Extra Questions 9th Geography Chapter 1 : India Size and Location

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. Indian Standard Time or I.S.T. is how many hours ahead or behind of G.M.T. or Universal Time?
(a) 5 hrs 30 min behind G.M.T.
(b) 15 hrs ahead of G.M.T.
(c) 5 hrs 30 min ahead of G.M.T.
(d) None of the above
Answer. (c) 5 hrs 30 min ahead of G.M.T.

Question.2. Which of the following has reduced India’s distance from Europe by 7000 km?
(a) Suez Canal
(b) Panama Canal
(c) Indira Gandhi Canal
(d) Buckingham Canal
Answer. (a) Suez Canal

Question.3. Which of the following influences the duration of the day and night, as one moves from south to north?
(a) Longitudinal extent
(b) Latitudinal extent
(c) Standard Meridian
(d) All the above
Answer. (b) Latitudinal extent

Question.4. The Standard Meridian of India, 82°30′E passes through which of the following places?
(a) Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu
(b) Walong in Arunachal Pradesh
(c) Kachchh in Gujarat
(d) Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh
Answer. (d) Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh

Question.5. The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat. What time will the watch show in Gujarat if it is 6 am in Arunachal Pradesh?
(a) 4.16 am
(b) 7.44 am
(c) 6 am
(d) 5.44 am
Answer. (c) 6 am

Question.6. If the local time at Dwarka (69°01′E) in Gujarat to the west of India is 6 am, what will be the local time at Dibrugarh (94°58′E approximately 95°), in Assam, in the east?
(a) 4.16 am
(b) 6 am
(c) 7.44 am
(d) 7.44 pm
Answer. (c) 7.44 am

Question.7. From Arunachal Pradesh to Gujarat there is a time lag of :
(a) 24 hours
(b) 12 hours
(c) 2 hours
(d) 30 minutes
Answer. (c) 2 hours

Question.8. Both the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India’s mainland is about 30°. But on looking at the map of India which of the following alternatives do you observe about India’s size?
(a) East-west extent appears to be smaller than north-south extent
(b) East-west extent appears to be larger than north-south extent
(c) East-west and north-south extent appears equal
(d) North-south extent appears to be smaller than east-west extent
Answer. (a) East-west extent appears to be smaller than north-south extent

Question.9. Approximately what is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland of India?
(a) 97°
(b) 68°
(c) 30°
(d) 8°
Answer. (c) 30°

Question.10. Which geographical feature bounds India’s mainland south of 22°N latitude?
(a) Young Fold Mountains
(b) Sandy Desert
(c) Lava Plateaus
(d) Seas and Ocean
Answer. (d) Seas and Ocean

Question.11. By which geographical feature is India bounded in the north-west, north and north-east?
(a) Seas
(b) Lave Plateaus
(c) Young Fold Mountains
(d) Sandy Desert
Answer. (c) Young Fold Mountains

Question.12. What is India’s size with respect to other countries of the world?
(a) First
(b) Third
(c) Fourth
(d) Seventh
Answer. (d) Seventh

Question.13. Which of the following figures shows the total area of India’s landmass?
(a) 2.4 million square km
(b) 3.28 million square km
(c) 32.8 million square km
(d) 3.28 million km
Answer. (b) 3.28 million square km

Question.14. Which of the following groups of islands belonging to the Indian territory lies in the Arabian Sea?
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Lakshdweep
(d) Maldives
Answer. (c) Lakshdweep

Question.15. Which of the following groups of islands belonging to the Indian territory lies in the Bay of Bengal?
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Lakshadweep
(d) Maldives
Answer. (a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Question.16. Which latitude passes through the southern-most point of India’s mainland?
(a) 8°4′N
(b) 37°6′N
(c) 8°4′S
(d) 82°30′E
Answer. (a) 8°4′N

Question.17. Which of the following is the western-most longitude of India?
(a) 97°25′E
(b) 68°7′E
(c) 68°7′E
(d) 82°32′E
Answer. (b) 68°7′E

