled by :
(a) All the member-nations of these two banks
(b) Western industrial powers and the US’s right to veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions
(c) The Asian-African bloc
(d) A majority vote by all the nations
Ans. (b) Western industrial powers and the US’s right to veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions

Question.28. Which of the following statements is true about the international monetary system?
(a) A system which links national currencies and monetary system
(b) A system based on fixed exchange rates, for example, Indian rupee was pegged to the dollar at a fixed rate
(c) The dollar was anchored to gold at a fixed price of $ 35 per ounce of gold
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.29. The European colonies in Asia and Africa after Independence faced the problems of :
(a) Overpopulation and illiteracy
(b) Burden of overwhelming poverty and a lack of resources
(c) The economic and social handicaps of long periods of colonial rule
(d) Dependence on the colonial powers for economic growth
Ans. (b) Burden of overwhelming poverty and a lack of resources

Question.30. The IMF and the World Bank shifted their attention in the late 1950s towards the developing countries, because
(a) They wanted to dominate the economy of the developing nations.
(b) Europe and Japan had rapidly rebuilt their economies and did not need the help of IMF and World Bank
(c) The developing countries needed their help to fight (poverty and lack of resources)
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.31. The Group of 77 or G – 77 was :
(a) A group formed by western nations to exploit the developing nations
(b) A group formed by the developing countries to demand a new international economic order
(c) A protest against the western economic policies
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) A group formed by the developing countries to demand a new international economic order

Question.32. Through the NIEO, the developing countries demanded :
(a) A system that would give them real control over their natural resources
(b) More development assistance and fairer prices for raw materials
(c) Better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.33. MNCs are :
(a) Foreign companies that flourish in the developing countries
(b) Multinational corporations (or large companies) that operate in several countries at the same time
(c) Large companies that try to exploit small companies
(d) West European and Japanese companies which exploit the developing countries
Ans. (b) Multinational corporations (or large companies) that operate in several countries at the same time

Question.34. The worldwide spread of the MNCs in the 1950s and 1960s was partly due to :
(a) US businesses expanded in these years
(b) Western Europe and Japan became powerful industrial economies
(c) High import tariffs imposed by different governments forced the MNCs to locate their manufacturing operations and become domestic operators in many countries
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) High import tariffs imposed by different governments forced the MNCs to locate their manufacturing operations and become domestic operators in many countries

Question.35. Which of the following statements are reasons for the collapse of the system of fixed exchange rate in the 1960s?
(a) The rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the US finances and competitive strength
(b) The US dollar no longer commanded confidence as the world’s principal currency
(c) The US dollar could not maintain its value in relation to gold
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.36. Tariff means
(a) Any kind of tax on any product
(b) Tax imposed on a country’s imports levied at the point of entry, i.e., border or airport
(c) A tax imposed on income
(d) A tax imposed on exports
Ans. (b) Tax imposed on a country’s imports levied at the point of entry, i.e., border or airport

Question.37. The Second World War was a war fought for ___________ .
(a) 8 years, from 1930–1938
(b) 6 years, from 1939–1945
(c) 5 years, from 1939–1944
(d) 10 years, from 1939–1949
Ans. (b) 6 years, from 1939–1945

Question.38. Why did MNCs begin to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries in the late 1970s?
(a) The industrial world was hit by unemployment from the mid-1970s to the early 1990s
(b) Low wages in countries like China reduced the cost of investments and made it easy for the MNCs to capture world markets
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) New economic policies in China and collapse of the Soviet Union
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.39. “Bretton Woods” is associated with
(a) a post-war international system to preserve economic stability
(b) A United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (held in July 1944, in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire)
(c) A peace settlement after the Second World War
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.40. The ‘Bretton Woods’ twins are :
(a) The USA and Soviet Russia
(b) The two international banks — The IMF and the World Bank – set up to finance post-war reconstruction
(c) The framework agreed upon by the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) The two international banks — The IMF and the World Bank – set up to finance post-war reconstruction

Question.41. What is Rinderpest?
(a) a person
(b) a disease
(c) a place
(d) monument
Ans. (b) a disease

Question.42. Who made the best-cost cutting decision?
(a) Henry Ford
(b) James Watt
(c) James Ford
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) Henry Ford

Question.43. Which among the following were considered as Allies Powers?
(a) Britain, France, Russia
(b) Germany, Austria – Hungary and Ottomon Turk
(c) Japan, France and Germany
(d) Britain, Japan and Russia
Ans. (a) Britain, France, Russia

Question.44. Which one of the following institutions was established in the Bretton Wood Conference?
(a) International Security Fund
(b) International Monetary Fund
(c) Indian Monetary Fund
(d) International Labour Organisation
Ans. (b) International Monetary Fund

Question.45. Who adopted the concept of an assembly line to produce automobiles?
(a) T. Cuppola
(b) V. S. Naipaul
(c) Henry Ford
(d) Ramesh Sarwan
Ans. (c) Henry Ford

Question.46. Which among the following countries were considered as Axis Powers during Second World War?
(a) Nazi Germany, Japan, Italy
(b) Britain, Germany, Russia
(c) France, Germany, Italy
(d) Britain, France, Russia and the US
Ans. (a) Nazi Germany, Japan, Italy

Question.47. Which one of the following did not travel along the silk routes in the pre-modern world?
(a) Christian missionaries
(b) Traders
(c) Tourists
(d) Muslim preachers
Ans. (c) Tourists

Question.48. Which one of the following is a Nobel Prize winning writer who is a descendant of indentured labour from India?
(a) Salman Rushdie
(b) V. S. Naipaul
(c) Arundhati Roy
(d) Bob Marley
Ans. (b) V. S. Naipaul

Question.49. Which of the following West Indies cricketers trace their roots to indentured labour migrants from India?
(a) Vivian Richards and Gary Sobers
(b) Chris Gayle and Dwayne Bravo
(c) Ramnaresh Sarwan and Shivnaraine Chanderpaul
(d) Brian Lara and Courtney Walsh
Ans. (c) Ramnaresh Sarwan and Shivnaraine Chanderpaul

Question.50. What is El Dorado in South America?
(a) It was the place where Columbus landed
(b) Where silver mines were located
(c) A fabled city of gold
(d) A famous slave market
Ans. (c) A fabled city of gold

Question.51. Which of the following statements is not true of mass production?
(a) Lowered cost and prices of goods
(b) Stress-free working
(c) Increased output per worker
(d) Assembly line production
Ans. (b) Stress-free working

Question.52. The introduction of which of the following crops led to European poor to eat better and live longer?
(a) Potato
(b) Spaghetti
(c) Tomatoes
(d) Soya
Ans. (a) Potato

Question.53. Nineteenth century ‘indenture’ has often been described as
(a) forced conscription
(b) new system of slavery
(c) serfdom
(d) None of these
Ans. (b) new system of slavery

Question.54. In which one of the following cities did the European powers meet in 1885 to divide Africa between themselves?
(a) London
(b) New York
(c) Berlin
(d) Amsterdam
Ans. (c) Berlin

Question.55. Which one of the following countries has an effective right of veto over IMF and World Bank?
(a) India
(b) the USA
(c) Srilanka
(d) Japan
Ans. (b) the USA

