Extra Questions 9th Economics Chapter 1 : The Story of Village Palampur

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. Which of the following is grown in the rainy season?
(a) Jowar and bajra
(b) Wheat
(c) Soyabean
(d) Rice
Ans. (a) Jowar and bajra

Question.2. Which of the following is a Rabi crop?
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Cotton
(d) Jowar and bajra
Ans. (a) Wheat

Question.3. Which of the following is fixed capital?
(a) Tools and machines
(b) Fertilisers and pesticides
(c) Soil
(d) Seeds
Ans. (a) Tools and machines

Question.4. Which of the following is a standard unit of measurement of land?
(a) Bigha
(b) Hectare
(c) Acre
(d) Guintha
Ans. (b) Hectare

Question.5. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is
(a) Rs. 50
(b) Rs. 60
(c) Rs. 70
(d) Rs. 80
Ans. (b) Rs. 60

Question.6. Money in hand is an example of
(a) Human capital
(b) Fixed capital
(c) Working capital
(d) Physical capital
Ans. (c) Working capital

Question.7. HYV seeds stands for
(a) Heavy yielding variety seeds
(b) High yielding variety seeds
(c) Half yielding variety seeds
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) High yielding variety seeds

Question.8. What is the main production activity in Palampur village?
(a) Farming
(b) Animal husbandry
(c) Transport
(d) Small-scale manufacturing
Ans. (a) Farming

Question.9. Multiple cropping means growing
(a) only two crops
(b) only three crops
(c) upto four crops
(d) more than one crop
Ans. (d) more than one crop

Question.10. Land under cultivation (in million hectares) in India in the year 2000 was
(a) 120
(b) 130
(c) 140
(d) 150
Ans. (c) 140

Question.11. Which area in India has a low level of irrigation?
(a) Deccan plateau
(b) Coastal regions
(c) Riverine plains
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (a) Deccan plateau

Question.12. Modern farming methods were tried in India for the first time in
(a) Punjab
(b) Western U.P.
(c) Haryana
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.13. Which of the following is a modern farming method?
(a) Multiple cropping
(b) Use of HYV seeds
(c) Use of chemical fertilisers
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.14. Production of pulses (in million tonnes) in India during 2000-01 was
(a) 10
(b) 11
(c) 14
(d) 12
Ans. (b) 11

Question.15. Which one is a natural resource?
(a) Labour
(b) Raw materials
(c) Mineral
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Mineral

Question.16. High yielding variety seeds (HYV) were introduced to Indian farmers as a result of
(a) White Revolution
(b) Green Revolution
(c) IT Revolution
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Green Revolution

Question.17. Which Kharif crop is used for cattle feed?
(a) Sugarcane
(b) Potato
(c) Jowar and bajra
(d) Wheat
Ans. (c) Jowar and bajra

Question.18. The activities such as small manufacturing, transport, shopkeeping are referred to as
(a) Non-economic activities
(b) Non-farming activities
(c) Non-traditional activities
(d) Non-market activities
Ans. (b) Non-farming activities

Question.19. High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds are developed in
(a) Research institutes
(b) Factories
(c) Krishak Bharati Cooperatives
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Research institutes

Question.20. The concept of White Revolution is associated with
(a) food crops
(b) milk
(c) cotton
(d) pesticides
Ans. (b) milk

Question.21. Who is a person who puts together land, labour and capital?
(a) Moneylender
(b) Entrepreneur
(c) Zamindar
(d) Manager
Ans. (b) Entrepreneur

Question.22. A farmer who works on a piece of 1 hectare of land is treated as
(a) medium farmer
(b) small farmer
(c) large farmer
(d) none of the above
Ans. (b) none of the above

Question.23. Scope of farming activity is limited in Palampur due to
(a) fixed amount of land
(b) lack of irrigation
(c) lack of labour
(d) none of the above
Ans. (a) fixed amount of land

Question.24. What is done to surplus wheat in Palampur?
(a) Sold in the market
(b) Destroyed
(c) Stocked by self
(d) Given in charity
Ans. (a) Sold in the market

