Extra Questions 9th Economics Chapter 2 : People as Resource

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. Why is literacy rate low among the females?
(a) lack of equal education opportunities
(b) lack of transport facilities
(c) lack of infrastructure
(d) lack of income
Ans. (a) lack of equal education opportunities

Question.2. In which state was the literacy rate highest as per 2001 study?
(a) Kerala
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Bihar
(d) Orissa
Ans. (a) Kerala

Question.3. Which of the following is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children in the age group of 6-14 years?
(a) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
(b) Adult Education Programme
(c) Mid-day meal
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan

Question.4. Market activity refers to production for
(a) exchange
(b) earning income
(c) earning profit
(d) all the above
Ans. (d) all the above

Question.5. Increase in longevity of life is an indicator of
(a) good quality of life
(b) improvement in health sector
(c) better HDI (Human Development Index)
(d) all the above
Ans. (a) good quality of life

Question.6. Self-consumption is
(a) non-production activity
(b) non-market activity
(c) non-economic activity
(d) none of the above
Ans. (b) non-market activity

Question.7. Secondary sector includes
(a) trade
(b) marketing
(c) manufacturing
(d) education
Ans. (c) manufacturing

Question.8. One who can read and write in any language with understanding is termed as
(a) student
(b) adult
(c) child
(d) literate
Ans. (d) literate

Question.9. What is India’s position in scientific and technical manpower in the world?
(a) first
(b) second
(c) third
(d) fourth
Ans. (c) third

Question.10. Investment in human capital is expenditure on
(a) education
(b) training
(c) medical care
(d) all the above
Ans. (d) all the above

Question.11. The scheme for the establishment of residential schools to impart education to talented children from rural areas is
(a) Kendriya Vidyalayas
(b) Navodaya Vidyalayas
(c) Sarvodaya Vidyalayas
(d) None of the aboves
Ans. (b) Navodaya Vidyalayas

Question.12. Services of housewives are included in
(a) national income
(b) domestic income
(c) household income
(d) none of the above
Ans. (d) none of the above

Question.13. Infant mortality rate refers to the death of a child under the age of
(a) 1 year
(b) 2 years
(c) 3 years
(d) 4 years
Ans. (a) 1 year

Question.14. Choose the non-market activities
(i) Vilas sells fish in the village market
(ii) Vilas cooks food for his family
(iii) Sakal works in a private firm
(iv) Sakal looks after his younger brother and sister

(a) (i) & (ii)
(b) (iii) & (iv)
(c) (i) & (iii)
(d) (ii) & (iv)
Ans. (d) (ii) & (iv)

Question.15. Choose the primary sector activities
(i) Forestry
(ii) Poultry farming
(iii) Animal husbandry
(iv) Manufacturing

(a) (i)
(b) (i), (ii), (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii), (iv)
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) (i), (ii), (iii)

Question.16. Tertiary sector provides
(a) services
(b) goods
(c) both goods and services
(d) none of the above
Ans. (a) services

Question.17. Quality of population depends upon
(a) literacy rate
(b) health
(c) skill
(d) all the above
Ans. (d) all the above

Question.18. People as a resource refers to their
(a) educational skills
(b) productive skills
(c) health skills
(d) none of the above
Ans. (b) productive skills

Question.19. Seasonal unemployment is found in
(a) urban areas
(b) rural areas
(c) in remote areas
(d) both in rural and urban areas
Ans. (b) rural areas

Question.20. Bribe taking is an
(a) economic activity
(b) marketing activity
(c) non-economic activity
(d) none of the above
Ans. (c) non-economic activity

Question.21. The persons who are not working by choice are covered under
(a) seasonal unemployment
(b) disguised unemployment
(c) educated unemployment
(d) none of the above
Ans. (d) none of the above

Question.22. Disguised unemployment occurs when the number of persons working on a farm is
(a) only what is required
(b) more than required
(c) less than required
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) more than required

Question.23. If a person in rural areas cannot find jobs during some months of the year, which type of employment is this called?
(a) Structural unemployment
(b) Cyclical unemployment
(c) Seasonal unemployment
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) Seasonal unemployment