Question.18. The eastern-most longitude of India is _________
(a) 97°25′E
(b) 68°7′E
(c) 77°6′E
(d) 82°32′E
Answer. (a) 97°25′E

Question.19. Which of the following parallels of latitude divides India into two almost equal parts?
(a) Equator
(b) Tropic of Capricorn
(c) Tropic of Cancer
(d) Prime Meridian
Answer. (c) Tropic of Cancer

Question.20. Which of the following is the longitudinal extent of India?
(a) 8°4′N and 37°6′N
(b) 68°7′N and 97°25′E
(c) 68°7′E and 97°25′W
(d) 8°4′E and 37°6′E
Answer. (b) 68°7′N and 97°25′E

Question.21. Which of the following places of India is located on the three seas? 
(a) Port Blair
(b) Kavaratti
(c) Kanniyakumari
(d) Kochi
Answer. (c) Kanniyakumari

Question.22. India achieved multi-faceted socio-economic progress during which of the following periods?
(a) Since ancient times
(b) During medieval period
(c) In the 21st century
(d) During the last five decades
Answer. (d) During the last five decades

Question.23. Which of the following Union Territories is located along the west coast of India?
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(b) Chandigarh
(c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli
(d) Puducherry
Answer. (c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Question.24. How many states and Union Territories are there in India?
(a) 28 states and 7 Union Territories including Delhi
(b) 23 States and 12 Union Territories
(c) 26 states and 9 Union Territories
(d) 30 States and 5 Union Territories
Answer. (a) 28 states and 7 Union Territories including Delhi

Question.25. Which of the following ports of India is closest to the Suez Canal route?
(a) Kolkata
(b) Chennai
(c) Kochi
(d) Mumbai
Answer. (d) Mumbai

Question.26. Which of the following is the oldest route of contact between India and other countries of the world?
(a) Ocean routes
(b) Maritime contact
(c) Land routes
(d) Air routes
Answer. (c) Land routes

Question.27. Due to which of the following reasons is the Indian Ocean named after India?
(a) India has a strategic location along the trans-Indian Ocean routes
(b) No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India
(c) India is centrally located at the head of the Indian Ocean
(d) All the above
Answer. (d) All the above

Question.28. Which of the following longitudes is selected as the Standard Meridian for India?
(a) 68°7′E
(b) 82°30′E
(c) 97°25′E
(d) 23°30′N
Answer. (b) 82°30′E

Question.29. In which of the following places, would you find the least difference in the duration between day time and night time?
(a) Kanniyakumari
(b) Leh
(b) Srinagar
(d) Itanagar
Answer. (a) Kanniyakumari

Question.30. Tropic of Cancer passes through which of these states
(a) Orissa
(b) Tripura
(c) Bihar
(d) Punjab
Answer. (b) Tripura

Question.31. Which one of the following is the southern-most Latitude of India?
(a) 8° 4′ North
(b) 8° 4′ South
(c) 6° 4′ South
(d) 6° 4′ North
Answer. (c) 6° 4′ South

Question.32. The latitudinal extent of India lies between
(a) 7° 5′ N and 26° 5′ N
(b) 8° 4′ N and 37° 6′ N
(c) 12° 5′ N and 27° 5′ N
(d) 12° 5′ N and 37° 6′ N
Answer. (b) 8° 4′ N and 37° 6′ N

Question.33. The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Tripura
(c) Jharkhand
(d) Bihar
Answer. (d) Bihar

Question.34. Which meridian is fixed as a Standard Meridian of India?
(a) 82½° E
(b) 84½° E
(c) 86° E
(d) 81° E
Answer. (a) 82½° E

Question.35. The easternmost longitude of India is :
(a) 97° 25′ E
(b) 77° 6′ E
(c) 68° 7′ E
(d) 82° 32′ E
Answer. (a) 97° 25′ E

Question.36. What is the position of India in the world in respect of area?
(a) 8th position
(b) 7th position
(c) 6th position
(d) 2nd position
Answer. (b) 7th position

