Extra Questions 9th Civics Chapter 5 : Democratic Rights

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. What was the reason given by America for imprisoning people at Guantanamo Bay?
(a) They had been caught spying.
(b) They were planning to kill the US President.
(c) They were planning to set up a Communist government in USA.
(d) America considered them as enemies and linked them to the attack on New York on 11th September, 2001.
Ans. (d) America considered them as enemies and linked them to the attack on New York on 11th September, 2001

Question.2. Which body exposed to the world that prisoners at Guantanamo Bay were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws?
(a) United Nations
(b) International Court of Justice
(c) Amnesty International
(d) Supreme Court of USA
Ans. (c) Amnesty International

Question.3. Which of these options is not correct regarding Saudi Arabian political system?
(a) The king selects the executive, legislature and judiciary
(b) Citizens cannot form political parties
(c) There is no freedom of religion
(d) None of the above
Ans. (d) None of the above

Question.4. What is the position of women in Saudi Arabia?
(a) Women are given all the rights
(b) Women are given equal status with men
(c) Women are subjected to many public restrictions
(d) They are offered high positions
Ans. (c) Women are subjected to many public restrictions

Question.5. Of which country was Kosovo a province before its split?
(a) USSR
(b) Yugoslavia
(c) South Africa
(d) Germany
Ans. (b) Yugoslavia

Question.6. What was Milosevic’s attitude towards the Albanians?
(a) His government was hostile to the Kosovo Albanians
(b) He wanted to bring equality between Serbs and Albanians
(c) He wanted Serbs to dominate the Albanians
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)

Question.7. How was the massacre of Albanians finally stopped?
(a) The UN ordered for Milosevic’s arrest
(b) Several countries intervened to stop the massacre
(c) The Serbs turned against Milosevic
(d) Milosevic reformed himself
Ans. (b) Several countries intervened to stop the massacre

Question.8. What was the result of the intervention of other countries to stop the killings of Albanians?
(a) Milosevic lost power and was tried for crimes against humanity
(b) The other countries were punished by UNO for interfering in another country
(c) Led to further army action by Milosevic
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Milosevic lost power and was tried for crimes against humanity

Question.9. What is meant by ‘rights’?
(a) One’s demand to get everything without sharing with others
(b) Claims of a person over other fellow beings, society and the government
(c) Not possessing any freedoms
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Claims of a person over other fellow beings, society and the government

Question.10. Which of these statements about the relationship between democracy and rights is more valid?
(a) Every country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens
(b) Every country that gives rights to its citizens is a democracy
(c) Giving rights is good, but it is not necessary for a democracy
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Every country that gives rights to its citizens is a democracy

Question.11. What can be done in case of infringement of the rights in a democracy?
(a) Citizens are helpless; they cannot do anything
(b) They can approach courts to protect their rights
(c) They can ask their representatives to do the needful
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) They can approach courts to protect their rights

Question.12. The government is responsible for providing free and compulsory education to all the children up to the age of :
(a) 16 years
(b) 12 years
(c) 18 years
(d) 14 years
Ans. (d) 14 years

Question.13. Under which Fundamental Right has the Parliament enacted a law giving the Right to Information to the citizens?
(a) Right to freedom of religion
(b) Right to freedom of thought and expression
(c) Right to freedom of equality
(d) Right to constitutional remedies
Ans. (b) Right to freedom of thought and expression

Question.14. Which of these is/are the new rights guaranteed by the constitution of South Africa for its citizens?
(a) Right to privacy
(b) Right to an environment that is not harmful to the people’s health
(c) Right to have access to adequate housing
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.15. Which of these is not seen as a standard of human rights by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights?
(a) Right to social security and insurance
(b) Right to health
(c) Right to accumulate wealth
(d) Right to adequate standard of living
Ans. (c) Right to accumulate wealth

Question.16. The right to seek the enforcement of all Fundamental Rights is called :
(a) Right against Exploitation
(b) Right to Freedom
(c) Right to Constitutional Remedies
(d) Cultural and Educational Rights
Ans. (c) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Question.17. If our Fundamental Rights are violated, where can we seek the remedy?
(a) Supreme Court or High Courts
(b) Parliament
(c) Election Commission
(d) Council of Ministers
Ans. (a) Supreme Court or High Courts