Question.24. What is the literacy rate of India as per 2001 census?
(a) 60%
(b) 62%
(c) 65%
(d) 70%
Ans. (c) 65%

Question.25. According to 2001 census, sex-ratio of India is :
(a) 921 females per 1000
(b) 930 females per 1000
(c) 928 females per 1000
(d) 933 females per 1000
Ans. (b) 930 females per 1000

Question.26. Which of the following sectors is related to agriculture, forestry and dairy?
(a) Primary Sector
(b) Tertiary Sector
(c) Secondary Sector
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Primary Sector

Question.27. PHC stands for
(a) Public Health Club
(b) Private Health Club
(c) Primary Health Centre
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) Primary Health Centre

Question.28. In which of the following fields is disguised unemployment found?
(a) Industries
(b) Agriculture
(c) Mining
(d) Fisherise
Ans. (b) Agriculture

Question.29. What is the major aim of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan?
(a) To provide elementary education to women
(b) To provide elementary education to the rural poor
(c) To provide elementary education to all children in the age group 6-14 years
(d) To provide elementary education to the urban poor
Ans. (c) To provide elementary education to all children in the age group 6-14 years

Question.30. Which one of the following is related to the tertiary sector?
(a) Agriculture
(b) Forestry
(c) Mining
(d) Communication
Ans. (d) Communication

Question.31. Which one among the following is the most labour absorbing sector?
(a) Agriculture
(b) Fisheries
(c) Poultry farming
(d) Mining
Ans. (a) Agriculture

Question.32. Which is an economic activity in the following?
(a) Work of Nurse at her home
(b) Work of Doctor at their home
(c) Work of Teacher in the school
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Work of Teacher in the school

Question.33. Which one of the following is considered important to create a ‘virtuous cycle’ by the parents?
(a) To sand their children to the school
(b) To provide goods food to their children
(c) To join their children in corporate schools
(d) To take care of the health and education of their children
Ans. (d) To take care of the health and education of their children

Question.34. Infant mortality rate in 2000 was :
(a) 85
(b) 70
(c) 75
(d) 35
Ans. (c) 75

Question.35. What is the life expectancy in India according to the census of 2000?
(a) 72 years
(b) 53 years
(c) 64 years
(d) 80 years
Ans. (c) 64 years

Question.36. Tenth Plan endeavoured to increase enrolment in higher education from 6% to :
(a) 7%
(b) 9%
(c) 10%
(d) 12%
Ans. (b) 9%

Question.37. Decrease in IMR (Infant Mortality Rate) of a country signifies :
(a) Increase in life expectancy
(b) Increase in GNP
(c) Economic development of a country
(d) Increase in number of colleges in a country
Ans. (a) Increase in life expectancy

Question.38. Strike the odd one out (with reference to population) :
(a) Education
(b) Medical Care
(c) Training
(d) Computers
Ans. (d) Computers

Question.39. The number of females per thousand males refers to :
(a) Sex Ratio
(b) Literacy Rate
(c) Infant Mortality Rate
(d) Birth Rate
Ans. (a) Sex Ratio

Question.40. At Rampur village, in an agricultural field 6 men are required for weeding, but 10 people are doing the work. This kind of employment is known as :
(a) Disguised unemployment
(b) Seasonal unemployment
(c) Rural unemployment
(d) All of these
Ans. (a) Disguised unemployment

Question.41. Which one of the following is not a cause of urban unemployment?
(a) Mass migration from rural to urban areas
(b) Slow rate of economic development
(c) Maladjustment between the demand and supply of labour
(d) Caste system
Ans. (d) Caste system

Question.42. Census refers to :
(a) Total no. of babies born
(b) Official counting of population done after every then years
(c) Total no. of infants that are vaccinated
(d) Recording of Births and Deaths every year
Ans. (b) Official counting of population done after every then years