Question.37. Which one of the following forms the southern-most tip of the Indian mainland?
(a) Indira Point
(b) Kanniyakumari
(c) Palk Strait
(d) Kavaratti
Answer. (b) Kanniyakumari

Question.38. Which line divides India into approximately two equal parts?
(a) Equator
(b) Tropic of Cancer
(c) Tropic of Capricorn
(d) None of these
Answer. (b) Tropic of Cancer

Question.39. Which country among the India’s neighbours is the smallest?
(a) Nepal
(b) Bhutan
(c) Sri Lanka
(d) Bangladesh
Answer. (b) Bhutan

Question.40. How many states and Union Territories does India have?
(a) India has 26 States and 7 Union Territories
(b) India has 25 States and 7 Union Territories
(c) India has 28 States and 7 Union Territories
(d) India has 28 States and 6 Union Territories
Answer. (c) India has 28 States and 7 Union Territories

Question.41. India’s total area accounts for what percentage of the geographical area of the world?
(a) 2.9%
(b) 3.2%
(c) 2.4%
(d) 4.2%
Answer. (c) 2.4%

Question.42. Which one of the following routes are the oldest and provided India relationships with other countries?
(a) Land routes
(b) Sea routes
(c) Air routes
(d) Rail routes
Answer. (a) Land routes

Question.43. India has land boundary of about
(a) 18,200 km
(b) 7516.6 km
(c) 15,200 km
(d) 2458 km
Answer. (c) 15,200 km

Question.44. Which one of the following straits separates India from Sri Lanka?
(a) Sunda Strait
(b) Johor Strait
(c) Bering Strait
(d) Palk Strait
Answer. (d) Palk Strait

Question.45. Which neighbouring country would you reach if you were to sail across the Palk Strait?
(a) Myanmar
(b) Maldives
(c) Bangladesh
(d) Sri Lanka
Answer. (d) Sri Lanka

Question.46. The neighbouring countries that share their boundaries with India are :
(a) Pakistan and Afghanistan
(b) Myanmar and Bangladesh
(c) China and Nepal
(d) All the above
Answer. (d) All the above

Question.47. Which one of the following Indian states does not share its boundary with Pakistan?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Gujarat
(d) Haryana
Answer. (d) Haryana

Question.48. A narrow channel of sea separating two land-masses is called :
(a) Gulf
(b) Strait
(c) Isthmus
(d) Bay
Answer. (b) Strait

Question.49. The western-most Union Territory of India is
(a) Lakshwadeep
(b) Daman and Diu
(c) Puducherry
(d) Dadar and Nagar Haveli
Answer. (b) Daman and Diu

Question.50. Which of the following states does not share any international boundary?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) West Bengal
(c) Uttarakhand
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Answer. (d) Madhya Pradesh

Question.51. The four states which are situated along the Himalayas are :
(a) Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh
(b) Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana, Rajasthan
(c) Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand
(d) Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh
Answer. (a) Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh

Question.52. What is the length of Indian coastline?
(a) 8716 km
(b) 7165 km
(c) 9515 km
(d) 7516 km
Answer. (d) 7516 km

Question.53. Which of these countries do not share land borders with India?
(a) Russia
(b) Bhutan
(c) Myanmar
(d) Pakistan
Answer. (a) Russia

Question.54. Which one of the following water bodies separate Sri Lanka from India?
(a) Palk Strait and Gulf of Khambhat
(b) Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar
(c) Gulf of Mannar and 10° Channel
(d) 10° Channel and Gulf of Khambhat
Answer. (b) Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What is the longitudinal extent of India? State its two implications. 
Answer. The mainland of India extends between longitudes 68°7′E and 97°25′E. The east-west extent is 2933 km in length. The longitudinal extension shows that India is located in the Eastern Hemisphere and places can be located with reference to longitudes.
On account of the 30° longitudinal extension (97°25′–68°7′ = 29°18′, approximately 30°) there is a time difference of 2 hours (30°×4 min = 120 mins or 2 hours) in local time between the eastern and western limits of India. However, a standard time (5 hours 30 min ahead of G.M.T.) is adopted according to the local time of the central meridian of the country, 82°30′E.