Question.18. What did Dr. Ambedkar refer to the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’ as?
(a) The brain of our Constitution
(b) The heart and soul of our Constitution
(c) The heart of our Constitution
(d) The soul of our Constitution
Ans. (b) The heart and soul of our Constitution

Question.19. What is meant by the term ‘writ’?
(a) Written laws
(b) A formal document containing an order of the court to the government
(c) Basic features of the Constitution
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) A formal document containing an order of the court to the government

Question.20. Which of the following is not an instance of an exercise of a Fundamental Right?
(a) Workers from Bihar go to Punjab to work on the farms
(b) Parents’ property is inherited by their children
(c) Christian mission sets up a chain of missionary schools
(d) Religion is not taken into consideration during admission in schools
Ans. (b) Parents’ property is inherited by their children

Question.21. When was the NHRC set up?
(a) 1998
(b) 1996
(c) 1993
(d) 2001
Ans. (c) 1993

Question.22. How many Fundamental Rights does the Indian constitution provide?
(a) 7
(b) 6
(c) 5
(d) 8
Ans. (b) 6

Question.23. Which of the following terms is correct for the feature of the Indian constitution stating that no person is above the law?
(a) State of law
(b) Application of law
(c) Rule of law
(d) Governance by law
Ans. (c) Rule of law

Question.24. What does ‘Right to Equality’ say about the public jobs?
(a) Jobs will be provided to all by the government
(b) Jobs will be reserved for the more meritorious students
(c) All citizens will be provided with equal opportunity in matters of employment
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) All citizens will be provided with equal opportunity in matters of employment

Question.25. What does the Constitution say about the practice of untouchability?
(a) It stands abolished
(b) Its practice in any form is punishable by law
(c) Since it is an age-old custom, it should be respected
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.26. Which of these is false regarding the Freedom of Speech and Expression?
(a) Everyone has a right to think differently
(b) One may disagree with a policy of the government
(c) One can use it to incite people against the government
(d) One is free to criticise the government
Ans. (c) One can use it to incite people against the government

Question.27. Which of these rights is/are provided to a person arrested by the government or police?
(a) To be informed of the reasons of his arrest
(b) To be produced before a magistrate within 24 hrs of his arrest
(c) To engage a lawyer for his defence
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.28. One of the forms of exploitation as mentioned in the constitution is ‘traffic’. What does it mean?
(a) Transport system
(b) Buying and selling of human beings
(c) Buying and selling of goods
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Buying and selling of human beings

Question.29. What is meant by ‘begar’?
(a) Practice of begging
(b) Practice of forcing workers to work without any wages
(c) Practice of encouraging workers to work at normal wages
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (b) Practice of forcing workers to work without any wages

Question.30. Laws have been made to prohibit children from working in which of these industries?
(a) Beedi making
(b) Fire crackers and matches
(c) Printing and dyeing
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.31. Which of the following freedom is not available to an Indian citizen?
(a) Freedom to start a movement ot change the government
(b) Freedom to oppose the government
(c) Freedom to participate in armed revolution
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) Freedom to participate in armed revolution

Question.32. Which among the following cannot be challenged in a court?
(a) Directive principles of state policy
(b) Fundamental Rights
(c) Freedom to choose any profession or busines
(d) Right to move freely to any part of the country.
Ans. (b) Fundamental Rights

Question.33. Cultural and Educational Rights are safeguarded mainly for :
(a) Women
(b) minorities
(c) children
(d) Men
Ans. (b) minorities

Question.34. Which of the following is not a Fundamental Right?
(a) Right to Freedom
(b) Right to Vote
(c) Right to Equality
(d) None of these
Ans. (b) Right to Vote

Question.35. Which of the following rights is not available under the fundamental rights?
(a) Right to Equality
(b) Right to Freedom
(b) Right to protect one’s culture
(d) Right to property.
Ans. (d) Right to property