Question.43. Which one of the following statements is correct with reference to tertiary sector?
(a) In these activities goods are either grown on the earth or dug out from the earth
(b) These activities transform primary goods into some commodities with the help of manual labour or machines
(c) These activities generate services rather than goods
(d) This sector is primarily known as service sector
Ans. (d) This sector is primarily known as service sector

Question.44. When there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care, the population becomes :
(a) Working capital
(b) Human capital
(c) Fixed capital
(d) Capital growth
Ans. (b) Human capital

Question.45. Education contributes towards the growth of a society. It also enhances the :
(a) National income
(b) Cultural richness
(c) Efficiency of governance
(d) All of the above
Ans. (d) All of the above

Question.46. Educated unemployment is partly because of :
(a) slower rate of industrial expansion
(b) improper educational system
(c) both a and b
(d) none of these
Ans. (c) both a and b

Question.47. The workforce population of India includes people from the age group of :
(a) 10-59 years
(b) 15-59 years
(c) 20-59 years
(d) 25-59 years
Ans. (b) 15-59 years

Question.48. Activities like trade, transport, health, banking, insurance etc. are included in the ________ sector.
(a) Secondary
(b) Primary
(c) Manufacturing
(d) Tertiary
Ans. (d) Tertiary

Question.49. In rural India, two types of unemployment exist :
(a) Disguised and optional
(b) Seasonal and undisguised
(c) Seasonal and optional
(d) Seasonal and disguised
Ans. (d) Seasonal and disguised

Question.50. Number of babies born for every 1000 people during a year is called
(a) Death rate
(b) Birth rate
(c) Growth rate
(d) Population increase
Ans. (b) Birth rate

Question.51. In the secondary sector, which is the most labour absorbing unit?
(a) Small scale manufacturing
(b) Medium scale manufacturing
(c) Large scale manufacturing
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) Small scale manufacturing

Question.52. Which one of the following cannot be regarded as building of the human capital in a country?
(a) Spending resources on education
(b) Providing training of industrial workers
(c) Increasing salary of workers
(d) Providing health to all
Ans. (c) Increasing salary of workers

Question.53. Government has set schools in each district called
(a) Army Schools
(b) Navodaya Vidyalayas
(c) Sainik Schools
(d) Missionary Schools
Ans. (b) Navodaya Vidyalayas

Question.54. Number of deaths for every 1000 people in a year is called
(a) Death Rate
(b) Birth Rate
(c) Decrease Rate
(d) Population Decrease
Ans. (a) Death Rate

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Is begging an economic activity?
Ans. No. Begging is a non-economic activity. Two reasons can be given in support of it. One, the beggar receives money without doing anything. Second, begging is an unlawful activity and cannot become an economic activity.

Question.2. Why are domestic services performed by women not treated as economic activities?
Ans. In India, most women generally look after domestic affairs like cooking of food, washing of clothes, cleaning of utensils, looking after children, etc. They are not treated as economic / productive activities. This is mainly because of two reasons :
(i) Such activities are performed out of love and affection and hence their valuation is not possible.
(ii) They do not add to the flow of goods and services in the economy.

Question.3. Are the following activities economic or non-economic activities? Give reasons.
(a) Vilas sells fish in the village market.
(b) Vilas cooks food for his family.
(c) Sakal works in a private firm.
(d) Sakal looks after his younger brother and sister.
Ans. (a) It is an economic activity, as it involves remuneration.
(b) It is a non-economic activity, as it is a domestic service.
(c) It is an economic activity, as it is done in expectation of monetary reward.
(d) It is a non-economic activity, as it is done out of love and affection.

Question.4. Differentiate between Market Activities and Non-Market Activities.
Ans. Economic activities can be classified into market activities and non-market activities. Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs the activity. These include production of goods and services for sale in the market. On the other hand, non-market activities are the production activities performed for self-consumption. These include consumption and processing of primary products and own account production of fixed assets.

Question.5. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary unemployment. Give an example.
Ans. A person is said to be unemployed when he is able and willing to work at the prevailing wage rate but does not find work. This is involuntary unemployment. If some persons are voluntarily unemployed (i.e., they prefer to remain out of work at prevailing wage rates) they will not be treated as unemployed. This is voluntary unemployment.

