Extra Questions 9th Civics Chapter 3 : Electoral Politics

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. Who led the ‘Nyaya Yudh’?
(a) Chaudhary Charan Singh
(b) Chaudhary Devi Lal
(c) Ajit Singh
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Chaudhary Devi Lal

Question.2. What was the promise Devi Lal made to the farmers and small businessmen?
(a) He would waive the loans of farmers and small businessmen
(b) He would lessen the rate of interest on their loans
(c) He would modernise agriculture
(d) He would provide free seeds and pesticides to them
Ans. (a) He would waive the loans of farmers and small businessmen

Question.3. Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections are false?
(a) Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government
(b) People elect the representatives of their choice in an election
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary
(d) Elections enable people to indicate which policies they prefer
Ans. (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary

Question.4. Which of these is not a feature of Indian democracy?
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world
(b) India’s Election Commission is very powerful
(c) In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote
(d) In India, the losing parties refuse to accept the electoral verdict
Ans. (d) In India, the losing parties refuse to accept the electoral verdict

Question.5. Which of these choices are made by voters in elections to a representative democracy?
(a) Voters can choose who will make laws for them
(b) They can choose who will form the government
(c) They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.6. Which of these is not a condition of a democratic election?
(a) Everyone is allowed to vote
(b) There are political parties to contest elections
(c) The candidate not preferred by people gets elected
(d) Elections are held at regular intervals
Ans. (c) The candidate not preferred by people gets elected

Question.7. What is meant by the term ‘constituency’?
(a) Place where the copy of constitution is kept
(b) A particular area from where voters elect a representative to the Lok Sabha / Vidhan Sabha
(c) A body of voters
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) A particular area from where voters elect a representative to the Lok Sabha / Vidhan Sabha

Question.8. Which of the options below are the demerits of the electoral competition?
(a) Creates a sense of factionalism
(b) Parties use dirty tricks to win elections
(c) Parties respect each other
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.9. In India, elections for which of these bodies are held after every five years?
(a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha
(c) Vidhan Parishad
(d) Only Lok Sabha
Ans. (b) Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha

Question.10. Elections held after the term of 5 years of Lok Sabha are called
(a) Mid-term elections
(b) General elections
(c) By-elections
(d) Special elections
Ans. (b) General elections

Question.11. What is an election held for only one constituency to fill the vacancy caused due to the death or resignation of a member called?
(a) By-election
(b) Mid-term election
(c) General election
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) By-election

Question.12. Into how many constituencies is the country divided for Lok Sabha elections?
(a) 544
(b) 543
(c) 560
(d) 535
Ans. (b) 543

Question.13. Constituencies called ‘wards’ are made for the election to
(a) Parliament
(b) State Legislative Assembly
(c) State Legislative Council
(d) Panchayats and municipal bodies
Ans. (d) Panchayats and municipal bodies

Question.14. Which of these options is not correct?
(a) In an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not get elected
(b) Resources, education and contacts may be lacking in their case
(c) Influential people may prevent them from winning elections
(d) Influential people help certain weaker sections in winning elections.
Ans. (d) Influential people help certain weaker sections in winning elections.

Question.15. How many seats are reserved in Lok Sabha for the Scheduled Tribes?
(a) 40
(b) 41
(c) 51
(d) 71
Ans. (b) 41

Question.16. How many seats are reserved for women in rural and urban local bodies?
(a) 1/2 of the seats
(b) 1/3 of the seats
(c) 2/3 of the seats
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) 1/3 of the seats

Question.17. Which of these is not a part of the district and local level bodies?
(a) Panchayats
(b) Municipalities
(c) Corporations
(d) Lok Sabha
Ans. (d) Lok Sabha

Question.18. Which of the options given below are applicable to the principle of Universal Adult Franchise?
(a) Only rich and educated can vote
(b) Only men can vote
(c) All citizens aged 18 and above can vote
(d) Only employed people can vote
Ans. (c) All citizens aged 18 and above can vote

Question.19. For voting, the voter has to show which of these as identity proof?
(a) Ration card
(b) Driving license
(c) Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC)
(d) Any of these
Ans. (d) Any of these

Question.20. What is the minimum age required to contest an election to Lok Sabha?
(a) 20 years
(b) 18 years
(c) 25 years
(d) 30 years
Ans. (c) 25 years

