Extra Questions 9th History Chapter 1

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. The Third Estate comprised
(a) Poor servants and small peasants, landless labourers
(b) Peasants and artisans
(c) Big businessmen, merchants, lawyers etc.
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.2. That ‘each member should have one vote’ was advocated by :
(a) Georges Danton
(b) Rousseau
(c) Jean Paul Marat
(d) The Jacobins
Ans. (b) Rousseau

Question.3. Which of the following decisions was taken by the convention?
(a) Declared France a constitutional monarchy
(b) Abolished the monarchy
(c) All men and women above 21 years got the right to vote
(d) Declared France a Republic
Ans. (d) Declared France a Republic

Question.4. Which of the following is not the idea of the revolutionary journalist Desmoulins about Liberty?
(a) Liberty is finishing off your enemies
(b) Liberty is Happiness, Reason, Equality and Justice
(c) Liberty is the Declaration of Right
(d) Liberty is not a child who has to be disciplined before maturity
Ans. (b) Liberty is Happiness, Reason, Equality and Justice

Question.5. How does a ‘Subsistence Crisis’ happen?
(a) Bad harvest leads to scarcity of grains
(b) Food prices rise and the poorest cannot buy bread
(c) Leads to weaker bodies, diseases, deaths and even food riots
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.6. In the war against Prussia and Austria, the army sang which patriotic song?
(a) ‘Liberty’, written by an unknown woman poet
(b) ‘Marseillaise’ written by the poet Roget de L’Isle
(c) ‘Viva France’ written by a French peasant
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) ‘Marseillaise’ written by the poet Roget de L’Isle

Question.7. Which of the following statements is untrue about the Third Estate?
(a) The Third Estate was made of the poor only
(b) Within the Third Estate some were rich and some were poor
(c) Richer members of the Third Estate owned lands
(d) Peasants were obliged to serve in the army, or build roads
Ans. (a) The Third Estate was made of the poor only

Question.8. Who wrote the pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’?
(a) Mirabeau, a nobleman
(b) Abbe Sieyes
(c) Rousseau, a philosopher
(d) Montesquieu
Ans. (b) Abbe Sieyes

Question.9. A guillotine was _______________________
(a) a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded
(b) a fine sword with which heads were cut off
(c) a special noose to hang people
(d) none of the above
Ans. (a) a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded

Question.10. When did the French Revolution begin?
(a) July 14, 1789
(b) January 10, 1780
(c) August 12, 1782
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) July 14, 1789

Question.11. The word livres stands for :
(a) unit of currency in France
(b) tax levied by the Church
(c) tax to be paid directly to the state
(d) none of these
Ans. (a) unit of currency in France

Question.12. What was the effect of the rise of population of France from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789?
(a) Education became difficult
(b) Rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains
(c) Housing problem occurred
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains

Question.13. What was the ‘Subsistence Crisis’ which occurred frequently in France?
(a) An extreme situation endangering the basic means of livelihood
(b) Subsidy in foodgrains
(c) Large-scale production of foodgrains
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) An extreme situation endangering the basic means of livelihood

Question.14. What was the name of tax which was directly paid to the state by the Third Estate?
(a) tithes
(b) livres
(c) taille
(d) all of these
Ans. (c) taille

Question.15. What was ‘Estates General’?
(a) Post of Army General
(b) A political body
(c) Head of all landed property
(d) Advisor of the king
Ans. (b) A political body

Question.16. Which social groups emerged in the 18th century?
(a) Lawyers
(b) Administrative officials
(c) Middle class
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.17. The term ‘Old Regime’ is usually used to describe
(a) France before 1000 B.C.
(b) Society of France after 1789 A.D.
(c) Society and institutions of France before 1789 A.D.
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Society and institutions of France before 1789 A.D.