Question.6. Distinguish between labour force and work force.
Ans. Labour force of a country includes all those persons in the age group of 15-60, who are actually working or willing to work. Workforce, on the other hand, consists of persons who are actually engaged in some kind of work and excludes those who are willing to work but do not find work. Thus, the difference between the two (i.e. labour force and workforce) is the number
of persons unemployed.

Question.7. What is the nature of unemployment as found in India?
Ans. In India, unemployment is widespread. Unemployment is found both in its rural and urban areas. There is seasonal and disguised unemployment in its rural areas. People here are dependent on agriculture. Certain months do not provide much work to the people depending upon agriculture.
In urban areas, educated unemployment has become a serious problem. Many educated youths are not able to find jobs. Unemployment among graduates and post-graduates has increased faster than among the matriculates.

Question.8. ‘Unemployment is an economic as well as a social evil.’ Explain the statement.
Ans. Unemployment — A Serious Problem

  • Today, unemployment is considered one of the most threatening problems before the country.
  • The society is deprived of the goods and services that the unemployed people could have produced. Unemployment among the educated persons is more serious. This is due to investments made in them.
  • Unemployment is not only an economic evil, it is a social problem too. Unemployment spreads social unrest and tension as unemployed people are a frustrated class of the society.

Question.9. Discuss the factors responsible for the distribution of population in India.
Ans. Physical factors like shape and height of land, resources, climate etc. that affect distribution of population in India like;

  • Resources : Areas rich in resources (e.g., coal, oil, wood etc.) tend to be densely populated like western Europe.
  • Shape and height of land : Low land which is flat, e.g., Ganges valley in India.
  • Climate : Areas with moderate temperature climates tend to be densely populated as there is enough rain and heat to grow crops like U.K.
  • Human factors : Political, social and economic factors also affect distribution of population in India like good job opportunities encourage high population densities, particularly in large cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad having dense population.
    Countries with stable governments tend to have high population density.

Question.10. Why is human resource the most important resource? What steps can be taken to improve the quality of human resource? How does an improved quality of human resource help in establishing a virtuous cycle?
Ans. Existing ‘human resource’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, which adds to the productive power of the country just like ‘physical capital formation’. So human resource is the most important resource.
Steps to be taken to improve quality of human resource : Quality of human resource can be improved through better education, food and health facilities. The quality of population depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person indicated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country.
Role of improved quality of human resource in establishing a virtuous cycle : Better contribution to productive power of country : Existing human resource with good educational background can acquire specific skills in a better way and can contribute to national productivity more efficiently.
Higher earnings and greater contributions to society : Improved quality of human resources can give higher rates of return in future in the form of higher earnings and greater contributions to society.

Question.11. How does unemployment have a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy?
Ans.

  • Wastage of manpower resource : In case of unemployment, manpower who is an asset for an economy turns into liability because utilisation of manpower becomes nil.
  • Economic overload : Unemployment tends to increase economic overload because dependence of unemployed on the working population increases. So the quality of life is adversely affected.
  • Unemployment leads to social waste : Inability of educated people who are willing to work to find gainful employment implies a great social waste. Increase in employment in an indicator of a depressed economy.

Question.12. What is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan? What are its objectives? OR
Write a short note on sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Ans. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children of the age group 6-14 years by the year 2010. It is a time bound initiative of central government, in partnership with the states, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education. They also took an initiative to increase the enrollment of students in elementary education by introducing the schemes like mid-day meal.

Question.13. Define human resource. When does a human resource become human capital?
Ans. The population of a country available for the production activities is called human resource. Human resource becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care. When the existing ‘human resource’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it ‘human capital formation’. Human capital adds to the productive power of the country. It is the stock of skills and productive knowledge embodied in them.