Question.21. What are the details the candidates have to give in the legal declaration before contesting the elections?
(a) Serious criminal cases pending against them
(b) Details of assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family
(c) Educational qualification of the candidate
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.22. What is a set of norms and guidelines, which is to be followed by political parties and contesting candidates during the election time, called?
(a) Discipline Roll
(b) Code of Conduct
(c) Conduct rules
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (b) Code of Conduct

Question.23. Which of these is permitted under the Code of Conduct for election campaign?
(a) Use of place of worship for election propaganda
(b) Use of government vehicle for elections
(c) Use of media
(d) Once elections are announced, making any promises of providing public facilities
Ans. (c) Use of media

Question.24. Which candidate is declared elected?
(a) One who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency
(b) One who secures two-third majority
(c) One who secures 1/4 of the total votes cast
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) One who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency

Question.25. Name the body which conducts the elections in India.
(a) Supreme Court
(b) Parliament
(c) Cabinet
(d) Election Commission
Ans. (d) Election Commission

Question.26. How is the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) chosen?
(a) Appointed by the President
(b) Elected by the people
(c) Elected by the MPs
(d) Elected by MPs and MLAs
Ans. (a) Appointed by the President

Question.27. When on election duty, under whose control do the government officers work?
(a) Central Government
(b) Election Commission
(c) District Magistrate
(d) District Court
Ans. (b) Election Commission

Question.28. Which of these powers is/are exercised by the Election Commission to ensure free and fair elections?
(a) Election Commission tightens norms for poll expenses
(b) Election Commission orders repoll in 398 booths
(c) Election Commission appoints new Haryana DGP
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.29. In India, who votes in a larger proportion in the elections?
(a) Poor and illiterate
(b) Rich and privileged
(c) Educated people
(d) Women
Ans. (a) Poor and illiterate

Question.30. What does the term ‘incumbent’ mean?
(a) The current holder of a political office
(b) The candidate contesting the election
(c) The outgoing candidate of the dissolved House
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) The current holder of a political office

Question.31. An electoral malpractice in which a person assumes the identity of another for unlawful purposes is :
(a) Incumbent
(b) Rigging
(c) Impersonation
(d) Turnact
Ans. (c) Impersonation

Question.32. The Election Commission is :
(a) An elected body
(b) An appointed body
(c) An independent body
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.33. Which among the following is not correct?
(a) The Election Commission conducts all elections for the Parliament and Assemblies
(b) The Election Commission directs and controls the preparation of electoral roll
(c) The Election Commission cannot fix the election dates
(d) The Election Commission does scrutiny of nomination papers
Ans. (c) The Election Commission cannot fix the election dates

Question.34. Which of the following is not allowed while carrying out election campaign?
(a) Giving money to voters to cast vote for candidates
(b) Using TV channels
(c) Door to door canvassing
(d) Contacting voters on phone
Ans. (a) Giving money to voters to cast vote for candidates

Question.35. Which of the following statement is incorrect?
(a) All citizens above the age of 21 can vote in an election
(b) Every citizen has the right to vote regardless of caste religion or gender
(c) Some criminals and persons with unsound mind can be denied the right to vote in rare situations
(d) It is the responsibility of the government to get the names of all eligible voters put in the voters list.
Ans. (a) All citizens above the age of 21 can vote in an election

Question.36. ‘‘Save Democracy’’ slogan was given by which of the following political party in 1977 Lok Sabha elections?
(a) Congress Party
(b) Janata Party
(b) Telugu Desam Party
(d) Left Front
Ans. (b) Janata Party

Question.37. What is the age of a person who can contest election for the Lok Sabha in India?
(a) 25 years
(b) 30 years
(c) 35 years
(d) 40 years
Ans. (a) 25 years

Question.38. In our country, elections are conducted by an independent and powerful body which is known as:
(a) Election Commission
(b) Parliament
(c) Judiciary
(d) Lok Sabha
Ans. (a) Election Commission

Question.39. Voter’s List is also known as:
(a) Election Number
(b) Voter Identity Card
(c) Electoral Roll
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) Electoral Roll

Question.40. What is the tenure of the Lok Sabha?
(a) 9 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 5 years
(d) 6 years
Ans. (c) 5 years

Question.41. Which one of the following provisions fails to ensure fair and equal chance to compete to candidates and political parties?
(a) No party or candidate can bribe or threaten voters
(b) No party or candidate is bound by the model code of conduct
(c) No party of candidates can use government resources for election campaign
(d) Nobody can appeal to voters in the name of caste or religion
Ans. (b) No party or candidate is bound by the model code of conduct