Question.36. India is a secular state. What does the word ‘secular’ mean?
(a) The state gives protection to the Hindu religion
(b) The state allows only the majority to propagate their religion
(c) The state has no religion of its own
(d) None of the above.
Ans. (c) The state has no religion of its own

Question.37. Which one of the following fundamental rights is called the heart and soul of Indian constitution?
(a) Right to equality
(b) Right to constitutional remedies
(c) Right to freedom
(d) Right to freedom of religion
Ans. (b) Right to constitutional remedies

Question.38. Civil Rights are given to the individual by:
(a) Nature
(b) God
(c) The State
(d) The people
Ans. (c) The State

Question.39. The Indian Constitution prescribes Fundamental Rights in :
(a) part III
(b) part VII
(c) part V
(d) part IV
Ans. (a) part III

Question.40. Which one of the following rights is available to the citizens of India and not to the citizens of Saudi Arabia?
(a) The country is ruled by a hereditary king
(b) Citizens cannot form political parties
(c) Women are subjected to many public restrictions
(d) Citizens enjoy the freedom of religion
Ans. (d) Citizens enjoy the freedom of religion

Question.41. Who called the right to constitutional remedies as the heart and soul of the constitution?
(a) J.L. Nehru
(b) B. R. Ambedkar
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Rajendra Prasad
Ans. (b) B. R. Ambedkar

Question.42. The National Human Right Commission is an independent commission, set up by the law in the year :
(a) 1993
(b) 1995
(c) 1999
(d) 2001
Ans. (a) 1993

Question.43. Which of the following Fundamental Rights prohibits traffic in human beings?
(a) Right against exploitation
(b) Right to equality
(c) Right to freedom of religion
(d) Right to freedom
Ans. (a) Right against exploitation

Question.44. Which of these is not a freedom available under the ‘Right to Freedom’ in India?
(a) Freedom of speech and expression
(b) Freedom to incite people to rebel against the government
(c) Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner
(d) Freedom to form associations and unions
Ans. (b) Freedom to incite people to rebel against the government

Question.45. Which among the following is correct regarding PIL?
(a) Public Interest Legislature
(b) Public Interest Litigation
(c) Public Information Litigation
(d) Public Information Legislature
Ans. (b) Public Interest Litigation

Question.46. Which one of the following is not true regarding the Fundamental Rights?
(a) Men and women government employees get the same salary.
(b) Christian missionaries set up a chain of missionary schools
(c) Workers from Uttar Pradesh go to Punjab to work on the farms.
(d) Parents property is inherited by the children.
Ans. (d) Parents property is inherited by the children.

Question.47. Which of the following freedoms is not available to an Indian citizen?
(a) Freedom to criticise the government
(b) Freedom to participate in armed rebellion
(c) Freedom to reside in any part of the country
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Freedom to participate in armed rebellion

Question.48. Which of these is not allowed under the Culture and Educational Right in India?
(a) Every cultural group has the right to protect its language and culture.
(b) Admissions can be denied on the basis of religion and culture in government aided educational organisations set up by cultural groups.
(c) All minority groups have the right to establish educational institutions of their choice.
(d) None of these
Ans. (b) Admissions can be denied on the basis of religion and culture in government aided educational organisations set up by cultural groups.

Question.49. Which one of the following is not a Political Right?
(a) Right to contest election
(b) Right to vote
(c) Right to seek any political office
(d) Right to freedom
Ans. (d) Right to freedom

Question.50. Which of the following practices is against the secular philosophy of the country?
(a) To propagate one’s religion
(b) To change one’s religion
(c) To offer religious instruction in government schools
(d) To practice a religion of choice
Ans. (c) To offer religious instruction in government schools

Question.51. If anyone violates our Fundamental Rights we can directly approach the :
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Supreme Court
(c) President
(d) Vice President
Ans. (b) Supreme Court

Question.52. Which fundamental rights ensures the ban on bonded labour?
(a) Right against exploitation
(b) Right to freedom
(c) Right to constitutional remedies
(d) Right to equality
Ans. (a) Right against exploitation