Question.14. What is unemployment? How many types it is? Explain. OR
How will you explain the term unemployment? OR
What is meant by unemployment? Name the types of unemployment that exist in rural as well as urban areas. OR
Define unemployment and explain its any two types.
Ans. Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the prevailing wages rates cannot find jobs. When we talk of unemployed people, we refer to those in the age group of 15-59 years. Children below 15 years of age and the old people above 60 are not considered while counting the number of unemployed. In India, unemployment is found both in rural and urban areas. In rural areas there is seasonal and disguised unemployment. In urban areas there is educated unemployment.
Unemployment in rural areas :
(i) Disguised unemployment : When more persons are working in a job than actually required, the situation is termed as disguised unemployment. For example, if in an agricultural activity eight people are engaged but this work activity actually requires the services of five people, then three persons are extra. It these three people out of eight are withdrawn, total production will remain unaffected.
(ii) Seasonal Unemployment : Seasonal unemployment occurs when people are able to find jobs only during some months of the year. This kind of unemployment is generally found in agricultural sector.
Umemployment in urban sector :
Educated unemployment : Many people who are unable to get employment even after having academic and professional qualification are called educated unemployed.

Question.15. What is Infant Mortality Rate? Why infant mortality rate is decreasing?
Ans. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is the total number of children dying under one year of age in a particular period of time. Infant Mortality Rate is decreasing due to following reasons :
(i) Increase in life expectancy due to improved medical facilities.
(ii) Better protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition along with mother and child care.

Question.16. Why is human capital significant? Mention three points. OR
Why is the human resource important for development? OR
People are the greatest resource that a country has. Explain.
Ans. Human resource is a positive asset and a precious national resource which needs to be cherished, nurtured and developed with tenderness and care, coupled with dynamism.
Contribution to national income : Skilled, educated and healthy population work for contribution in production activities. Better specialised labour can be easily adapted.
Therefore, investment in human capital yields a return just like investment in physical capital.
Investment in human resource can give high rates of return in the future. This investment on people is the same as investment in land and capital. A child with proper education and health can yield a high return in the future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to society.

Question.17. What does IMR stand for? Write its functions.
Ans. Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of children who die under one year of age in a year. IMR has come down form 147 in 1951 to 75 in 2000.
Functions of IMR is that it indicates the increase in life expectancy and improvement in child care which is useful in assessing the future progress of the country. Reduction in infant mortality involves the protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition along with mother and child care.

Question.18. Explain in detail the disadvantages of unemployment.
Ans. Disadvantages of unemployment are :
(i) It leads to wastage of man power resources. It turns the population into liability for economy instead of asset. It even fills the country’s youth with the feeling of hopelessness and despair.
(ii) It increases the economic load. The dependence of unemployed on the working population increases. Due to unemployment which adversely affects the quality of life of an individual as well as society.
(iii) It affects the overall growth of an economy. It indicates a depressed economy and wastage of resources which could have been gainfaully employed.

Question.19. Give three measures taken by government to improve literacy condition in India.
Ans. (i) Opening of Navodaya Vidyalayas : Government has started to estabish Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
(ii) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan : It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children of age group 6-14 years. It is an initiative of the central government in partnership with states, local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
(iii) Mid-day Meal Scheme : It is a programme aimed to encourage attendance and retention of children in schools and improve their nutritional status.

Question.20. Suggest any three ways to transform population load into an asset.
Ans. The three ways to transform population load into an asset are :
(i) To improve literacy rate : Education provides new aspirations and developed values of life. Education helps in enhancing the national income, cultural richness nad increases the efficiency of governance.
(ii) Health : The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. Increase in longevity of life in an indicator of good quality of life marked by self confidence. It involves protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition and along with mother and child care.
(iii) Formation of skills : Providing vocational and skilled based education helps the people to get employment and therefore they contribute to the national income later on.

Question.21. What are the two types of economic activity? State two characteristics of each.
Ans. Economic activities are those activities which add value to the national income. Economic activities have two parts :
(i) Market activities.
(ii) Non-market activities.
Market activities :
(i) These are the activities performed for payment or profit.
(ii) They include production of goods and services.
Non-market activities :
(i) These involve production for self-consumption.
(ii) It includes consumption of primary production and production of fixed assets.