Question.25. Consumption of chemical fertilisers is highest in which state of India?
(a) Punjab
(b) Haryana
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Himachal Pardesh
Ans. (a) Punjab

Question.26. People of Palampur sell milk in the near by large village named
(a) Pitampura
(b) Siliguri
(c) Shahpur
(d) Raiganj
Ans. (d) Raiganj

Question.27. Out of the total cultivated areas in the country, how much area is irrigated today :
(a) less than 40%
(b) less than 30%
(c) less than 60%
(d) less than 70%
Ans. (a) less than 40%

Question.28. ‘Operation Flood’ is related to :
(a) control flood
(b) produce fish
(c) milk production
(d) grain production
Ans. (c) milk production

Question.29. Green Revolution is related to :
(a) Milk Production
(b) Grain production
(c) Fish production
(d) none of these
Ans. (d) none of these

Question.30. Where do most of the small farmers borrow money to arrange for the capital in Palampur?
(a) Banks
(b) Co-operative Societies
(c) Village money lenders
(d) Friends and relatives
Ans. (c) Village money lenders

Question.31. Which one among the following is not fixed capital?
(a) Machines
(b) Buildings
(c) Tools
(d) Raw materials
Ans. (d) Raw materials

Question.32. Why do the farmers of Palampur follow multiple cropping? Choose the correct answer.
(a) Because the water consumption is less in this method
(b) Because this method consumes less chemical fertilisers
(c) Because this method doesn’t require fertile soils
(d) Because this method is the most common way of increasing production
Ans. (d) Because this method is the most common way of increasing production

Question.33. Which of the following transformed the system of irrigation in Palampur?
(a) Tubewells
(b) Persian wheel
(c) Rainwater harvesting
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) Tubewells

Question.34. How many families lives in Village Palampur?
(a) 150
(b) 250
(c) 350
(d) 450
Ans. (c) 350

Question.35. Which one among the following is a non-farm activity?
(a) Multiple croppping
(b) Crop rotation
(c) Dairy farming
(d) Modern farming
Ans. (c) Dairy farming

Question.36. Which one of the following is not an effect of the modern farming?
(a) Soil degradation
(b) Deforestation
(c) Decrease in groundwater
(d) Water pollution
Ans. (d) Water pollution

Question.37. Marginal farmers are those :
(a) who use modern methods for farming
(b) who practice crop rotation for farming
(c) who did not have sufficient land for farming
(d) who use modern methods of irrigation
Ans. (c) who did not have sufficient land for farming

Question.38. Working capital stands for :
(a) tools, machines and buildings
(b) raw materials and money in hand
(c) total share capital
(d) fixed deposits in financial institutions
Ans. (b) raw materials and money in hand

Question.39. Which is the most abundant factor of production in India?
(a) Land
(b) Capital
(c) Labour
(d) Tools and machines
Ans. (c) Labour

Question.40. Multiple Cropping refers to :
(a) cultivation of wheat and rice
(b) cultivation of two crops in alternate rows
(c) cultivating more than one crop on the same field each year
(d) cultivating crops and rearing animals on the same farm
Ans. (c) cultivating more than one crop on the same field each year

Question.41. The use of high yields with combinations of HYV (High Yielding Varieties) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. refers to :
(a) modern cropping
(b) mixed cropping
(c) multiple cropping
(d) mega cropping
Ans. (a) modern cropping

Question.42. Which product is sold by Mishri Lal traders in Shahapur
(a) Jaggery
(b) Cotton Textile
(c) Machine Tools
(d) Fertilisers
Ans. (a) Jaggery

Question.43. Finance raised to operate a business is the :
(a) labour
(b) enterprise
(c) land
(d) capital
Ans. (d) capital

Question.44. ‘Bigha’ and Guintha’ are :
(a) the type of village house
(b) the types of Hybrid seeds
(c) the measuring units of grain
(d) the measuring units of land area in village
Ans. (d) the measuring units of land area in village

Question.45. At present, what is the percentage of the people who are engaged in the rural areas in Non-farming activities :
(a) 14%
(b) 24%
(c) 34%
(d) 44%
Ans. (b) 24%