Question.53. Which of the following was not relevant to the prisoners of Guantanamo Bay?
(a) The governments of their countries were not informed of their arrests
(b) Families and UN representatives were allowed to meet them
(c) There was no proper trial before a magistrate
(d) They were kept in prison even after they were officially declared ‘not guilty’
Ans. (b) Families and UN representatives were allowed to meet them

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What was the background in which ethnic massacre took place in Kosovo?
Ans. Kosovo was a province of Yugosalvia before it split away. In this province the population was overwhelmingly ethnic Albanian. But in the entire country, Serbs were in majority. A narrowminded Serb nationalist, Miloevic, had won the election and became the President of Yugoslavia. His government was very hostile to the Kosovo Albanians. He wanted that ethnic minorities like Albanians should either leave the country or accept the dominance of the Serbs. The massacre was carried out by the army under the direction of the government.

Question.2. Explain what is meant by ‘Rule of Law’.
Ans. Rule of law means equality before the law or equal protection of the laws. It means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person’s status. Rule of law is the foundation of any democracy. It implies that no person is above the law. There cannot be any distinction between a political leader, government official and ordinary citizen.

Question.3. Are the reservations provided to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and OBCs against the Right to Equality? Give reasons.
Ans. These reservations are not against the Right to Equality. In a broader sense, equality does mean giving everyone the same treatments, no matter what they need. Equality means giving everyone an equal opportunity to achieve whatever one is capable of. Sometimes, it is necessary to give job reservations to socially and economically backward sections of the society to ensure equal opportunity. The constitution says that reservations of this kind are not a violation of the Right to Equality.

Question.4. Mention the freedoms provided under the ‘Right to Freedom’. Why are reasonable restrictions imposed on them?
Ans. Under the Right to Freedom, the Indian constitution guarantees six freedoms. These are :
(i) Freedom of speech and expression
(ii) Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms
(iii) Freedom to form associations and unions
(iv) Freedom to move freely throughout the country
(v) Freedom to reside in any part of the country and,
(vi) Freedom to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
Reasonable restrictions are imposed on our freedoms in the larger interest of the society. Freedom should be exercised in such a manner that it does not violate others’ right to freedom.

Question.5. What does the term ‘minority’ refer to under the Cultural and Educational Rights?
Ans. Here minority does not mean only religious minority at the national level. In some places, people speaking a particular language are in majority; people speaking a different language are in a minority. For example, Telugu-speaking people form a majority in Andhra Pradesh but they are a minority in Karnataka. Sikhs constitute a majority in Punjab, but they are a minority
in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

Question.6. What is the role of National Human Rights Commission in securing the human rights? How does it work?
Ans. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) focuses on helping the victims secure their human rights. These include all the rights granted to the citizens by the constitution. For NHRC human rights also include the rights mentioned in the UN-sponsored international treaties that India has signed. The NHRC cannot by itself punish the guilty – that is the responsibility of the courts. The NHRC makes an independent and credible inquiry into any case of violation of human rights. The commission presents its findings and recommendations to the government or intervenes in the court on behalf of the victims. Like any court, it can summon witnesses, question any government official, demand any official paper, visit any prison for inspection or send its own team for on-the-spot inquiry.

Question.7. Give some examples with regard to the expansion of the scope of rights for the citizens.
Ans. Certain rights like right to freedom of press, right to information, and right to education are derived from the Fundamental Rights. Recently school education has become a right for Indian citizens.
Parliament has passed a law giving the right to information to the citizens. Under the direction of the Supreme Court, right to life now includes the right to food. Right to property is not a Fundamental Right but it is a legal right. Right to vote in elections is an important constitutional right.

Question.8. Explain the ‘Right to Equality’ enjoyed by the citizens of India. What is its importance?
Ans. All citizens irrespective of caste, colour, region, religion ethnicity, sex or place of birth are equal before the law. There shall be no discrimination against any citizen. All citizens shall have equal opportunity in matters of employment. This is what the ‘Right to Equality’ means.