Question.22. How are children of educated parents different from those of uneducated parents? Give three points of difference.
Ans. (i) Children of educated parents get better opportunity and support in their education.
(ii) Their nutritional values are taken more care by the educated parents in comparison to uneducated parents.
(iii) They do not lack in hygiene as the educated parents are conscious about it.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Describe in brief the role of human resources in economic development.
Ans. Role of Human Resource.
(i) Higher Productivity: Investment in human capital yields a return just like investment in physical capital. This can be seen directly in form of higher incomes earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons as well as the higher productivity of healthier people. India’s Green Revolution and IT Revolution are good examples of human resources development.
(ii) Better Utilisation of Resources: Countries like Japan have invested in human resource. They did not have any natural resource. They could become rich/developed because of investments in people specially in the fields of education and health. These people have made efficient use of other resources like land and capital. Efficient technology developed by people have made these countries developed.
(iii) Source of Demand: Human beings make demand for the output of goods and services produced in the country. Expansion of market for various types of foods and services further leads to increase in production.

Question.2. Is it necessary to check population growth?
Ans. India has vast manpower. But she could not utilise this manpower for country’s economic development. Rather, population growth has posed a big threat for the country. It needs to be controlled without further delay. It has become a big hurdle in the way of country’s economic development in the following ways :
(i) Despite considerable growth in national income, per capita income could not increase much due to fast population growth.
(ii) Fast population growth is considered as one of the major causes of unemployment in India.
(iii) Heavy pressure of population has led to the problem of overcrowding in cities, unplanned urbanisation, emergence of slums etc.
All these factors lead us to believe that rapidly growing population has become a big challenge before the Indian economy. It is the biggest roadblock in the path of its economic development. Indian poverty is deeply rooted in population growth. It, therefore,
becomes highly necessary to check population growth in India.

Question.3. What are the strategies that the government has undertaken to reduce unemployment?
Ans. Strategies undertaken by the government to reduce unemployment.
(i) Rural Self-Employment Scheme : Our government has introduced various schemes for creating self-employment opportunities in rural areas. In April 1999, Swarna Jayanti Gram-Sewa Rozgar Yojana (SGSY) was introduced whose main aim was to improve
opportunities of self-development in rural areas.
(ii) Wage-employment Schemes : Main objective of this scheme was to provide opportunities for wage earning to rural people. Since June 23, 1999, all these schemes were merged with Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY).
(iii) Various schemes for providing employment to educated in urban areas : Various schemes (like Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana PMRY), Swarn Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) has been started by the government for providing employment to the educated youth in urban area.

Question.4. What is an economic activity? What are various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
Ans. Economic activities : All such activities which give us some income are called economic activities. Pulling cycle-rickshaw, cleaning houses, selling vegetables and working in schools, factories, banks etc. are economic activities.
Activities undertaken in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sectors :
(i) Primary Sector : Activities concerned with collecting or making available material provided by nature are included in primary sector like agriculture, poultry farming, mining, fishing etc.
(ii) Secondary Sector : The activities which are associated with transforming raw material or primary products into commodities useful to man such as manufacturing etc.
(iii) Tertiary Sector : The activities which are essential for running modern factories in a big way are termed as tertiary sector. Activities like trading, banking, health, education, insurance etc. are included in tertiary sector.

Question.5. Study the graph and answer the following questions :
(a) By how much have literacy rates of the population gone up since 1951?
(b) Why is the literacy rate lower among women? 1
(c) Explain two measures introduced by the government to improve enrolment in elementary education in the country.
Ans. (a) Literacy rate of population in 1951 was 19%, while in 2001 the rate shot up to 65%. So there is an increase of 46% in 50 years.
(b) Literacy rate is low among women because of sex-discrimination. Females are not provided equal opportunities of education in rural areas as of male members of family.
(c) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan : Main objective of this initiative introduced by Central government was to provide elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years by 2010.
Mid-day Meal Scheme : This scheme was introduced to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.