Question.46. Which sector includes Agriculture and Animal Husbandry?
(a) Primary Sector
(b) Secondary Sector
(c) Tertiary Sector
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) Primary Sector

Question.47. Which one of the following terms is used for measuring crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season?
(a) Yield
(b) Productivity
(c) Cultivation
(d) Output
Ans. (a) Yield

Question.48. What percentage of total land area is cultivated by Medium and Large farmers? Choose the correct answer.
(a) 36
(b) 50
(c) 85
(d) 64
Ans. (d) 64

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What was the major impact of electricity on the farmers of Palampur? Explain.
Ans. Electricity reaching in Palampur transformed irrigation system as electric-run tubewells could be used to irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively. Electric tubewell would draw water from well electrically and no manual handling required. Electricity has also facilitated the harvesting of crops with electric harvesters.

Question.2. What is the basic aim of production. What are the essential four requirements for production?
Ans. Basic aim of production was to produce goods and services that we want. Four requirements for production of goods and services were :

  • Land and other natural resources like water, forests, minerals
  • Labour, i.e. people who would do the work. Each worker is providing the labour necessary for production.
  • Third requirement is physical capital, i.e. variety of inputs required at every stage during production
  • Fourth requirement is knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, labour and physical capital and produce an output.

Question.3. What do you mean by working capital? How does it affect the day-to-day activities in farming?
Ans. Raw materials and money in hand is known as working capital. Some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Working capital is related with day-to-day activities in farming like use of seeds, pesticides, insecticides, manure, wages of labour etc. So production in farming is high for more working capital.
Higher working capital would facilitate more purchase of seeds, fertilisers and wages, so higher yield would be there.

Question.4. What do you mean by Rabi crops and Kharif crops? When are they sown and harvested? Give examples also.
Ans. Rabi crops are grown in winter season (between October to December) and harvested in spring season (between mid-late April to mid-late June). Potato, wheat, barley, mustard are Rabi crops.
Kharif crops are sown in rainy season (from July to September) and harvested in autumn season. Examples of Kharif crops are jowar and bajra, sugarcane, cotton, red chillies etc.

Question.5. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method?
Ans. To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. For example, sugarcane is sown along with wheat in winter season as sugarcane is harvested once every year. Modern farming methods are the use of improved methods and techniques to be used in agriculture to increase yield per hectare. Use of HYV seeds, insecticides, pesticides, electric tubewell etc. are modern farming methods.

Question.6. Modern farming methods require the farmers to invest more cash than before. Why? Explain.
Ans. Yes, modern farming methods like use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, electric tubewell for irrigation require higher investment in farming because they carry higher cost than traditional one. HVY seeds need more water and also chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher use of chemicals cause environmental degradation also.

Question.7. What was the major disadvantage associated with HYV seeds? Explain.
Ans. Biggest disadvantage associated with HYV seeds is bigger requirement of water and also chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields are possible only from combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. Chemical fertilisers and pesticides degrade our environment killing necessary bacterias in soil. Poor farmers could not afford HYV seeds due to increased requirement of fertilisers and machinery. New machinery replaced manual labour leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration.

Question.8. What are the various farming and non-farming activities in village Palampur?
Ans. Farming activities : Farming is the main production activity in Palampur. About 75% of the people depend upon farming for their livelihood. They use methods of multiple farming and modern farming techniques for increase in their productivity. Well developed irrigational facilities and use of HYV seeds has improved in production levels of agriculture in Palampur.
Non-farming activities : Non farming activities in Palampur includes dairy farming. Small scale manufacturing units, shop-keeping and transportation activities. Milk is transported to nearby and far of towns. Family members, without hired labours run small manufacturing units with simple techniques shop keeps buy various goods from wholesale markets in cities and sell them in villages. Road transport facilities includes rickshaws, tongs, jeeps, tractors, trucks and bullock carts.

Question.9. What do the scientific reports indicate about the modern farming methods? Mention any three points.

  • Scientific reports indicate that the modern farming methods has overused the natural resource base.
  • Green revolution, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers, has led to loss of soil fertility.
  • Use of ground water with due help of tubewells for irrigation has reduced the level of ground water.
  • Use of chemical fertilisers resulted in loss of soil fertility. Therefore, farmers are forced to use more and more chemical fertilisers to achieve the production levels which in turn raises the cost of production.