Question.56. ‘Silk Route’ refers to
(a) Network of routes connecting China and Rome
(b) Network of routes connecting India and Rome
(c) Network of routes connecting China and India
(d) Network of routes connecting Asia with Europe and Northern Africa
Ans. (d) Network of routes connecting Asia with Europe and Northern Africa

Question.57. Most Indian indentured workers came from present regions of
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Bihar
(c) Dry districts of Tamil Nadu
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.58. Which of the following allowed the British Government to restrict the import of corn?
(a) Food Act
(b) Corn Act
(c) Corn Laws
(d) Import Act
Ans. (c) Corn Laws

Question.59. Which of the following was the most powerful weapon used by Spanish to conquer America?
(a) Atom Bomb
(b) Navy
(c) Germs
(d) Poisonous gas
Ans. (c) Germs

Question.60. From which century China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation?
(a) 14th
(b) 15th
(c) 16th
(d) 17th
Ans. (b) 15th

Question.61. From which one of the following countries did Britian borrow large sums of money during first World War?
(a) United States of America
(b) Russia
(c) Japan
(d) Germany
Ans. (a) United States of America

Question.62. What is the name of the routes linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa?
(a) Asian routes
(b) Silk routes
(c) Trade routes
(d) Africa routes
Ans. (b) Silk routes

Question.63. People’s livelihoods and local economy of which one of the following was badly affected by the disease named Rinderpest?
(a) Asia
(b) Europe
(c) Africa
(d) South America
Ans. (c) Africa

Question.64. Who among the following discovered the continent of America?
(a) Vasco da Gama
(b) Ferdinand Magellan
(c) Christopher Columbus
(d) Copernicus
Ans. (c) Christopher Columbus

Question.65. Which one of the following countries passed Corn Laws to restrict the import of corn?
(a) India
(b) France
(c) China
(d) Britain
Ans. (d) Britain

Question.66. Which one of the following crops was not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago?
(a) Potato
(b) Rice
(c) Wheat
(d) Cotton
Ans. (a) Potato

Question.67. Why did the wheat price in India fall down by 50 per cent between 1928 and 1934?
(a) Due to less production
(b) Due to floods
(c) Due to Great Depression
(d) Due to droughts
Ans. (c) Due to Great Depression

Question.68. Which was the main destination of Indian indentured migrants?
(a) Africa
(b) Australia
(c) Trinidad and Guyana
(d) All the above places
Ans. (c) Trinidad and Guyana

Question.69. Which one of the following was the world’s first mass produced car?
(a) ‘T’ model car
(b) Maruti car
(c) BMW car
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) ‘T’ model car

Question.70. The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held at Bretton Woods in (USA) in the year
(a) 1942
(b) 1943
(c) 1944
(d) 1945
Ans. (c) 1944

Question.71. Who among the following was a well-known pioneer of mass production?
(a) Jamshedji Tata
(b) G.D. Birla
(c) Henry Ford
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Henry Ford

Question.72. According to which famous economist, Indian gold exports promoted global economic recovery?
(a) Paul Wood
(b) John Maynard Keynes
(c) Amartya Sen
(d) David Jones
Ans. (b) John Maynard Keynes

Question.73. Which among the following is referred to as the ‘Bretton Woods twins’?
(a) The IMF and the World Bank
(b) The IMF and the WTO
(c) The World Bank and the WTO
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) The IMF and the World Bank

Question.74. In which of the following years Rinderpest arrived in Africa?
(a) 1880
(b) 1882
(c) 1876
(d) 1885
Ans. (a) 1880

Question.75. Which is the third type of movement identified by the economists of 19th century?
(a) Flow of trade
(b) Flow of capital
(c) Flow of labour
(d) Flow of goods
Ans. (b) Flow of capital

Question.76. In which of the following years global agricultural economy had taken shape?
(a) By 1870
(b) By 1888
(c) By 1892
(d) By 1890
Ans. (d) By 1890

Question.77. Which one of the following was experienced during Great Depression of 1929?
(a) Increase in production and income
(b) Increase in employment and trade
(c) Decrease in production and employment
(d) All the above
Ans. (c) Decrease in production and employment

Question.78. What were the “Corn Laws”?
(a) Laws to restrict the export of corn
(b) Laws to restrict the import of corn
(c) Laws to restrict the improt and export of corn
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Laws to restrict the import of corn

Question.79. Which of the following did not take part in the first World War?
(a) France
(b) Germany
(c) Portugal
(d) England
Ans. (c) Portugal

Question.80. ‘Chutney’ music was popular in
(a) Trinidad
(b) Canada
(c) England
(d) Germany
Ans. (a) Trinidad

Question.81. When did the global agricultural economy start?
(a) 1894
(b) 1890
(c) 1892
(d) 1891
Ans. (b) 1890

Question.82. Which of the following diseases proved a deadly killer for the people of America?
(a) Cholera
(b) Small pox
(c) Plague
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Small pox

Question.83. Which of the following powerful weapons was used by the Spanish conquerors to colonise Americas during the mid-seventeenth cuntry?
(a) Conventional military weapons
(b) Modern military weapons
(c) Biological weapons (germs of smallpox)
(d) Nuclear weapons
Ans. (c) Biological weapons (germs of smallpox)

Question.84. In which year did the Great Depression start?
(a) 1928
(b) 1929
(c) 1930
(d) 1936
Ans. (b) 1929

Question.85. Which of the following is the first European country that conquered America?
(a) The French
(b) The English
(c) The Spanish
(d) The Germans
Ans. (c) The Spanish

Question.86. Most Indian indentured workers came from
(a) Eastern U.P.
(b) North-eastern states
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Eastern U.P.

One Word Answers

Q.1. What was the use of cowries during the Indus Valley Civilisation?
Ans. As a form of currency.

Q.2. Which food travelled west from China to be called ‘Spaghetti’?
Ans. Noodles.

Q.3. Which was the Tabled city of gold ?
Ans. El Dorado.

Q.4. Who popularised ‘Pasta’ in fifth century Sicily, an island in Italy ?
Ans. Arab traders.

Q.5. Which areas does the word ‘America’ describe ?
Ans. North and South America and the Caribbean.

Q.6. Who wrote ‘small pox signaled God’s blessing for the colonists’ in May 1634 ?
Ans. John Winthrop.

Q.7. Which disease decimated Irish population ?
Ans. Potato Blight.

Q.8. How many Irish people died of starvation during the Great Potato Famine in 1840s ?
Ans. Around 1,000,000.

Q.9. What kind of ships enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distance ?
Ans. Refrigerated ships.

Q.10. How many people emigrated to America and Australia from Europe in the nineteenth century ?
Ans. 50 million.

Q.11. What were the ‘Corn Laws’ ?
Ans. Laws to restrict the import of corn.

Q.12. What were ‘Canal Colonies’ ?
Ans. Irrigated areas.

Q.13. Who was Henry Morton Stanley ?
Ans. An explorer.

Q.14. Who was sent from the New York Herald to find Livingston, a missionary and explorer of Africa ?
Ans. Sir Henry Morton Stanley.

Q.14. Rinderpest spreaded in Africa through.
Ans. Cattle.

Q.15. Which disease spread like wild fire in Africa in the 1890s ?
Ans. Cattle Plague.