Question.6. Why did Japan emerge as a developed country inspite of its poor natural resource?
Ans. Japan emerged as a developed country inspite of its poor natural resource because :
(i) as they did not have any other resource they invested in the development of human resource and import other required resources.
(ii) they invested in better health and education facilities for people to make them efficient so that they can efficiently use resources like land and capital.
(iii) efficiency and the technology evolved by the educated and literate people have made it rich and developed.
(iv) they provide skill based education to the population so that they largely supported in the national income.

Question.7. Discuss about the employment scenario in the three sectors in India.
Ans. Primary Sector : Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy. In recent years, there has been a decline in the dependence of population on agriculture partly because of disguised unemployment. Some of the surplus is moving from primary to secondary or tertiary sectors.
Secondary Sector : Small scale manufacturing units absorb most of the labour in secondary sector.
Tertiary Sector : Various new services have started employing labour in tertiary sector like biotechnology, information technology and so on.

Question.8. “In the past and present migration of the people from rural to urban areas has shown an upward trend.” What factors compel the rural people to migrate to cities?
Ans. People have started moving from rural to urban areas because of the following factors :
(i) Education facilities : Urban areas have more organised and better quality education facilities opportunities vocational education and education in specialised areas has increased in urban areas. In urban areas focus is on increasing access, quality,
vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology.
(ii) Health facilities : Availability of better hospitals and medical facilities make people move from rural to urban areas. States like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh has poor health indices. Therefore, in search of proper medical assistance people often move from rural to urban sectors.
(iii) Employment facilities : Disguised unemployment in primary sector and rise of employment opportunities in secondary and tertiary sector has given rise to migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. In order to increase the income of family, people move from one occupation to another and one area to another.

Question.9. How does Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan help in improving elementary education in India?
Ans. ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ aims at providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years of age by the year 2010. It is the initiative of central government in partnership with the states, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
As a result of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan there has been a significant growth in literacy rate from 18% in 1951 to 65% in 2001. The primary school system has expanded to over 5,00,000 villages in India. Mid day meal scheme has also started by government to ensure attendance and improve nutritional states of the children. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has added to the literate population of India.

Question.10. Explain some strategies made by Government to solve the problem of unemployment in India.
Ans. (i) Opening schools in villages : Opening vocational and elementary schools in villages create employment opportunities for people living these. Earlier people were involved in primary sector only but now they have better employment opportunities in other sectors also.
(ii) Small scale manufacturing : Opening opportunities of self-employment in the form of small scale manufacturing units like basket weaving etc adds to the employment opportunities in removes disguised and seasonal unemployment away people.
(iii) Introduction to modern farming methods : Use of modern farming methods gave the surplus members of family to get involved in other employment opportunities.
(iv) Proper health facilities : Improvement in health facilities in urban and rural areas improved in quality of human resource which in turn work more efficiently and contributed to national income.

Question.11. How the investment in Human Capital can be of immense importance for a society as a whole? State any four advantages.
Ans. Human Capital can be defined as the knowledge, ability, skill and physical capactity of the people which help them to produce more.
Human beings can be turned into resources only if their qualitative aspects are developed.
Education and health are the major human resource inputs of a country. Human capital is beneficial both individually as well as socially.
(i) Human capital contributes to the social development of the country.
(ii) Human capital contributes to the economic development of the country.
(iii) Human capital helps in proper utilisation of resources available or imported in the country.
(iv) Human capital also contributes in the race of development from an underdeveloped to a developed nation.

Question.12. Explain difference between vicious and virtuous cycle of life with reference to human resource.
Ans. Quality of present human resource affects the quality of human resource for the coming generation. For example, educated parents are found to invest more heavily on the education, health and nutrition of their child. They are more conscious about the qualtiy upbringing of their child. Thus, they create a virtuous cycle of life.
On the other hand, uneducated parents who are themselves lacking in education, health, nutrition and hygiene and are not conscious of the importance of these in the lives of their children. They are unable to provide quality upbringing of their children. Thus, they create a vicious cycle of life.

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