Question.2. Describe briefly the geographic location of India in Asia. What is the significance of India’s geographic location?
Answer. The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with oil rich countries of West Asia as well as Africa and Europe from the western coast and the Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast via sea and ocean routes and air routes.

Question.3. What is the latitudinal extent of India? How does it affect India?
Answer. The latitudinal extension of the mainland of India is between 8°4′ N and 37°6′ N. The north-south extension is 3214 km in length. The latitudinal extension shows that India is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. The wide latitudinal extent of nearly 30 degrees results in wide variation in climate. The southern parts gets more heat from the sun than the northern parts.
Differences in the duration of day and night is much less in the south of India at lower latitudes, e.g. as in Kanniyakumari. But the difference increases further north, e.g. as in Jammu and Kashmir, as it is further away from the equator.

Question.4. What is the southernmost point of the Indian Union called? Describe its location in India and its current situation.
Answer. The southern-most point of the Indian Union is known as the Indira Point. It is located on the Nicobar Islands, the southern section of the Andaman and Nicobar group of islands.
The islands are located in the Bay of Bengal lying to the southeast of India’s mainland.
The Indira Point got submerged under the seawater in December 2004 during the destructive Tsunami that hit the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Question.5. Why is the difference in the duration of day and night very little in Kanniyakumari while it is not so in the northern part of the country? Give specific reasons for your answer.
Answer. Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu is located at the southern-most tip of India’s mainland. The latitude 8°4′ N passes close to it. The place is thus near the equator and lies close to the equatorial region. As the sun shines directly over the equator all throughout the year, the duration of day and night is almost equal here. Hence, in Kanniyakumari the difference in the duration of day and night is very little, maximum around 45 minutes only. But in the northern part of the country located to the north of the Tropic of Cancer away from the equator, the difference between the length of day and night becomes increasingly greater.

Question.6. How have mountain passes been helpful to India since historic times?
Answer. The various mountain passes across the Himalayan range and other mountains in the north have provided passages to travellers since ancient time. The land routes via mountain passes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since historic times. The ideas of Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra, the Indian numerals and the decimal system could thus reach many parts of the world. The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. On the other hand, the architectural styles of dome and minarets from West Asia and influence of Greek sculpture, which can be seen in different parts of India, came from other countries to India.

Question.7. How has the long coastline been beneficial to India?
Answer. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, extensions of the Indian Ocean, lie to the west and east of Indian Peninsula, and the Indian Ocean lies to its south. The total length of the coastline of the mainland of India including Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep is 7516.6 km. The long coastline of India has helped in maritime trade since ages. The central location of India at the head of Indian Ocean has provided it a strategic location along the trans-Indian Ocean routes. India is able to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from western coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast. The long coastline has also played a major role in influencing the climate of India. It provides opportunities for fishing and extraction of petroleum. It serves as a natural boundary protecting India.

Question.8. Which ocean is named after India? Give two reasons as to why it was named after India.
Answer. The Indian Ocean is named after India. India is the only country which has the credit of an ocean named after it. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, extensions of the Indian Ocean, lie to the west and east of Indian Peninsula, and the Indian Ocean lies to its south. No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India. The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean has provided India a strategic location of great significance along the trans-Indian Ocean route. It is India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of the ocean after India.

Question.9. What is the Standard Meridian of India? From where does it pass?
Answer. The Standard Meridian of India (82°30′ E) passing through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh is taken as the Standard time for the whole country.

Question.10. What was the contribution of land routes to India in ancient times? Explain any three.
Answer. India’s contacts with the outside world have continued through the ages, through the land routes and sea routes.
(i) These routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times. The ideas of Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra, the Indian numerals and the decimal system could reach many parts of the world.
(ii) The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken away from India to different countries through this land routes.
(iii) The influence of Greek sculpture and the architectural styles of domes and minarets from West Asia can be seen in different parts of our country.