Q.16. When did Rinderpest arrive in Africa ?
Ans. Late 1880s.

Q.17. What did indentured labour mean ?
Ans. Bonded Labour.

Q.18. Which term was used to describe the Indian indentured labour ?
Ans. Coolie.

Q.19. Where were Tamil indentured migrants sent ?
Ans. Ceylon and Malaya.

Q.20. Which event was transformed into riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in Trinidad ?
Ans. Muharram procession.

Q.21. Which religion was popularised by the Jamaican pop star Bob Marley that reflected social and cultural links with Indian migrants to Caribbean ?
Ans. The Protest religion of Rastafarianism.

Q.22. The Chutney music is popular in which countries ?
Ans. Trinidad and Guyana.

Q.23. Who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia ?
Ans. Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars.

Q.24. Which group of traders ventured beyond European colonies?
Ans. Hyderabadi Sindhi traders.

Q.25. Which product was used for dying cloth ?
Ans. Indigo.

Q.26. In what way is the ninteenth century indenture described in recent times ?
Ans. New System of Slavery.

Q.27. A major supplier of wheat in the world market.
Ans. North America.

Q.28. Which Great War transformed US from international debtor to international creditor ?
Ans. The First World War (1914-19).

Q.29. Which country was encumbered with huge external debts after the end of the World War I ?
Ans. Great Britain.

Q.30. Who produced the T-Model Ford car ?
Ans. Henry Ford.

Q.31. The Great Depression began in which year ?
Ans. 1929

Q.32. How much did the US overseas loan amount in the late 1928?
Ans. Over $1 billion.

Q.33. Which famous economist thought that Indian gold exports promoted global economic recovery ?
Ans. Economist John Maynard Keynes.

Q.34. Which descendent of indentured workers was a Nobel Prize winner ?
Ans. V.S. Naipaul.

Q.35. How many people died in the World War-II era ?
Ans. 60 million people.

Q.36. Bretton Woods System was based on which type exchange of rate ?
Ans. Fixed exchange rate.

Q.37. What was the Bretton Woods system ?
Ans. Post war international economic system.

Q.38. What was the main aim of the post-war international economic system ?
Ans. To preserve economic stability.

Q.39. What is IMF ?
Ans. International Monetary Fund.

Q.40. Which bank was set up to finance post-war reconstruction ?
Ans. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank).

Q.41. When did United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference came into being ?
Ans. 1944

Q.42. What is NIEO ?
Ans. New International Economic Order.

Very Short Answers

Question.1. What kind of silk routes have been identified by historians?
Ans. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, interlacing wider regions of Asia and connecting Asia with Europe and Northern Africa.

Question.2. What is El Dorado?
Ans. El Dorado was deemed to be the fabled city of gold.

Question.3. How did dependency on potatoes kill the poorest peasants of Ireland?
Ans. The poor peasants of Ireland became so dependent on potatoes that when potato blight occurred in the mid-1840s, hundreds and thousands of people died of starvation.

Question.4. What enhanced Europe’s wealth for trade in Asia?
Ans. Precious metals mainly silver from mines situated in modern day Peru and Mexico improved Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.

Question.5. What kind of cultural exchanges were made through ‘Silk Route’ ?
Ans. ‘Silk Route’ was a popular network as it was frequented by the Christian missionaries, Muslim and Buddhist preachers.

Question.6. Which common foods were introduced to our ancestors after Columbus discovered America ?
Ans. Potatoes, soya, maize, tomatoes, chillies, groundnuts and sweet potatoes were introduced in Europe and Asia after the discovery of America by Columbus.

Question.7. How did food like ‘Noodles’ travel to various parts of the world and got adopted by different names ?
Ans. The food like ‘Noodles’ travelled west from China to become Spaghetti and Pasta in Italy. It is also believed that Arab traders took pasta to fifth century Sicily, an island in Italy.

Question.8. Why did people migrate from Europe to Australia and America ?
Ans. Due to the increasing demand for food and employment, people from Europe migrated to Australia and America in search for better future prospects.

Question.9. Why did the Big European Powers meet in Berlin in 1885?
Ans. On account of the Partition of Africa, the Big European powers met in Berlin at a conference in 1884-85.

Question.10. How frozen meat reached European market at reduced cost?
Ans. Animals were slaughtered for food in America, Australia or New Zealand and then transported to Europe as frozen meat at reduced cost.

Question.11. How did Rinderpest reach Africa?
Ans. Rinderpest was borne by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers in East Africa.

Question.12. Name some prominent Indians whose descendents were migrant indentured labourers in West Indies?
Ans. Nobel Prize winning writer V.S. Naipaul and West Indies cricketers Shivnarine Chandrapaul and Ramnaresh Sarwan.

Question.13. Why was Britain burdened with huge external debts after World War-I?
Ans. Britain was encumbered with huge external debts as it had to finance war expenditures that Britain had borrowed liberally from the U.S.

Question.14. Who were Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars?
Ans. Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars represented banking and trading groups who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia.

Question.15. Why did thousands of European flee to America?
Ans. Poverty and hunger, population explosion, pernicious diseases and religious conflicts led the European fled to America.

Question.16. What was multilateral settlement system?
Ans. It refers to an economic system by which one country’s deficit with another country is compensated by surplus with a third country.

Question.17. Who forced the government to abolish Corn Laws ?
Ans. Industrialists and urban dwellers compelled the government to abolish Corn Laws.

Question.18. What was Paper Partition ?
Ans. In 1885, the major European powers assembled in Berlin to divide the countries of Africa between them. This event was called Paper Partition.

Question.19. Which important inventions transformed nineteenth century world ?
Ans. The railways, steamships and the telegraph were the significant inventions that transformed the nineteenth century world.

Question.20. What was Rastafarianism ?
Ans. Rastafarianism means a protest religion that reflected social and cultural connections with Indian emigrants in the Caribbean region.

Question.21. Who was indentured labourer ?
Ans. Indentured labourer signifies a ‘bonded labourer’ who obtained contract to work for an employer for a particular period of time.

Question.22. Why were indentured labourer hired from India and China ?
Ans. In the nineteenth century, thousands of Indians and Chinese labourers were hired to work on plantations, mines, and road and railways construction projects as indentured labourers.

Question.23. What was ‘Hosay’ ?
Ans. In Trinidad, the annual procession was converted into a turbulent carnival called Hosay (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and ethnicities participated.

Question.24. What were ‘home charges’ ?
Ans. Home charges included private transfer of money to home by British officials and traders, interest payments on external debts and pensions of British officials in India.

Question.25. How did British manage opium trade with China ?
Ans. British produced opium in India and exported it to China. Based on the money earned through the sale, it financed its tea and other imports from China.

Question.26. Who was the pioneer of the system of mass production in US?
Ans. A remarkable pioneer of the system of mass production in US was the car manufacturer, Henry Ford.

Question.27. How was there a boom in US economy?
Ans. Massive investments in household goods created a cycle of higher employment and incomes and increasing consumption demand, which led to a boom in US economy.

Question.28. What was economic depression?
Ans. The Great Depression started in 1929 that led to a massive decline in production, employment, incomes and trade.