Question.10. What are the sources of irrigation in Palampur?
Ans. Palampur holds a well developed system of irrigation. Due to introduction of electricity irrigation system transformed from Persian wheels to electric-run tubewells. Initially, the first few tubewells were installed by the government and then by mid of 1970s the entire cultivated area of 200 hectare was irrigated by privately installed tubewells.

Question.11. Explain any three types of production activities in Palampur.
Ans. (i) Farming at Palampur : Farming is the main activity in village Palampur. Land area available for farming is fixed. Expansion in production is done due to methods of multiple cropping and use of modern farming methods.
(ii) Dairy farming : Dairy is a common activity in many families of Palampur. Many families have cows and buffalos. They feed them on jowar and bajra. They sell milk either in the village or in nearby villages or town.
(iii) Small-scale manufacturing : People at Palampur are engaged in same kind of small scale and cottage industries. Simple techniques of production are used on a small scale. Such small scale units are mostly carried at home or in fields with the help of family members. Sugarcan curshing, carpet Neaving and basket – making activities are carried under such production units.

Question.12. State any three advantages of multiple cropping.
Ans. Advantages of multiple cropping are :
(a) Efficient use of land : Land is not left idle at any time of the year and therefore more efficiently used in the process of production.
(b) Increase of production : It increases the production on a piece of land during the year.
(c) Increase in income : Multiple cropping increases the agricultural income of the country as well as for the farmers.

Question.13. What is Green Revolution? Which crop is benefitted the most due to Green Revolution?
Ans. Green Revolution is a revolution of using modern farming methods for higher yield and achieving the self sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc for producing best results. Wheat is benefitted most due to Green Revolution.

Question.14. What are the problems do form labourers face in terms of employment? Explain any three problems.
Ans. Problems faced by farm labourers are :
(a) Unadequate wages : Government has fixed the minimum wages as Rs 60 day but they donot usually get this amount of money.
(b) Availability of labour : Too much availability of labour forces the labourers to work on lower wages.
(c) Duration of employment : Labourers are sometimes employed on the daily wages and sometimes for the whole year. They do not have surety of job.

Question.15. Explain any three modern farming methods of Agriculture.
Ans. (i) Use of HYV seeds : Use of High Yielding Variety seeds promises larger quantity of production of foodgrains.
(ii) Use of farm machinery : Use of machinery for irrigation, harvesting, threshing etc. improves the quality of work as well as reduces time consumption.
(iii) Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides : Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides ensure the farmers about the better upbringing of crops in quality and quantity.

Question.16. Many factors are responsible for the poor economic condition of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali. Can you explain a few of these factors?
Ans. The factors responsible for poor economic conditions of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali are :
(i) Use of modern farming techniques : Use of modern farming techniques make it difficult for farm labourers to get work. Tractors are used foor ploughing, harvesters for harvesting, threshers for threshing and weedicide for removing weeds. This leaves very less or no work for farm labourers.
(ii) Poorly Paid : Due to heavy competition for work among the farm labourers, people agree to work for lower wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by government is Rs 60 per day but they are generally paid only half of it. This forces them to take loan from local money lenders which put them in the vicious circle of poverty.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Why it is necessary to increase the area under cultivation? Explain.
Ans. (a) Farming – main activity : In Palampur, farming is the main activity as 75% of population earn their living through farming. Unfortunately, not all people engaged in farming have sufficient land for cultivation. So it is necessary to increase area under cultivation.
(b) Use of modern farming methods : Use of HYV seeds, improved methods of irrigation, pesticides, insecticides and chemical fertilisers and new harvesting techniques require larger farming land area of cultivation. In small area, they are not successful and the cost involved is also high.
(c) Land area under cultivation is fixed in Palampur. Since 1960, in Palampur, there has been no expansion in land area. So some of the wastelands in the village had been converted to cultivable land. More alternatives are required of such type.