Question.11. Which meridian has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India?
Answer. (i) 82°32′ E has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India.
(ii) From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh, there is a time lag of two hours. To bring the whole country under one time set, 82°32′ E latitude which passes at the centre of the country is taken as a standard time for the whole country in order to maintain uniformity of time.

Question.12. Why India is called a subcontinent? Write any three points.
Answer. India is called a subcontinent because of the following reasons :
(i) It is a distinct geographic unit separated from the Asian continent by the majestic Himalayas and its extensions.
(ii) It has its own culture as distinct from the rest of Asia.
(iii) The climate of Indian subcontinent is characterised by monsoon type of climate.

Question.13. What is latitude? What is the latitudinal extent of India?
Answer. (i) The position of a place, measured in degrees North or South of the equator. It is mostly calculated on the basis of angular distance of a place north-south of the equator.
(ii) The main land of India extends between latitudes 8°4′ N and 37°6′ N and longitudes 68°7′ E and 97°25′ E.

Question.14. Name the southernmost point of Indian Union. It is visible today?
Answer. The southernmost point of the Indian union is ‘Indira point’. It submerged under the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami. The entire landmass was erased from the map of India.

Question.15. Do you think naming the Indian Ocean after a country is justified. Why?
Answer. Yes, because no other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has. It is because of India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an ocean after it.

Question.16. How does India occupy an important strategic position in South Asia? Illustrate your answer by explaining three suitable points.
Answer. India occupies an important strategic position in South Asia on the following points :
(i) The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia.
(ii) The trans-Indian ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India.
(iii) The Deccan peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean has helped India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.

Question.17. What is latitudinal extent of India? How is the latitudinal spread in India advantageous to her? State two points.
Answer. The latitudinal extent of India lies between 8°4′ N and 37°6′ N. This means that the longitudinal expanse is about 30° from west to east. The advantages of longitudinal spread :
(i) influences the duration of the day and night as one moves from South to North
(ii) It also helps to take advantages of the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on its east for sea movements.

Question.18. Give a reason for the following statement :
(a) 82° 30 E Latitude has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India.
(b) The distance between India and Europe has been reduced by 7000 km. with the opening of Suez Canal.
(c) Days and night are almost of equal duration at Kanniyakumari.
Answer. (a) There is a time lag of at least 2 hours if one moves from west to east – from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh. The local time at Arunachal Pradesh would be at least 2 hours ahead of Gujarat. To avoid such differences in local time, Indian Standard Time (IST) has been fixed on 82°30′ E to give the whole country a uniform time.
(b) Before the opening up of Suez Canal in 1869, ships from Europe had to make detour journey via (Cape of Good Hope) African coast after traversing a distance of about 15000 km.
(c) Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu is located at the southern-most tip of India’s mainland. The latitude 8°4′ N passes close to it. The place is thus near the equator and lies close to the equatorial region. As the sun shines directly over the equator throughout the year, the durations of day and night are almost equal here. Hence, in Kanniyakumari the difference in the duration of day and night is very little, maximum around 45 minutes only.

Question.19. Why is there a difference of 2 hours in local time between the eastern-most part of Arunachal Pradesh and western-most part of Gujarat? Explain.
Answer. The local time in Arunachal Pradesh is two hours ahead of Gujarat because of longitudinal differences. Time is calculated on the basis of 4 minutes for every 1° of longitude towards East and West of Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT). The difference between Arunachal and Gujarat is 30° East longitude. Therefore, the differences of time between these two places 30 × 4 = 120 minutes or two hours.

Question.20. Explain why Ahmedabad and Kolkata are able to see the noon sun exactly overhead in a year but not Delhi.
Answer. Kolkata and Ahmedabad is located very close to the Tropic of Cancer and as such both the places see the noon exactly overhead in a year. Delhi, on the other hand is located far north of the Tropic of Cancer and does not enjoy it.