Question.29. What was the impact of economic crisis on US banks ?
Ans. Due to economic crises, the US banks were unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors.

Question.30. How were jute producers of Bengal affected by the economic crisis ?
Ans. Due to economic crisis, the price of raw jute declined by more than 60 per cent as gunny bags exports collapsed.

Question.31. Why did household income decline after World War-I ?
Ans. Most of the men killed and wounded were of working age. These deaths and injuries lessened the robust workforce in
Europe.

Question.32. Why was World War-I called the First Industrial War ?
Ans. It was called the first industrial war because mechanical guns, tanks, aircrafts and chemical weapons were used on a huge scale. These were the products of modern industries.

Question.33. Why did the insolvency of peasants increase during economic crisis in India?
Ans. Indian peasants exhausted their savings, mortgaged lands and sold jewellery and precious metals to meet their expenses.

Question.34. Correct the following statement and rewrite: The Bretton Woods system was based on fluctuated exchange rates.
Ans. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates.

Question.35. Name the two hostile groups of the Second World War.
Ans. Axis Powers : Germany, Italy and Japan.
Allied Powers : France, Britain, USSR, USA, China.

Question.36. What led to the collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates?
Ans. The increasing cost of US’ overseas trade terribly debilitated its finances and competitive strength. This led to the collapse of the fixed exchange rates.

Question.37. Why did toys, television and mobile phones come from China ?
Ans. Due to the low-cost structure of the Chinese economy, toys, television and mobile phones came from China.

Question.38. What is G-77?
Ans. Developing nations integrated themselves into a group called G-77.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What were the ‘Corn Laws’? How was it abolished? OR
What were the Corn Laws? Why were the Corn Laws abolished? What was the result of the abolishing the Laws?
Ans. (i) The laws allowing the British Government to restrict import of corn is known as the “Corn Laws”.
(ii) These laws were abolished because the industrialists and urban dwellers were unhappy with high food prices; as a result of which they forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Result : Food could be imported into Britain at a much cheaper rate.

Question.2. Mention any three effects of the British Government’s decision for the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Ans. (i) Food could be imported into Britain at much cheaper rate than it would be produced within the country.
(ii) British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated and people started migrating to cities or other countries.
(iii) As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. Faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes and therefore more food imports.
(iv) Around the world—in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia—lands were cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand.

Question.3. Describe the effects of abolishing the ‘Corn Laws’. OR
Explain three far reaching effects of the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Ans. (i) Britain began to import food grains from rest of the world. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports.
(ii) Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated.
(iii) Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They started migrating to cities.
(iv) Food prices fell and consumption in Britain rose.
(v) Other countries : Russia, America and Australia sent food grains to meet the British demand.
(vi) They required railways to link the ports.

Question.4. Why did the industrialists and people living in cities of Britain forced the government to abolish Corn Laws in the 18th Century? Give two reasons.
Ans. (i) Population growth from the late 18th century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain pushing up the prices. Under pressure from farmers, the government restricted the import of corn. These laws were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
(ii) On the other hand, the industrialists and people living in cities forced the government to abolish the Corn Laws.

Question.5. What is meant by ‘Trade Surplus’? Why did Britain have a Trade Surplus with India?
Ans. A Trade Surplus is an economic measure of a positive balance of trade, where a country’s exports exceed its imports. Over the 19th century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market. Food grains and raw material exports from India to Britain and the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. Thus, Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India.

Question.6. “Trade flourished and markets expanded in the 19th century, but there was a darker side to process.” Justify the statement.
Ans. (i) In many parts of the world, these developments meant loss of freedom and livelihoods.
(ii) Late 19th century Europeans conquest brought about many destructive economic, social and ecological changes in the colonies.
(iii) In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy.
(iv) The example of indentured labour migration from India illustrates that it was a world of faster economic growth for some and great misery and poverty for others; technological advances in Europe and new forms of coercion in Asia and Africa.

Question.7. “Food offer many examples of long distance cultural exchange.” Justify this statement. OR
In what ways did food items offer scope for long distance cultural exchange? Explain.
Ans. (i) Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled.
(ii) It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
(iii) Arabs traders took pasta to 5th century Sicily, an island now in Italy.
(iv) Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes and so on were not known to our ancestors.

Question.8. Explain the three types of flows within international economy in exchanges. OR
Mention the three types of flows within international economic exchanges during the 19th century.
Ans. (i) Flow of Trade : Trade in goods, e.g., cloth or wheat, giving shape to a global agricultural economy where food no longer came from a nearby village or town, but from thousands of miles away.
(ii) Flow of Labour : The migration of people in search of employment is called ‘Flow of Labour’. Nearly 50 million people emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the 19th century. All over the world some 150 million are estimated to have left their homes, crossed oceans and vast distances over land in search of a better future.
(iii) Flow of Capital Investment : Long-term or short-term Investments over long distances is called flow of capital investment. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London to build railways and other buildings.

Question.9. Explain the three impacts of the First World War on the British economy. OR
Explain the impact of the First World War on the British economy.
Ans. (i) After the war, Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the colonial market.
(ii) To finance war expenditures, Britain had borrowed from the U.S. At the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
(iii) The war had led to a huge increase in demand, production and employment.
(iv) The government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peace time revenues.
(v) These developments led to huge job losses. In 1921, one in every five British worker was out of work.

Question.10. The First World War was a war like no other before. Explain any three features about the war that supports the statement.
Ans. (i) It involved the world’s leading Industrial nations.
(ii) This war was the first modern industrial war. Machine guns, tanks, aircrafts, chemical weapons, were used on a massive scale.
(iii) Most of those who were maimed were men of working age. The scale of death and destruction was great. These deaths and injuries reduced the workforce.
(iv) Industries during the war were restructured to produce war-related products.
(v) The war led to the snapping of economic links between the world’s largest economic powers which were now fighting with each other to pay for them. The war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.

Question.11. Explain the effect of the death of men of working age in Europe because of the First World War?
Ans. (i) Majority of the people killed in the First World War were the men of working age. It reduced able bodied workforce in Europe.
(ii) With fewer members within the family, household incomes declined.
(iii) Women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.

Question.12. Describe three major consequences of Second World War.
Ans. Major consequences of the Second World War are as follows :
(i) Death and destruction were enormous. At least 60 million of the people or about 3 percent of the world’s 1939 population are believed to have been killed directly or indirectly as the result of war.
(ii) Millions more were injured. Unlike in earlier wars, most of these deaths took place outside the battlefield. Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related causes.
(iii) Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks.
(iv) The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social destruction. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Question.13. What attracted the Europeans to Africa? Give any three reasons. OR
A Why were Europeans attracted to Africa in the late 19th century? Mention any three reasons.
Ans. (i) Europeans were attracted due to the resources of land and minerals of Africa.
(ii) They came to Africa to establish plantations and exploit mines.
(iii) African countries were militarily weak and backward. So, it was easy to conquer them.

Question.14. How did Rinderpest become instrumental in subjugating the Africans?
Ans. (i) The loss of 90% of the cattle destroyed African livelihoods.
(ii) Planters, mine owners and colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and forced Africans into the labour market.
(iii) Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Question.15. “19th century indenture had been described as a new system of slavery.” Explain the statement briefly.
Ans. New system of slavery:
(i) Agents tempted the poor people by giving false information about the nature of work, final destinations, living and working conditions, modes of travel, etc.
(ii) Less willing workers were at time forcibly abducted by the agents.
(iii) On arrival at the plantations, when labourers found conditions to be different, many of them escaped into the wilds while others developed new forms of individual and collective self expression.