Question.42. Which of the following statements is against the democratic process of elections?
(a) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections
(b) Elections must be held regularly immediately after the term is over
(c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only
(d) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner
Ans. (c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only

Question.43. Which state has the largest vidhan sabha in the country?
(a) Maharashtra
(b) U.P. (Uttar Pradesh)
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) West Bengal
Ans. (b) U.P. (Uttar Pradesh)

Question.44. Reserved Constituencies ensures:
(a) Right to equality
(b) Proper representation to all religious groups
(c) Proper representation to the weaker sections of society
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) Proper representation to the weaker sections of society

Question.45. Which of the following has the largest Lok Sabha constituency in India?
(a) Maharashtra
(b) U.P.
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Bihar
Ans. (b) U.P.

Question.46. Who has given the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’?
(a) Indira Gandhi
(b) Rajiv Gandhi
(c) Sonia Gandhi
(d) Pt. Nehru
Ans. (a) Indira Gandhi

Question.47. The number of Lok Sabha constituencies at present is :
(a) 541
(b) 546
(c) 543
(d) 540
Ans. (c) 543

Question.48. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India?
(a) The Chief Justice of India
(b) The Prime Minister of India
(c) The President of India
(d) The people of India
Ans. (c) The President of India

Question.49. Who is responsible for free and fair elections in India?
(a) Prime Minister
(b) President
(c) Election Commissioner
(d) Council of Ministers
Ans. (c) Election Commissioner

Question.50. The number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes in the Lok Sabha is:
(a) 59
(b) 79
(c) 89
(d) 99
Ans. (b) 79

Question.51. Election Commission of India is appointed by:
(a) The Parliament
(b) The Prime Minister
(c) The President of India
(d) The Supreme Court
Ans. (c) The President of India

Question.52. Election Commissioner in India is appointed for a period of:
(a) 4 years
(b) 7 years
(c) 6 years
(d) 5 years
Ans. (c) 6 years

Question.53. What is the Electoral Roll?
(a) The list of those who are eligible to vote
(b) The list of those who are contesting election
(c) The list of those who are not eligible to vote
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) The list of those who are eligible to vote

Question.54. Which of the following does not include election procedure?
(a) Voting
(b) Nomination of candidates
(c) Booth capturing
(d) Canvassing
Ans. (c) Booth capturing

Question.55. When government officers work in election duty, they work under the control of:
(a) The Government
(b) Election Commission
(c) The Parliament
(d) The Judiciary
Ans. (b) Election Commission

Question.56. Which is the new reform introduced in the electroal process by the Election Commission?
(a) Indelible ink
(b) Electronic voting machine
(c) Polling booths
(d) Voters’ list
Ans. (b) Electronic voting machine

Question.57. What is the minimum age of voters in India?
(a) 18 years
(b) 25 years
(c) 21 years
(d) 20 years
Ans. (a) 18 years

Question.58. A ballot paper is a sheet of paper which contains the names of the:
(a) voters
(b) contesting candidates
(c) polling officials
(d) party workers
Ans. (b) contesting candidates

Question.59. A set of norms and guidelines to be followed by political parties and candidates during elections is called:
(a) Constituency
(b) Rigging
(c) Code of conduct
(d) Turnout
Ans. (c) Code of conduct

Question.60. The boundaries of a constituency is decided on the basis of:
(a) population
(b) culture
(c) language
(d) number of villages
Ans. (a) population

Question.61. Which one of the following help to check the quality of the election process?
(a) election campaign
(b) reservation of seats for women
(c) Independent and powerful Election Commission
(d) Nomination of candidates
Ans. (c) Independent and powerful Election Commission

Question.62. Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections is false?
(a) Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government
(b) People select the representatives of their choice in an election
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary
(d) People can indicate which policies they prefer
Ans. (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary

Question.63. The number of ‘Reserved Seats’ for Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the Lok Sabha is according to :
(a) their population share
(b) the decision of the Election Commission
(c) the decision of all political parties
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) their population share

Question.64. Which of these is not a feature of Universal Adult Franchise in India?
(a) Every citizen should have one vote
(b) Each vote should have equal value
(c) Every adult citizen has the right to vote
(d) Every voter should be educated upto primary level
Ans. (d) Every voter should be educated upto primary level

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What are the choices that voters make in an election?
Ans. In an election, the voters make many choices :
(i) They can choose who will make laws for them.
(ii) They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
(iii) They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making.