Question.21. Why do we need a Standard Meridia for India? Explain.
Answer. Due to vastness of the country there is a difference of time between places as one moves from east to west and vice versa. In order to set right this problem Stardard Meridia is needed.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Which are the countries with which India shares land boundaries? Write a short note about India’s position among its neighbours.
Answer. India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. India stands apart from the rest of Asia with the Himalayas acting as a natural barrier to the north and northwest and the Purvanchals in the northeast. Thus, the land boundary of India is protected by mountain ranges, giving India a safer location with respect to its neighbours. India occupies the most eminent position within the Indian subcontinent and has strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours. India shares strong bilateral relationships with its neighbours socially, culturally and economically. Social and cultural exchange with our neighbours has strengthened our position on account of our rich cultural heritage.
Economically, we have good trade relations with our neighbours. Politically also, we share good relations with most of our neighbours. The SAARC endeavours to maintain good relations among the neighbouring countries in South Asia.

Question.2. Write a note on the location and size of India
Answer. India is a vast country. It is located in South Asia. From south to north India’s mainland extends between 8°4′N and 37°6′N latitudes. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30′N) passes roughly through the middle of the country.

  1. From west to east India extends between 68°7′E and 97°25′E longitudes. It is located in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  2. To the southeast of India’s mainland lie the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and to the southwest lie the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.
  3. The landmass of India covers an area of 3.28 million square km. From the point of view of size it is the seventh largest country of the world. It accounts for 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. It has an east-west extent of 2933 km from Arunachal Pradesh to Kachchh in Gujarat and a north-south extent of 3214 km from Kashmir to Kanniyakumari.
  4. India’s land boundary extends for about 15,200 km. It has a long coastline of 7516.6 km including Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. With a population of over 1000 millions, India is the second most populous country of the world after China.
  5. The lofty ranges of the Himalayas and other mountains form a natural geographical boundary in the northwest, north and northeast. The southern part of the country is in form of a peninsula, tapering towards the Indian Ocean in the south. It is bounded by Arabian Sea in the southwest and Bay of Bengal in the southeast.

Question.3. Write a note on the Indian Standard Time? Why is there a time difference of almost 2 hours from Arunachal Pradesh to Gujarat?
Answer. On account of the vast longitudinal extent of India there is a time lag of two hours in local time between its western and eastern limits. Hence, for the sake of convenience a standard time is adopted for the entire country. The central meridian of the country, 82°30′E longitude, has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India. It passes through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh.
The local time along this meridian is taken as the standard time of India, which is 82°30′ × 4 min = 330 minutes or 5 hr 30 min ahead of G.M.T. Because India is located to the east of Greenwich Meridian, the time is ahead of G.M.T. or Universal Time.
India has a longitudinal extent of more than 29°, with the 68°7′E longitude bounding its western limit in Kachchh in Gujarat and 97°25′E bounding its eastern limit in Arunachal Pradesh (97°25′ – 68°7′ = 29°18′).
For each 1° longitude there is a time difference of 4 minutes.
For 29° longitudes there will be a time difference of 4 × 29° = 116 minutes or 1 hr 56 minutes, approximately 2 hours.
Hence, there is a time difference of almost two hours in the local time of Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat with the sun rising almost two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh compared to Gujarat.

Question.4. How many states form the Union of India? Write a note on the smallest and the largest Indian states.
Answer. For administrative convenience, our vast country has been divided into political units – the states and the Union Territories. The administrative divisions have been made mainly on the basis of language. At present India is a union of 28 states and 7 Union Territories including the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Delhi is the national capital of India.
From the point of view of size, Rajasthan is the largest states while Goa is the smallest state. Rajasthan, the largest state, has an area of about 342 thousand sq. km. It lies to the west of India. It shares its boundary with our neighbouring country of Pakistan in the west. In its east lie the states of Uttar Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh. To its north lie Punjab and Haryana. Gujarat and parts of Madhya Pradesh lie to its south. The Thar Desert or the Indian Desert is located in Rajasthan. Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan.
Goa, the smallest states of India, has an area of only 3,702 sq. km. (appr. 3.7 thousand sq. km.).
The Arabian Sea lies to the west of Goa. To its north lies Maharashtra and to its east and south lies Karnataka. Panaji is the capital of Goa.