Question.16. Write any three factors responsible for indentured labour migration from India.
Ans. Factors responsible for indentured labour migration from India :
(i) In the mid-19th century, cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. This affected poor people because they were highly indebted and forced to migrate for work.
(ii) Temptation: As the agents provided false information about final destinations, nature of work and living and working conditions, many poor people were tempted to go and work.
(iii) In order to escape poverty or oppression at home and in villages many migrants agreed to work.

Question.17. State three reasons why Europeans fled to America in the 19th century.
Ans. Europeans fled to America in the 19th century because :
(i) Until the 19th century, power and hunger were common in Europe.
(ii) Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread.
(iii) Religious conflicts were common and religious dissenters were persecuted.
(iv) In America, plantations were growing cotton and sugar for the European market. These plantations were worked on by slaves.

Question.18. How did Henry Ford revolutionize mass production in the U.S. ?
Ans. (i) Henry Ford adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughter house to his new car plant in Detroit.
(ii) The assembly line allowed a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. It forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously.
(iii) This increased their efficiency in the single task and the speed of production too.
(iv) Standing in front of the conveyor belt, no worker could delay the motions or take a break.
(v) In the beginning many workers quit, since they could not cope up with the stress of work.
(vi) Henry Ford doubled their wages and against that, he not only increased the speed of the production time but also banned trade unions from operating in his plants.

Question.19. Give three examples to show that the premodern world changed with the discovery of new sea routes to America.
Ans. Three examples are as follows :
(i) Many common foods, e.g., potatoes, soya, tomatoes, maize, etc., were introduced to Europe from America. These crops made a difference between life and death. The poor began to eat better and live longer in England with the introduction of potatoes.
(ii) Religious dissenters from Europe fled due to the fear of persecution in Europe and migrated to America.
(iii) Slave trade was started. European traders captured slaves in Africa and took them to America where they worked on plantations. Europe became the centre of the world trade.
(iv) Precious metals, e.g., silver from mines located in present day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade.

Question.20. Why did European employers find it difficult to recruit labour in Africa? Give two methods they used to recruit and retain labour.
Ans. (i) The Europeans found it difficult to recruit labour in Africa because of shortage of labour willing to work for wages and due to plenty of land and livestock which were available for Africans.
(ii) Two methods used by the Europeans to recruit and retain labour were :
(a) Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines.
(b) Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land.

Question.21. How did the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world help in the colonization of the Americans?
Ans. (i) America was not conquered and colonized by Europeans with the help of superior fire power alone.
(ii) Germs, such as those of small pox were a helpful to a great extent.
(iii) Americans had no immunity against them as a result of long isolation. Once introduced, the germs spread deep into the continent decimating whole communities and paving way for conquest.

Question.22. What role did technology play in shaping the nineteenth century world?
Ans. (i) Important inventions such as railways and steamships boosted the economic growth in 19th century.
(ii) Colonization stimulated new investments and improvements in transport.
(iii) Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped to move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.

Question.23. What role did silk route play between Chinese and the Romans?
Ans. The Romans learned about the silk route from the Parthians around 53 B.C.E. They used the word “Seres” or the silk people to refer to the Chinese. Though there was no direct evidence of any Roman merchants or Chinese in both the civilisations, silk was most coveted in Rome. Roman items were popular in China too.

Question.24. What is globalisation? Explain.
Ans. Globalisation is generally associated with economy as the free movement of capital, goods, technology, ideas and people across the globe. Globalisation in a broader sense also includes cultural exchanges between different countries of the world. In modern world, globalisation has acquired special significance due to development of Internet technology and tele-communication.

Question.25. Explain the following:
(i) G-77
(ii) Great Depression of 1929.
Ans. (i) Organisation formed by the former colonies to demand a New International Economic Order.
(ii) It was a period of serious decline in production, employment, income and trade.

Question.26. Explain the role of New International Economic Order (NIEO).
Ans. The Group of 77 or G-77 demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a System that would give them :
(i) Actual control over their natural resources.
(ii) More development assistance.
(iii) Fairer prices for their raw materials.
(iv) Better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Question.27. When was the Bretton Woods conference convened? State the main aim of the conference. OR
Describe the Bretton Woods Agreement.
Ans. (i) The Bretton Wood Conference was convened in July, 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, U.S.A.
(ii) Its main aim was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
(iii) The conference established International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).

Question.28. “The relocation of industry to low-wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flows.” Justify the statement. OR
Why did MNCs begin to shift their production centres to Asian countries? What were its effects?
Ans. (i) MNCs shifted their production units to Asian countries because of cheap labour and low wages.
(ii) Availability of raw materials and a large market.
(iii) Effects : It stimulated world trade and flow of capital. Countries like India, China and Brazil underwent rapid economic transformation. It generated employment opportunities and introduced competition in the domestic markets.

Question.29. ‘China becomes an attraction destination for investment by foreign MNCs in the 19th and 20th centuries.’ Justify the statement.
Ans. China becomes an attraction destination for investment by foreign MNCs in the 19th and 20th centuries because:
(i) Wages were relatively low in countries like China.
(ii) This is because of the low cost structure of the Chinese economy, most importantly its low wages.
(iii) TVs, mobile phones and toys we see in the shops seem to be made in China.

Question.30. “The multinational companies (MNCs) choose China as an alternative location for investment?” Explain the statement.
Ans. (i) Since the revolution in 1949, China gradually came in the field of World economy. It attracted the foreign MNC’s because of its lowest economic structure.
(ii) Wages were relatively low.
(iii) China has the largest population besides labour. They also formed a large consumer base.

Question.31. Elucidate any three factors that led to the Great Depression.
Ans. (i) Agricultural overproduction remained a problem and it was made worse by falling agricultural prices.
(ii) As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a large volume of produce to the market but it pushed down prices.
(iii) In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments through loans from the US, it was extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good.
(iv) But in the first half of the 1920’s, countries that depended crucially on US loan faced an acute crisis.
(v) The withdrawal of the US loans affected the rest of the world in different ways. In Europe, it led to the failure of small major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British Pound Sterling.

Question.32. Mention three reasons for the creation of International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Ans. (i) The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were created to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries.
(ii) When Japan and Europe rapidly rebuilt economies, they became less independent on the IMF and the World Bank.
(iii) Thus, from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions, WB and IMF, began to turn their attention towards newly developing countries.
(iv) The newly independent countries facing problems of poverty came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers.

Question.33. Why did most of the developing countries organise themselves as a group – the Group of 77 (G-77)?
Ans. (i) The developing countries came under the guidance of IMF and World Bank which were dominated by the former colonial powers in order to uplift their economies.
(ii) Former colonial powers exploited the natural resources of developing nations through IMF and World Bank.
(iii) The developing nations organised themselves into G-77 so as to gain real control over their natural resources, to get more development assistance and fairer prices for raw materials.
(iv) They also wanted a better opportunity for their manufactured goods in the markets of developing nations.