Question.2. What is the main source of capital for medium and large farmers? How is it different from the small farmers? Explain.
Ans. (a) Surplus wheat selling : Main source of capital for medium and large farmers is supply of surplus wheat in market as they own large area of cultivable land. They retain part of wheat for their own use and sell rest of wheat in market. While for small farmers, no surplus wheat is available so they arrange capital from large farmers or village moneylenders or the traders.
(b) Extra work to landowner or large farmers : In order to get loan from landowner or large farmers they have to pay higher interest rates and also extra work on their fields to repay the loan, while medium and large farmers can devote their full time to their own land.

Question.3. Why modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry? Explain.
Ans. (a) A modern farming method requires higher investment : Use of HYV seeds, pesticides, insecticides, electric tubewells etc. require more initial investment as all are costly affairs.
(b) HYV seeds require more water, chemical fertilisers : HYV seeds would give higher yield only in combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc.
(c) More electricity consumption : Use of electric tubewells, mechanical harvesters require more electricity for their operation to produce better results.

Question.4. What were the main terms on which Savita got a loan from Tejpal Singh? How can Savita be benefitted if she gets a loan from the bank?
Ans. Savita arranged money for capital from a big farmer – Tejpal Singh, who belongs to the same village. Main terms decided to get loan of Rs 3000.
(a) Interest rate of 24%.
(b) Loan given for the period of 4 months.
(c) Extra work to be done by Savita on Tejpal Singh’s field.
(d) Tejpal Singh would give her Rs 35 per day as wages.
These conditions were very tough for a small farmer like Savita but these had to be agreed upon. If she could arrange money from cooperative society or bank she could repay the loan in easy instalments on reasonable interest rate of 16–18% and no need to put extra working hours on other’s land.

Question.5. What was the basic aim of the ‘Green Revolution’ in India? How did it affect the market economy?
Ans. The introduction of HYV seeds and the increased use of fertilisers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution which was associated with increase in production of food grains in India and make India self-sufficient in foodgrains.
Impact of Green Revolution on market economy
(a) Increased production of foodgrains like wheat and rice : Foodgrain yields continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In financial year 1980, almost 75 percent of the total cropped area under wheat was sown with HYV seeds.
(b) Increased income disparities, higher income growth and reduced incidence of poverty : Green revolution has increased income disparities, higher income growth and reduced incidence of poverty.

Question.6. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land. Explain any four points. OR
What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land. Explain with the help of examples. OR
State four steps of optimal utilisation of land.
Ans. Land area under cultivation is fixed. So, the ways of increasing farm produce on the same piece of land are :
(i) Multiple cropping : It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. Under it, more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during the year. Indian farmers should grow atleast two main crops in a year. Some farmers have been growing a third crop also over the past twenty years.
(ii) Green Revolution : It was brought in India in the late 1960s, the use of HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds for increase in production of rice and wheat. It promised to produce much greater amount of grains on a single plant.
(iii) Use of modern technology : By the use of well developed able to cultivate their land with greater efficiency. Farmers use pumpsets for irrigation, threshers for threshing, harvesters for harvesting, tractors for ploughing etc.
(iv) Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides : Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides improves fertility of soil and reduces pest respectively for the particular period of production. This improves the quantity of production.

Question.7. Who provides labour for farming in Palampur? How are they paid for their work?
Ans. After land, labour is the second most necessary factor for production. Small farmers along with the other numbers of their family cultivate their own fields. Thus, they provide the labour required for farming themselves. Medium and large scale farmers hire farm labourers to work on their fields. Farm labourers either engaged from landless families or the families cultivating small piece of land. Farm labourers do not have any right over the crops grown on the land. They are paid in the following ways :
(i) Wages are paid to them in form of cash or kind, i.e., crops.
(ii) Government has set up minimum wages for farm labourers to be Rs 60 per day but unfortunately they do not get this much and are mostly exploited.
(iii) Sometimes poor farm labourers work for meal also.
(iv) Sometimes they are employed on daily basis and sometimes for the whole year. Thus, durations of their employment is not fixed.