Question.2. What is the check on the political leaders which makes them serve the people?
Ans. The check on the political leaders comes from the need to serve the people if they want to win the next elections. Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. They know that if they raise issues that people want to be raised, their popularity and chances of victory will increase in the next elections. But if they fail to satisfy the voters with their work, they will not be able to win again.

Question.3. Why is there a provision of reservation of seats in the legislatures?
Ans. The constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against the more influential contestants. So seats are reserved for them in the legislature.

Question.4. Mention the provisions laid down under the Model Code of Conduct to regulate the election campaign.
Ans. According to the Model Code of Conduct, no party can :
(i) Use any place of worship for election propaganda.
(ii) Use government vehicles, aircraft and officials for elections.
(iii) Once elections are announced ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.

Question.5. In which way does the Election Commission enjoy the same kind of independence as the judiciary?
Ans. The Election Commission enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. But once appointed, he is not answerable to the President or the government. Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what the Commission does, it is virtually impossible for it to remove the CEC.

Question.6. What are the trends of popular participation in India?
Ans. The trends of popular participation in India are :
(i) People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. In India the turnout over all these years has either remained stable or gone up.
(ii) In India, the poor illiterate and underprivileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to rich sections.
(iii) Common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections as they feel that through elections they can bring pressure on political parties to adopt policies favouring them.

Question.7. Write about any three challenges which an ordinary citizen would have to face if he wants to contest an election.
Ans. An ordinary citizen would have to face some of the following challenges if he wants to contest the elections :
(i) Candidates with lot of money enjoy a big and unfair advantage over contestants.
(ii) Sometimes candidates with criminal connections push others out of the electoral race and secure a ‘ticket’.
(iii) Some families tend to dominate political parties.

Question.8. Mention any three techniques of election campaign.
Ans. (i) Candidates contact their voters
(ii) They address election meetings
(iii) Use newspapers and TV for publicity

Question.9. Discuss the importance of elections in a democracy.
Ans. Elections give people a chance to choose the representatives the government and policies they prefer. The democratic way of selecting representatives can be had by holding elections. The voters can make their choice.

Question.10. Discuss the importance of an election manifesto.
Ans. An election manifesto is a statement by a political party explaining its policies, saying what they will do if they win the election.

Question.11. What is a reserved constituency? How does it strengthen democracy?
Ans. In a reserved constituency only someone who belongs to the scheduled caste or scheduled tribe community can stand for election. In the Lok Sabha, 79 seats are reserved for SC and 41 for ST Communities. This reservation system makes our democracy a representative democracy.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What are the demerits of political competition?
Ans. The political competition has many demerits –
(i) It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality. Different political parties and leaders often level allegations against one another. Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections.
(ii) This pressure to win electoral fights does not allow sensible long-term policies to be formulated.
(iii) Some good people who wish to serve the country do not enter this area as they do not like to be dragged into unhealthy competition.

Question.2. With reference to ‘electoral constituencies’, state how the elections are held in India.
Ans. For elections, the country is divided into different areas called ‘electoral constituencies’. The voters who live in an area elect one representative. For Lok Sabha elections, the country is divided into 543 constituencies. The representative elected from each constituency is called a Member of Parliament (MP). Similarly, each state is divided into Assembly constituencies. In this case, the elected representative is called the Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA).

Question.3. Why is there no educational qualification prescribed for the political leaders who hold such an important position of governing the country?
Ans. (i) Educational qualifications are not relevant to all kinds of jobs. Just as a cricketer needs an ability to play well, irrespective of educational qualification, similarly the relevant qualification for an MLA or an MP is the ability to understand people’s concerns, problems, and to represent their interests.
(ii) In our country, putting an educational qualification would go against the spirit of democracy as it would mean depriving a majority of the country’s citizens the right to contest elections. For example, if graduation is made a compulsory qualification, then 90 percent of the citizens will become ineligible to contest elections.

Question.4. How can you say that very few Election Commissions in the world have such wide ranging powers as the Election Commission of India?
Ans. (i) Election Commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections.
(ii) It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
(iii) During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials.
(iv) When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the EC and not the government.