Question.34. What steps were taken by the economists and politicians of the world to meet the global economic crisis that arose after the Second World War?
Ans. The steps taken are as follows :
(i) Bretton Woods Conference established IMF to deal with external surplus and deficit of its members.
(ii) The World Bank was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
(iii) Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates.
(iv) Dollar was anchored to gold at a fixed price.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What is the meaning of ‘cultural fusion’? Give two examples how indentured labour system led to cultural fusion. OR
“The indentured labour gave rise to a new culture in the Caribbean islands.” Justify this statement with suitable examples.
Ans. (i) Cultural fusion is a phenomenon which emerges when two or more cultures inter-mingle and produce a new culture.
(ii) Indentured labourers used to live and work in very harsh conditions. This forced them to seek new avenues of comfort and relaxations. This blended different cultural forms.
(iii) Examples,
(a) Hosay: In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.
(b) Chutney Music: ‘Chutney music’ is another creative contemporary expression of the post indentured experience.
(c) Rastafarianism: The protest religion of ‘Rastafarianism’ is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean.

Question.2. Explain any three characteristics of the Silk Routes. OR
Enumerate the importance of Silk Routes.
Ans. (i) The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
(ii) They were spread over land and sea knitting together vast regions of Asia and linking with Europe and Africa.
(iii) They existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the 15th century.
(iv) Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India travelled to Europe.
(v) In return, precious metals, gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
(vi) Buddhism, Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers also travelled through this route to Asia.

Question.3. Define the term “Trade Surplus”. How was the income received from trade surplus with India used by Britain?
Ans. Trade Surplus : It is a situation in which the total value of exports of a nation during the year exceeds the total value of imports.
(i) Over the 19th century, British manufacturers flooded Indian market. Food grains and raw material exports from India to Britain and the rest of world also increased.
(ii) Value of British exports to India were higher than imports from India.
(iii) Britain, as such had “Trade surplus” with India. Britain used this surplus to balance trade deficit with other countries.
(iv) This is how a multilateral settlement system works that allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
(v) India played a crucial role in helping Britain to balance its deficits. Britain’s trade surplus in India helped paying the home charges that included private remittances home by British officials and traders.

Question.4. What were the Corn Laws? Why were these laws abolished? How abolition of the Corn Laws affect the people in England? OR
A What were the ‘Corn Laws’? How did the abolition of ‘Corn Laws’ affect the people of England?
Ans. The Corn Laws were tariffs and restrictions on imported food and grain (“corn”) enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846. These laws were abolished because the industrialists and urban dwellers were unhappy with high food prices; as a result of which they forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Result : The immediate effect of the British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws was the inflow of cheaper agricultural crops from America and Australia. Many English farmers left their profession and migrated to towns and cities. Some went overseas. This indirectly led to global agriculture and rapid urbanisation, a prerequisite of industrial growth.

Question.5. Explain how did the abolition of Corn Laws in Britain led to the emergence of a global agricultural economy?
Ans. (i) With scrapping of the Corn Laws, Britain began to import foodgrains from rest of the world. These products were relatively cheaper than the prices of the British produced goods and foodgrains.
(ii) Britain was forced to import foodgrains from Eastern Europe, America and Australia.
(iii) There were complex changes in labour movement patterns, capital flow, ecology and technology.
(iv) Crops were not grown by a peasant tilling his own land, but by an agricultural worker.
(v) Food came from thousands of miles away.
(vi) Now food and other essential commodities were transported by railways and by ships manned by low paid workers from South Europe, Asia, Africa and Caribbean.

Question.6. What was Rinderpest? How did it adversely affect the lives and fortunes of the Africans? OR
What was Rinderpest? How did Rinderpest change the economy of the African Society? OR
Describe briefly the effects of Rinderpest in Africa in the 1890s.
Ans. Rinderpest was the fast spreading and devastating disease of cattle plague.
Effects of Rinderpest : It affected the Africans in following ways:
(i) Rinderpest moved like forest fire.
(ii) 90% of cattle were killed.
(iii) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. Earlier people rarely worked for a wage. They possessed land and livestock. Due to Rinderpest, they were forced to work for wages and so it affected the economy.
(iv) Colonial government forced the Africans into labour market.

Question.7. Critically examine the expansion of trade facilities in the 19th century.
Ans. Expansion of trade facilities in the 19th century :
(i) In many parts of the world, these developments meant loss of freedom and livelihoods.
(ii) Late 19th century Europeans conquest brought about many destructive economic, social and ecological changes in the colonies.
(iii) In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast spreading disease of cattle plague or Rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy.
(iv) The example of indentured labour migration.
(v) Great misery and poverty for others.
(vi) New forms of coercion in Asia and Africa.

Question.8. “Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand”. Explain the statement in the light of silk route.
Ans. (i) The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
(ii) The name ‘silk routes’ points to the importance of west-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route.
(iii) Precious metals—gold and silver, etc., flowed from Europe to Asia. Chinese potteries, textiles from China and spices from India were traded.
(iv) Various food items offer very good examples of long distance cultural exchanges.
(v) Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers and Buddhist monks travelled through this route.

Question.9. Explain the three types of movement or flows within international economic exchange. Mention any one example of any one type of flow from India and one from England.
Ans. (i) The first movement is the flow of trade of goods.
(ii) The second movement is the flow of people migrating in search of employment.
(iii) The third movement is the flow of capital in terms of short-term and long-term investments done overseas.
(iv) Flow of goods and capital was smoother than the flow of people. All three were benefitted by the exchange of ideas.
India : Migration of indentured labourers; trade of cotton textile.
Europe : Selling of Manchester goods in India.

Question.10. After 19th century, how did the indentured labourers discover their own ways of survival? Explain.
Ans. (i) Initially the indentured labourers found it difficult to adjust to the harsh living conditions of the plantation. But very soon they discovered new ways of survival.
(ii) They developed new forms of individual and collective self expression, blended art, cultural forms, old and new.
(iii) In Trinidad the cultural Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.
(iv) The protest religion ‘Rastafarianism’ is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrates to Caribbean.
(v) Chutney music popular in Trinidad and Guyana is another creative expression of the post indenture experience.

Question.11. Why have the historians described the 19th century indenture as new system slavery? Explain five reasons.
Ans. Indentured labour was described as a new system of slavery because :
(i) Agents tempted the poor people by giving false information about the nature of work, living and working conditions, final destinations modes of travel, etc.
(ii) Less willing workers were at time forcibly abducted by the agents.
(iii) On the plantation, the working conditions were harsh and they had a few legal rights.
(iv) They were beaten or imprisoned for not being able to meet tasks that used to be very heavy or for running away from the job.
(v) Normal medical attention was given to them and wages were deducted in case of absence at work or failure to fulfill the task.

Question.12. What were the main features of the First World War?
Ans. The main features of the First World War are as follows :
(i) The First World War (1914-18) was mainly fought in Europe. But its impact was felt around the world.
(ii) It was fought between two power blocs —the Allies (Britain, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria – Hungary and Ottoman Turkey).
(iii) It lasted for more than four years.
(iv) It was the first modern industrial war as it saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc., on a large scale.
(v) To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and most of them were men of working age.
(vi) During the war, 9 million people were dead and 20 million were injured.
(vii) These death and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
(viii) Industries were restructured to produce war related goods.