Question.9. Describe in detail the cultural and educational rights of the minorities as provided in the Indian constitution.
Ans. The language, culture and religion of minorities need protection otherwise they may get neglected or undermined under the impact of the language, culture and religion of the majority. All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

Question.10. The ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’ is called the heart of the constitution. Explain.
Ans. This ‘Right’ makes other ‘Rights’ effective. If sometimes our rights are violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government, we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the high court of a state. That is why Dr. Ambedkar called it “the heart and soul” of our constitution.

Question.11. “The right to freedom is a cluster of six rights”. Explain.
Ans. The right to freedom is a cluster of six rights. Therefore :
(i) Freedom of speech and expression
(ii) Freedom of assembly in peaceful manner
(iii) To form association and unions
(iv) Move freely through out the country
(v) Reside in any part of the country
(vi) Practice any profession or occupation.

Question.12. Why are the rights guaranteed by the Indian constitution called Fundamental Rights?
Ans. (i) They are fundamental to our life.
(ii) Fundamental Rights put into effect the securing for all citizens equality, liberty and justice as given in the Preamble to our constitution.

Question.13. State any three provisions of the Fundamental Right Against Exploitation.
Ans. (i) The constitution prohibits ‘traffic in human beings’ i.e. selling and buying of human beings.
(ii) It also prohibits forced labour or begar in any form.
(iii) The constitution also prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of fourteen to work in a factory, mine or any hazardous work.

Question.14. Why do we need rights in a democracy?
Ans. Rights are claims of a person over other fellow beings; over the society, and over the government. Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of democracy. Rights protect minorities. Rights are guarantees which can be used when things growing.

Question.15. Write three constitutional provisions for the protection of women and children in India.
Ans. These are : The constitution prohibits
(i) traffic in human beings i.e. selling & buying of human beings specially women for immoral purposes.
(ii) It prohibits forced labour
(iii) It protects children under years of age by prohibiting their employment in any factory, mine or hazardous work.

Question.16. Right to freedom comes with some limitations. Justify with three suitable examples.
Ans. (i) You cannot use your Right to Freedom to incite people to rebel against government or to defame others.
(ii) We can hold meetings but peacefully.
(iii) We cannot carry weapons while participating in a procession or a meeting.

Question.17. Mention any three features of Right to Equality.
Ans. (i) The law apples to all citizens irrespective of his status (The Rule of Law).
(ii) The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, caste ethnicity, sex or place of birth.
(iii) All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters of employment.

Question.18. State the three features of cultural and educational rights.
Ans. (i) Any sections of citizens with a distinct language or culture have a right to conserve it.
(ii) Admission to any educational institution maintained by government or with its aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the ground of religion or language.
(iii) All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

Question.19. Mention any three rights of a detained person.
Ans. (i) A person who is arrested and detained in custody will have to be informed of the reasons for such arrest.
(ii) Such a person shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours of arrest.
(iii) Such a person has the right to consult a lawyer or engage a lawyer for his defence.

Question.20. “Right to constitutional remedies is the heart and soul of the constitution.” Justify.
Ans. This right makes other rights effective when any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court. That is why Dr Ambedkar called it ‘‘the heart and soul of our constitution’’.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Explain the correctness of the following statement, “Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy.”
Ans. It is absolutely correct to say that rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy. Rights are the heart and soul of democracy. In a democracy, every citizen has the right to vote and the right to be elected to government. For democratic elections to take place, it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in political activities.
Rights also perform a very special role in a democracy. They protect minorities from the oppression of the majority. They ensure that interests of the minorities are protected and majority does not act as per its whims and fancies. Rights are guarantees which can be used when things go wrong. Things may go wrong when some citizens may wish to take away the rights of others. Generally, the majority wants to dominate the minority. The government should protect the citizens’ rights in such a situation. Sometimes elected governments may not protect or even attack the rights of their own citizens (as happened in Yugoslavia under Milosevic). Therefore, some basic rights of the citizens are written down in the constitution of most democracies.