Question.5. Explain how the outcome of elections is a final test of free and fair elections.
Ans. (i) The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level. In fact, in every two out of the three elections held so far, the ruling party lost.
(ii) In the US, an incumbent or ‘sitting’ elected representative rarely loses an election. In India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
(iii) Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on ‘buying votes’ and those with known criminal connections often lose elections.

Question.6. What are the main functions of the Election Commission of India?
Ans.

  1. It takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of election.
  2. It implements code of conduct.
  3. It orders guidelines for the government to prevent misuse of power to win elections. It EC feels unfairness in polling it orders a repoll.

Question.7. Explain the term constituency. Give reasons why the system of reserved constituencies was introduced by our constitution makers.
Ans. The country is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These are called ‘constituencies’. The voters who live in an area elect one representative. For Lok Sabha elections the country is divided into 543 constituencies. The representative elected is called an MP. Similarly, each state is divided into a specific number of assembly constituencies. In this case the elected representative is called an MLA. To give protection to the weaker section, the makers of our constitution thought of reserved constituencies. These are reserved for people who belong to SC or ST. The Lok Sabha has 79 reserved seats for SCs and 41 for STs.

Question.8. What are some of the activities undertaken by political parties to carry out election campaign? Mention any three activities.
Ans. In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues, e.g., the Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan of “Gharibi Hatao” in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. “Save Democracy” was the slogan of Janata Party in the Lok Sabha election of 1977. Secondly, political leaders contact their voters, address election meetings, promise to remove the grievances of the people. Thirdly, support of media – TV Channels and newspaper columns – is also taken by the political parties to further their cause to gather more votes.

Question.9. Define elections. Explain the nomination process as practised in Indian elections.
Ans. Every candidate who wishes to contest an election has to fill a nomination form and give some money as deposit. According to recent directive from Supreme Court every candidate has to make a legal declaration giving full details of assets liabilities, educational qualification & details of any serious criminal cases pending against them.

Question.10. Describe any four demerits of electoral competition.
Ans. An electoral competition has many demerits.
(i) It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism.
(ii) Different political parties level allegations against each others.
(iii) Long-term policies cannot be formulated.
(iv) Some good people who wish to serve, do not enter this arena.

Question.11. Explain any four conditions that make an election democratic.
Ans. (i) Every section of citizens should get equal representation.
(ii) Every one should get an equal opportunity to choose representatives.
(iii) Voters’ list which is revised every five year.
(iv) Election Photo-Identity Card.

Question.12. What is a reserved constituency? Why did India introduce this system?
Ans. In a reserved constituency only someone who belongs to the SC/ST or weaker section can stand for election. This was done to give a fair representation to the weaker section who did not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha.

Question.13. Explain any four challenges faced by election system in India.
Ans. (i) A few candidates may win purely on the basis of money money power sun four weans.
(ii) Are peoples preferences based on real knowledge.
(iii) Are the voters getting a real choice.
(iv) Is Election leally level playing field for everyone.

Question.14. Explain any four powers enjoyed by Election Commission in India.
Ans. (i) Election Commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from announcement of elections to declaration of results.
(ii) It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
(iii) During Elections EC can order the government to follow some guidelines to use/misuse governmental power, its chances to win.
(iv) When on election duty, government officials work under control of EC.

Question.15. What is Secret Ballot System? Give three reasons why Secret Ballot System is good.
Ans. A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with party names and symbol are listed.
(i) The voter can vote in secrecies
(ii) The voter feels secure, safe and fearless
(iii) The voter is free of threat and coercion.

Question.16. How does our Election Law regulate campaigns?
Ans. Election campaigns take place to have a free and open discussion about who is a better representative, which party will make a better government or what is a good policy. These campaigns take place for a two week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling. During this period, the candidates contact their voters, political leader address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters.

Question.17. What are the conditions which make an election democratic?
Ans. (i) The presence of an independent and very powerful Election Commission (EC). It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary does.
(ii) The Chief Election Commissioner is not answerable to the President or the government.
(iii) It is virtually impossible to remove the CEC, once he is appointed.
(iv) When election officials come to the opinion that polling was not fair in some booths or even in an entire constituency, they order a repoll.

Question.18. Enumerate any four challenges to free and fair elections.
Ans. (i) Inclusion of false names and exclusion of genuine names in the voters list.
(ii) Misuse of government facilities and officials in ruling party.
(iii) Excessive use of money by rich candidates and big parties.
(iv) Intimidation of voters and rigging on the polling day.

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