Question.8. What are the four requirements for production of goods and services? Explain. OR
What are the four requirements of production? Explain with examples.
Ans. There are four requirements of production of goods and services. These requirements are known as factors of production.
These are :
(i) Land : By land we mean not only the level surface but all gifts of nature which are amenable to human control, such as water, forests, minerals etc.
(ii) Labour : Manpower required to do the work. The mental and physical work done by people in an organisation comes under labour.
(iii) Physical Capital : It means a variety of inputs required at every stage during production. They can be classified as :
(a) Fixed capital : It includes tools, machines and building that can be used for production for many years.
(b) Working capital : Money in land and raw material that has to be used in current products are included in working capital.
(iv) Enterprise : It means need of knowledge and enterprise to put together all other factors of production and ability to sell the produce in the market. This is also called human capital.

Question.9. What is Green Revolution? Explain some of its features.
Ans. Green Revolution is a revolution with farmers using modern methods for higher yields and achieving self sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc for producing best results. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try it in the late 1960s.
Factors responsible for Green Revolution are :
(i) Increase in yield : HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grains on a single plant. As a result, the same piece of land produce for larger quantities of food grains.
(ii) Use of modern technology : Use of modern technology like tractors, harvesters, tubewells etc have made the implementation of green revolution possible in the environment.
(iii) Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides : Unlike traditional fertilisers and manures, use of chemical fertilisers has increased as a requirement with HYV seeds which improves the quality and quantity of the produce.

Question.10. Explain any two positive and two negative effects of Green Revolution. OR
Explain two achievements and two drawbacks of Green Revolution in Indian agriculture.
Ans. Green Revolution was started in the late 1960s with an aim of achieving self sufficiency in the production of grains like wheat and rice.
Two positive effects and achievements of green revolution are :
(i) Increase in productivity of grains : Use of HYV seeds produced much more amount of wheat and rice in comparison to traditional seeds.
(ii) Modernisation of agriculture : HYV seeds required well-developed irrigation, use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Use of farm machinery has also encouraged in the green revolution which resulted in development and modernisaton of agriculture. It also increased the surplus in the field of agriculture.
Two Negative effects and drawbacks of Green Revolution :
(i) Decline in fertility of soil : Too much use of chemical fertilisers resulted in decline of fertility of soil. Farmers have to use more and more chemical fertilisers which increases the lost of production.
(ii) Level of groundwater : Use of groundwater for cultivation with the help of tubwells have caused decline in level of ground water.

Question.11. What are the difficulties faced by small farmers in arranging capital in comparison with medium and large farmers.
Ans. Modern farming methods require a great deal of capital, so the small farmers face more difficulties in arranging capital in comparison with medium and large farmers. Most of the small farmers have to borrow money from for large farmers or the village money lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. This put the small farmers in great distress to repay the loans. Unlike small farmers, medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They sale their good amount of surplus and earn more income. This incomes they utilise in arranging capital for next season of production.

Question.12. Is Palampur a developed village? Explain by presenting four arguments. OR
How can you say that Palampur is a well developed village?
Ans. Palampur is a well developed village. This can be made clear from the following arguments :
(i) Multiple cropping : Farmers of Palampur have adapted multiple cropping. They plant three crops on a year and never leave their land idle.
(ii) Modern facilities of agriculture : They have a well developed system of irrigation. Electricity came early in Palampur. They use modern machinery like tractors, harvesters etc. for farming. Use of HYV seeds and chemical fertilisers is also noticed in Palampur.
(iii) Markets and Education : There are small markets setup in Palampur which have all the daily need commodities available. Kareem is also running computer classes and a good number of students are learning there. High schools and education for women is available here.
(iv) Transportation : People of Palampur have facilities of transporting goods to other towns and village with a good transportation system and well developed roads.

Question.13. What are the various ways through which farmers can get loan? Write their advantages and disadvantages.
Ans. Farmers can get loans through the following ways :
(i) Large farmers or village moneylenders : Most of the small farmers prefer taking loans from large farmers or village moneylenders.
Advantages of taking loans from such sources are :
(a) They are flexible in terms and conditions of repayment and rate of interest.
(b) They know the lenders personally so get loans without collateral security.
Disadvantages :
(a) Rate of interest is very high.
(b) Small farmers are exploited and are trapped in virous circle of poverty.
(ii) Banks and coperative scieties : Although, very few number of small farmers approach banks for loan but they provide them better services.
Advantages of loans from banks and cooperatives :
(a) No exploitation of farmers.
(b) Uniform and nominal rate of interest for all.
Disadvantages :
(a) Needs propr security and have set terms and conditions.