Question.13. Describe in brief the economic conditions of the post First World War period.
Ans. Post First World War period economic conditions :
(i) Britain which was world’s leading economy in the pre-war period faced a prolonged crisis.
(ii) Indian and Japanese industries were developed as Britain was occupied with war.
(iii) After the war, it was difficult for Britain to recapture its earlier position in the Indian market.
(iv) Britain was burdened with huge external debts from the US.
(v) Government reduced bloated war expenditure. This led to huge job losses and unemployment.
(vi) Grain prices witnessed a steep fall as wheat supply was disrupted during the First World War.

Question.14. Mention the two key lessons learnt from the inter-war economic experiences by the economists and politicians after the Second World War.
Ans. The two lessons learnt by the economists and politicians during the Second World War were :
First : An industrial society based on mass production needs mass consumption. For mass consumption, steady income was necessary and for stable income, full employment was necessary. For this, the government has to take step to minimise the fluctuation of price, production and employment. Hence, economic stability could be ensured by the government intervention.
Second : The goal of full employment could be achieved only if the government controls the flow of goods, capital and labour.

Question.15. Explain the destruction caused during the Second World War. Mention two crucial influences which shaped post-war reconstruction.
Ans. (i) Unlike earlier wars, most of the deaths took place outside the battlefields.
(ii) More civilians than soldiers died from war.
(iii) Vast parts of Asia and Europe were devastated.
(iv) Cities were destroyed.
(v) There was immense amount of economic devastation.
Two crucial influences :
First : U.S’s emergence as military power in the western world.
Second : Dominance of the Soviet Union.

Question.16. Explain the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the Indian economy. OR
How did the Great Depression of 1929 affect the farmers and the middle classes in India in different ways?
Ans. (i) The impact of the Great Depression in India was felt especially in the agricultural sector.
(ii) As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged.
(iii) The fall in agricultural price led to reduction of farmers’ income and agricultural export. Wheat prices in India fell by 50 percent.
(iv) Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers.
(v) The colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands.
(vi) The government did not decrease their tax and so, many farmers and landlords became more indebted to moneylenders and corrupt officials.
(vii) They used up their savings and sold jewellery and precious metals. The Great Depression helped the urban people especially the fixed income earners.

Question.17. Explain why economy of USA was strong in the early 1920s? Would you agree that the roots of the Great Depression lay in the ‘boom’? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. (i) Mass production became a characteristic feature of industrial production in the USA.
(ii) Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods.
(iii) There was a spurt in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, etc., through hire purchase.
(iv) It was fuelled by a boom in house construction and home ownership, financed once again by loans.
Yes, the roots of the Great Depression lie in this boom because of the overproduction in industrial and agricultural sector.

Question.18. Describe the social and economic effects of the World War on England and USA.
Ans. Social Effects :
(i) Most of the killed and maimed people were of the working age and this affected the work force in England.
(ii) Household income declined and women stepped in to take up jobs.
(iii) Role and position of women changed forever in England.
Economic Effects :
(i) Economic links between some of the major economic powers of the world were snapped.
(ii) England borrowed large sums of money from the US Banks.
(iii) USA emerged as an international creditor.
(iv) USA owned more assets in foreign countries than foreign countries owned in the USA.

Question.19. How did the use of technology transform food availability in Europe? OR
What was the impact of technology on food availability? Explain with the help of examples.
Ans. (i) Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped food to reach more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to markets.
(ii) Earlier the animals were shipped live from America to Europe, many died on the way or became unfit to eat. Thus meat became expensive.
(iii) Refrigerated ships : The animals could be slaughtered at the starting point of America, Australia or New Zealand and transported to Europe as frozen meat.
(iv) This reduced the shipping cost and lowered prices in Europe.
(v) The poor could add variety to their food and it improved their living condition.

Question.20. The 19th century world of faster economic growth still brought misery for many. Explain.
Ans. (i) Hundreds and thousands of Indians and Chinese went to work on plantations, mines, railways, etc.
(ii) Indentured labourers were forced to sign contracts restricting travel to their homes for five years.
(iii) As a result, cottage industry declined and land rents rose. Land and forest were cleared for mines and plantations.
(iv) Increased indebtedness among poor became prevalent.
(v) Living and working conditions for the indentured labour was harsh and with few legal rights.

Question.21. What is G-77? What did the G-77 countries want to gain from New International Economic Order? Describe. OR
What is G-77? What were its demands?
Ans. G-77 or Group of 77 refers to the seventy-seven developing countries that did not benefit from the fast growth western economies experienced in 1950s and 1960s. So, they organized themselves into G-77. They demanded :
(i) A new international economic order that would give them real control over their natural resources.
(ii) More development assistance.
(iii) Fairer prices for raw material and
(iv) Better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Question.22. Explain any five factors that led to the Great Depression of 1929. OR
What do you know about the Great Depression? Write any two causes of it.
Ans. The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid 1930s. During this period, most parts of the world experienced decline in production, employment, incomes and trade. Agricultural regions and communities were the most affected.
Causes of Great Depression:
(i) Post-world war economy of the world was fragile. Agricultural over production was a problem. As prices slumped, farm produce rotted.
(ii) Many countries financed loans from the U.S.
(iii) U.S. overseas lenders panicked at the sign of financial crisis.
(iv) Thus, banks were bankrupt and were forced to close down in Europe and in the US because they were unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors.
(v) American capitalists stopped all loans.

Question.23. Explain the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the United States.
Ans. (i) With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, the US banks also slashed domestic lending and called back loans.
(ii) Farmers were unable to sell their harvests.
(iii) Faced with falling income, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables.
(iv) Industrial production registered a fall of about 35%.
(v) The number of the unemployed started rising, and in 1933, it touched 17 million. As unemployment soared, people trudged long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed.

Question.24. How did the Great Depression of 1929 affect the Indian trade? Explain.
Ans. The Great Depression affected the Indian trade in many ways :
(i) India’s exports and imports were halved between 1928 and 1934.
(ii) As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged.
(iii) Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers.
(iv) Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit.
(v) Town-dwelling land owners and middle-class salaried employees found themselves better off as everything cost less.

Question.25. Discuss the factors that led to the end of Bretton Woods System and the beginning of globalization. OR
Describe any five factors that led to the end of the Bretton Woods System and the beginning of globalization.
Ans. The important reasons behind the end of Bretton Woods system are :
(i) Decline in economic power of the USA.
(ii) Change in the international financial system.
(iii) Unemployment in industrialised countries.
(iv) Shifting of production enterprises.
(v) Changes in China.
Detailed Answer :
(i) Decline in economic power of the USA:
(a) US dollar no longer commanded confidence.
(b) US dollar could not maintain its value in relation to gold.
(c) Collapse of fixed exchange rates on floating exchange rates.
(ii) Change in the international financial: The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were created to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. International financial system changed, and developing countries were forced to borrow from western commercial banks.
(iii) Unemployment in industrialised countries: Industrial world was hit by unemployment. The number of unemployed started rising and people trudged long distances looking for any work they could find.
(iv) Shifting to production enterprises: MNCs shifted their production units to Asian countries because of cheap labour and low wages.
(v) Changes in China: China became an attraction destination for investment by foreign MNCs.

HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)

Question.1. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Ans. (i) The image of Bharat Mata created by Abanindranath Tagore is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Another image of Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephantboth are the symbols of power and authority.
(ii) Germania was the symbol of the German nation. She is depicted as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shine through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. Germania is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Question.2. What were the limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement? Elaborate.
Ans. Limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) Dalit participation was limited. They began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organized the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s proposal and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(ii) Muslim political groups were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was sudden atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

Question.3. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.“ Analyse the reasons.
Ans. The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle:
(i) The industrialists came closer to the Congress, but the workers stayed aloof.
(ii) Congress felt this would alienate industrialists.
(iii) It would divide its anti-imperial forces.
(iv) Civil Disobedience Movement would be weakened.

Question.4. How did the industrialists relate to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Analyse their role
Ans. Industrialists related to Civil-Disobedience Movement :
(i) Indian industrialists had made huge profits during the First World War.
(ii) They became powerful. They wanted to expand their business, they wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(iii) They formed the Indian Industries and Commercial Congress in 1920.
(iv) They formed Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries in 1927.
(v) Purshotamdas, Thakurdas and G.D. Birla attacked colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(vi) They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

Assertion and Reasoning based questions

Mark the option which is most suitable:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question.1. Assertion: The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of Antarctica was decisively under way by the mid-sixteenth century.
Reason: The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
Ans. (d) A is false but R is true.
Explanation: The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was decisively under way by the mid-sixteenth century. The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon but they carried germs of small pox on themselves. Thus, the assertion is false and reason is true.

Question.2. Assertion: The railways, steamships, the telegraph were important inventions which transformed the nineteenth-century world.
Reason: Colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Explanation: Technological advances were often the result of larger, social, political and economic factors, like colonisation. Thus reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.

Question.3. Assertion: ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.
Reason: Some of the Naipaul’s early novels capture their sense of loss and alienation.
Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Explanation: The reason and assertion do not match each other.

Question.4. Assertion: Over the nineteenth century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market.
Reason: The value of Indian exports to Britain was much higher than the value of British imports to India.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation: The value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. Therefore, assertion is true but reason is false.

Question.5. Assertion: The First World War involved the world’s leading industrial nations which harnessed the vast powers of modern industry to inflict the greatest possible destruction of enemies.
Reason: It was the first modern industrial war, which saw the use of robots and satellites on a massive scale.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation: It was the first modern industrial war, which saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. Therefore, assertion is true but reason is false.

Question.6. Assertion: When the supply of wheat was disrupted during the First World War, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically.
Reason: Before the First World War, Asia was a major supplier of wheat in the world market.
Ans. (c) A is true but R is false.
Explanation: Before the First World War, Eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. Thus, the reason is false.

Question.7. Assertion: During the Great Depression, agricultural regions and communities were worst affected.
Reason: The fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that in the prices of industrial goods.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Explanation: The reason explains the assertion.

Question.8. Assertion: There was a collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates and the introduction of a system of floating
exchange rates.
Reason: From the 1960s, the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the US’s finances and competitive strength. It could not command confidence as the world’s principal currency.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Explanation: The reason explains why the system of fixed exchange rates collapsed, and is true.

Case Study Based Questions

Question.1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follows:
The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. The name ‘silk routes’ points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and Northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the fifteenth century. But Chinese pottery also travelled the same route, as did textiles and spices from India and Southeast Asia. In return, precious metals – gold and silver – flowed from Europe to Asia. Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand. Early Christian missionaries almost certainly travelled this route to Asia, as did early Muslim preachers a few centuries later. Much before all this, Buddhism emerged from eastern India and spread in several directions through intersecting points on the silk routes.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) Find out the incorrect statement from the following about the ‘silk route’:

(a) It was a prominent trade route in ancient times.
(b) Silk was the main trading item, that’s why it was called ‘silk route’.
(c) India used this route mainly to export silk to European countries.
(d) There were two silk routes, inland route and maritime.

(ii) Find out the incorrect statement from the following:

(a) A route from India met in Central Asia with the main silk route.
(b) Mainly, cotton and spices were supplied from India through this route.
(c) Silk route was not profitable for India but to China.
(d) Silk was costly and used by elite class in Europe.

(iii) Silk route was never used:

(a) To spread Islam from West Asia to East Asia.
(b) To spread Christianity from Europe to Asia.
(c) To spread Buddhism from East Asia to India.
(d) To explore the knowledge by Chinese travellers.

(iv) Which of the following religion was first to use ‘silk route’ for expansion:

(a) Christianity
(b) Buddhism
(c) Islam
(b) Jainism

Ans.
(i) (c) India used this route mainly to export silk to European countries.
(ii) (c) Silk route was not profitable for India but to China.
(iii) (c) To spread Buddhism from East Asia to India.
(iv) (b) Buddhism.

Question.2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia. Legends spread in seventeenth century Europe about South America’s fabled wealth. Many expeditions set off in search of El Dorado, the fabled city of gold. The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was decisively under way by the mid-sixteenth century. European conquest was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person. Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any European searching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) The silver obtained from Peru was used in India to buy:

(a) Spices and cotton
(b) Arms and ammunitions
(c) To consolidate colonial rule.
(d) Ornaments and jewellery

(ii) Which of the following material was not acquired by European from Americas?

(a) Gold and silver
(b) Forest resources
(c) Vast open land for agriculture.
(d) Human resource for agriculture works.

(iii) Find out the incorrect statement from the following:

(a) Discovery of Americas solved the financial problems of Europeans.
(b) Superior arms and ammunitions played important role in conquering Americas.
(c) Large number of European migrated Americas to do work in agriculture fields.
(d) Americans did not have immunity against the germs carried by Europeans.

(iv) Which of the following is not correct about smallpox?

(a) Smallpox germs reached Americas accidentally.
(b) Germs were intentionally introduced by Europeans.
(c) Americans didn’t have immunity against smallpox.
(d) Smallpox helped Europeans to kill the enemies whom they could not reach.

Ans. (i) (a) Spices and cotton
(ii) (d) Human resource for agriculture works.
(iii) (c) Large number of European migrated Americas to do work in agriculture fields.
(iv) (b) Germs were intentionally introduced by Europeans.

Question.3. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis Powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US). It was a war waged for six years on many fronts, in many places, over land, on sea, in the air. Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, is believed to have been killed, directly or indirectly, as a result of the war. Millions more were injured.
Unlike in earlier wars, most of these deaths took place outside the battlefields. Many more civilians than soldiers died from war related causes. Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult. Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world. The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union. It had made huge sacrifices to defeat Nazi Germany, and transformed itself from a backward agricultural country into a world power during the very years when the capitalist world was trapped in the Great Depression.

(i) Who were the countries directly involved in the Second World War?
(ii) Who trapped the world in the Great Depression?
(iii) What was the duration of the Second World War?

Ans. (i) (a) The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War.
(b) It was fought between the Axis Powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US).
(ii) The capitalists trapped the world in the Great Depression.
(iii) (a) The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War.
(b) It was for six years on many fronts, in many places, over land, on sea, in the air.

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