Question.5. What are the two groups of Indian islands? Write a note on each, describing its geographic position with relation to India.
Answer.

  1. The two group of islands which are part of the Indian Union are the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands.
  2. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.
  3. The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea to the southwest of India’s mainland, close to the Malabar coast of Kerala.
  4. The Andaman and Nicobars are formed of the Great Andamans and the Little Andamans in the north and Nicobar Islands in the south. They are groups of numerous big and small islands.
  5. The southernmost point of the Indian Union is located in one of these Islands. These islands are of great strategic importance to India. They lie close to the equator and have equatorial climate. They lie along the trans-Indian Ocean route and close to the south and southeast Asia.
  6. Port Blair is the official headquarters of Andaman and Nicobar.
  7. The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of small coral islands lying close to the southern section of the west coast of India. In 1973 the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive Islands were renamed as Lashadweep. It covers a small area of 32 sq. km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. Both the group of islands are rich in flora and fauna and natural beauty, enhancing India’s geographical entity.

Question.6. How has India’s geographic location aided the nation?
Answer. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. It has a central location between the East and the West Asia. To the north of India lie the lofty mountain ranges of the Himalayas which serve as a natural barrier separating Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia. The land routes through the mountain passes had served as channels for exchange of culture and commodities since ancient times. To its south the landmass tapers and the Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean providing opportunities for flourishing maritime trade. The trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. India is able to establish close contacts with oil rich countries of West Asia and countries of Africa and Europe from its western coast via the Arabian Sea. The Suez Canal sea-route provides India the shortest route to industrial Europe and America. India has commercially favourable contacts with Southeast and East Asia and Australia from its eastern coast via the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean.
Thickly populated countries of Southeast Asia and China lie close to India. This augments the development of trade and cultural relations. Thus, India’s geographical location has aided in the development and progress of the nation.

Question.7. The Tropic of Cancer passes half-way through the country. What does this imply?
Answer. The mainland of India extends between latitudes 8°4′N and 37°6′N. The Tropic of Cancer, 23°30′N, passes halfway through the country. This has its implications for the climate of India as well as influences the duration of day and night.

  1. Places on either side of the Tropic of Cancer experience tropical climate. The tropical monsoon type of climate that India experiences is extreme on account of the Tropic of Cancer. Places further south of Indian Union away from the Tropic of Cancer have more equable climate being closer to equator. Places further north of the Tropic of Cancer have subtropical climate.
  2. The sun shines directly on the Tropic of Cancer on 21st June or Summer Solstice. Countries in the Northern Hemisphere including India experience summer during this part of the year. It is also associated with maximum heating of tropics during this period that influences advance of monsoons or rainy season.
  3. Areas along the Tropic of Cancer have their longest day on 21st June. These areas have their shortest day on 22nd December or Winter Solstice when the sun rays are directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn.

Map Work

Question.1. In the following outline map of India, label the following:
(a) The Tropic of Cancer
(b) The Standard Meridian of India
(c) The Lakshadweep Islands
(d) The Palk Strait
Answer.Extra-ques-01-geo-chap-01

Question.2. In the following outline map of India, label the following:
(a) Nepal
(b) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(c) Sikkim
(d) Tripura
Answer.Extra-ques-02-geo-chap-01

Question.3. Label the following in the outline map of India.
(a) Goa
(b) Assam
(c) Kerala
(d) Manipur
Answer.Extra-ques-03-geo-chap-01

Question.4. Number Placement
Complete the labelling of the outline map of India by mentioning the correct latitudes and longitudes for the lines marked with the help of the hints.
Answer.Extra-ques-04-geo-chap-01

Question.5. Correct Placement
Place the following neighbouring countries of India in their correct cardinal directions with respect to India. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar, Maldives, Sri Lanka.
Answer.Extra-ques-05-geo-chap-01

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