Question.14. Differentiate between fixed capital and working capital. State any four points.
Ans. Both fixed capital and working capital are the parts of physical capital required for production.
(i) Fixed Capital :
(a) It includes fixed factors of production which are used for years.
(b) Tools and machines range from very simple tools such as a farmer’s plough to sophisticated machines such as generators, turbines etc.
(c) It includes tools, machines, buildings etc.
(d) They remain constant for many years of production and increased or decreased only when needed.
(ii) Working Capital :
(a) It includes variable factors of production which are needed to be arranged every time at the time of production.
(b) Whatever money and raw material required for production are included in it.
(c) It is required to be arranged according to the desired production.
(d) They are dynamic depending upon the profits and income of last season.

Question.15. Explain four efforts that can be made to increase non-farming production activities in villages?
Ans. Non-farming production activities should be increased in the village. Unlike farming, non-farm activities required very less land and capital.
(i) Loans can be made available to villagers on low rates of interest so that people with less savings can set up non-farm activities.
(ii) Markets should be made available to sell the goods produced in non-farm activities.
(iii) Development of goods transport, communication system and proper storage of goods should be established to increase the opportunities for non-farm activities in the village.

Question.16. Explain any four non-farming activities in Palampur village.
Ans. Most of the people living in palampur village are involved in production activities. Only 25% of the people working in Palampur village are engaged in activities other than agriculture. Various non-farm activities in Palampur village are :
(a) Dairy : It is a common activity at Palampur village. People feed their buffalos on jowar and bajra and sold their milk in Raiganj village. Two traders from Shahpur town have set up collection cum chilling centres at Raiganj from where the milk is transported to far away towns and cities.
(b) Small scale manufacturing units : People get involved in very simple production methods in their homes only with their family members. They make baskets, pottery etc. small things and sell them in the markets nearby.
Shopkeepers : People get involved in trade, they buy goods from nearby whole sale markets and sell them in the village. They sell wide range of items like sugar, tea, oil, soap etc. They open shops for eatables near bus stands.
Transport : People also get involved in providing transportation services like rickshaws, tongas, jeeps, tractors, trucks, bullok cart, bagey etc. The number of people involved in transport has grown over the last several years.

Question.17. What do you mean by Green Revolution? Why was the initial impact of Green Revolution limited to wheat and only to a few regions?
Ans. Green Revolution is a revolution which started in the late 1960s with an aim of achieving selfsufficiency in the production of grains like wheat and rice. The initial impact of Green Revolution was limited to wheat and only to a few regions because initially only the farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh by out the modern farming method in India. They used tubewells for irrigation and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides in farming. Capital required for using HYV seeds was very high. Therefore small farmers and many backward regions could not use the modern techniques. Results and markets for wheat were better therefore, HYV seeds were utilised more for growing wheat initially. Use of HYV seeds require all other modern techniques of cultivation also therefore for initial time it remained unapproachable in many backward villages and small farmers which work without electricity or own poor farm distribution.

Question.18. What is land? Suggest any three ways to sustain land.
Ans. Land is the levelled surface and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals etc. used for production of goods and services. Excessive use of chemical fertilisers or modern techniques of farming destroys land and all other natural resources.
Land can be sustained through following ways :
(i) Limited use of chemical fertilisers : Chemical fertilisers should be used in a limited number and only as the per the requirement. Excessive use of chemical fertilisers destroys the fertility of land.
(ii) Crop rotation : Crops should be planted in such a way that land gets time of restore its fertility. Different nutrients are required with different lands, therefore planning of multiple cropping should be done in such a way that the land is also able to restore the lost nutrients.
(iii) Waste of chemical fertilisers : Waste of chemical fertilisers or pesticides should not be thrown in the water bodies of village as this will pollute the water.
(iv) Adequate use of ground water : Ground water should be adequately used so that there is minimum wastage of ground water.

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