Question.2. What is a secular state? In which way does our constitution make India a secular state?
Ans. A secular state is one that does not confer any privilege or favour on any particular religion. It does not punish or discriminate against people on the basis of religion they follow. It implies that the government cannot compel any person to pay any taxes for the promotion or maintenance of a particular religion or religious institution. There shall be no religious instruction in the government educational institutions. In private institutions, no person can be compelled to take part in a religious activity. A secular state is one that does not establish any one religion as official religion. Indian secularism practises an attitude of principled and equal distance from all religions. The Preamble to Indian constitution declares India to be a secular nation. There is no official religion in India. The Indian state is neutral and impartial in dealing with all religions. Right to freedom of religion is a Fundamental Right. Every citizen of India has a right to profess, practise and propagate the religion he/she believes in. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs.

Question.3. State the provisions of the Cultural and Educational Rights. 
Ans. For the simple reason that the working of democracy gives power to the majority, it is the language, culture and religion of minorities that needs special protection. Therefore, the cultural and educational rights of the minorities are specified in the constitution.
(i) Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture has a right to conserve it.
(ii) Admission to any educational institution maintained by government or receiving government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the ground of religion or language.
(iii) All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
(iv) Full compensation has to be paid if the state seeks to acquire the property of a minority educational institution.

Question.4. Explain what is meant by the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’.
Ans. Rights guaranteed by the constitution are useless if there are no special provisions to guarantee them. The Fundamental Rights in the constitution are enforceable. We have the right to seek the enforcement of these rights by moving to the High Courts or the Supreme Court. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies which is provided by Article 32 of the constitution.
This itself is a Fundamental Right. This right makes other rights effective. It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. When any of the rights are violated we can seek remedy through a court. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a state. Dr. Ambedkar called the Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32) the ‘heart and soul’ of our constitution. There can be no law or action that violates the Fundamental Rights. Such a law can be declared null and void by the Supreme Court.

Question.5. What can a person do in case of the violation of Fundamental Rights? What is PIL and how does it work?
Ans. In case of any violation of Fundamental Right, the aggrieved person can approach the High Court or the Supreme Court for remedy. Moreover any person can go to court against the violation of the Fundamental Right, if it is of social or public interest. It is called the Public Interest Litigation (PIL).
Under this any citizen or group of citizens can approach the Supreme Court or the High Court for the protection of public interest against a particular law or action of the government. One can write to the judges even on a postcard. The court will take up the matter if the judges find it in public interest. Even a newspaper article or report can be treated as a PIL by the court.

Question.6. Mention four new rights which the constitution of South Africa has guaranteed to its citizens.
Ans. The scope of rights has been expanding and new rights are evolving over time. They are the result of the struggle of the people. New rights emerge as societies develop or as new constitutions are made. The constitution of South Africa guarantees its citizens several kinds of new rights.
(i) Right to privacy, so that citizens or their home cannot be searched, their phones cannot be tapped, their communication cannot be opened.
(ii) Right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being.
(iii) Right to have access to adequate housing.
(iv) Right to have access to health care services, sufficient food and water; no one can be refused emergency medical treatment.

Question.7. The Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression does not come without qualifications. Explain.
Ans. Freedom of speech is one of the essential features of any democracy. Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others. You may disagree with a policy of government, you are free to criticise the government. You may publicise your views through pamphlet, magazine or newspaper. However, you cannot use this freedom to instigate
violence against others. You cannot incite people to rebel against the government, nor can you use it to defame others by saying false and mean things that cause damage to a person’s reputation. This is called freedom of speech with qualifications.

Question.8. Discuss the provisions included in the Right against Exploitation
Ans. Once the right to liberty and equality is granted it follows that every citizen has a right to not to be exploited yet the constitution makers thought it was necessary to write down certain clear provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society. The constitution mentions three weaker sections of the society. The constitution mentions three evils and declares these as illegal. First, the constitution prohibits traffic in human beings, i.e., selling and buying of human beings. Secondly, it prohibits ‘‘begar’’ or forced labour in any form. Finally the constitution prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of fourteen to work in a factory or mine.

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