Question.18. In which of these countries was the model of government as advocated by Montesquieu
put into effect?
(a) USA
(b) China
(c) USSR
(d) All the above
Ans. (a) USA

Question.19. Which of these books was written by John Locke?
(a) The Spirit of the Laws
(b) Two Treatises on Government
(c) The Social Contract
(d) All the above
Ans. (b) Two Treatises on Government

Question.20. When did Louis XVI call an assembly of Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes?
(a) 2 January, 1775
(b) 10 March, 1780
(c) 5 May, 1789
(d) 14 July, 1789
Ans. (c) 5 May, 1789

Question.21. In the meeting of the Estates General, the members of the Third Estate demanded that
(a) All the three Estates should have one vote altogether
(b) Each member of the three Estates should have one vote
(c) Each Estate should have one vote
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) All the three Estates should have one vote altogether

Question.22. On 20th June, the representatives of the Third Estate assembled in the indoor tennis court of Versailles for
(a) hunger strike
(b) drafting a Constitution for France which limited the king’s power
(c) declaring a revolt
(d) making an appeal to support the king in times of need
Ans. (b) drafting a Constitution for France which limited the king’s power

Question.23. Who led the representatives of the Third Estate in Versailles on 20th June?
(a) Mirabeau
(b) Abbe Sieyes
(c) Louis XVI
(d) Both a and b
Ans. (d) Both a and b

Question.24. What did Louis XVI do, seeing the power of his revolting subjects?
(a) He accorded recognition to the National Assembly
(b) Accepted checks on his powers
(c) Ordered his army to crush the revolt
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.25. Which of these provisions were passed by the Assembly on the night of 4 August, 1789?
(a) Abolition of feudal system of obligations
(b) Clergy had to give up its privileges
(c) Tithes were abolished
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.26. The new Constitution made France a
(a) Constitutional Monarchy
(b) Communist state
(c) Fully democratic state
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Constitutional Monarchy

Question.27. According to the new constitution of 1791, the National Assembly was to be
(a) elected directly
(b) appointed by the king
(c) elected indirectly
(d) a hereditary body
Ans. (c) elected indirectly

Question.28. Which of these people were entitled to vote?
(a) Only men above 25 years of age
(b) Men and women above 30 years of age
(c) Men who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)

Question.29. Which of these rights were not established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights by the constitution of 1791?
(a) Right to life
(b) Freedom of speech and opinion
(c) Equality before the law
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.30. Which of these provisions form a part of the ‘Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen’?
(a) Men are born free
(b) They are equal in rights before the law
(c) Liberty means powers to do what is not injurious to others
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.31. The National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against
(a) Prussia
(b) Austria
(c) England
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.32. Name the most successful ‘political club’ which became a rallying point for people who wished to continue the Revolution in France.
(a) Jacobin
(b) Arthur
(c) Mirabeau
(d) Dauphine
Ans. (a) Jacobin

Question.33. A large number of Jacobins came to be known as the ‘sans-culottes’. What does it mean?
(a) People without knee breeches
(b) People with black shirts
(c) People with black trousers
(d) People without shirts
Ans. (a) People without knee breeches

Question.34. Which of the following events took place as a result of the revolt of Jacobins in 1792?
(a) The revolutionaries stormed the Palace of Tuileries
(b) Massacred the king’s guards
(c) Held the king hostage for several hours
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.35. As a result of elections held after the Jacobins’ revolt in 1792, which of these steps were taken in France?
(a) Elections were held
(b) Monarchy was abolished
(c) France was declared a Republic
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.36. The Assembly elected in 1792 was called
(a) Convention
(b) Congress
(c) Congregation
(d) Council
Ans. (a) Convention

Question.37. On what charge was Louis XVI sentenced to death?
(a) Cruelty
(b) Treason
(c) Incapability
(d) Misuse of powers
Ans. (b) Treason

Question.38. Why is the period from 1793 to 1794 referred to as the ‘Reign of Terror’?
(a) Louis XVI’s successor became a tyrant
(b) Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment
(c) Jacobins opted for loot and plunder
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment

Question.39. Instead of the traditional Monsieur (sir) and Madame (madam), all French men and women were henceforth addressed as
(a) Citoyen
(b) Citoyenne
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question.40. Who seized power after the fall of the Jacobin government?
(a) Common people
(b) Descendants of Louis XVI
(c) Wealthy middle class
(d) Robespierre’s son
Ans. (c) Wealthy middle class

Question.41. In context of France the volunteers from Marseilles sang the Marseillaise, a patriotic song when they marched into Paris. Who composed this song?
(a) Maximilian Robespierre
(b) Marie Antoinette
(c) Roget de L’Isle
(d) Mirabeau
Ans. (c) Roget de L’Isle

Question.42. Who among the following Indian individuals responded to the ideas coming from Revolutionary France?
(a) Bhagat Singh
(b) Rammohan Roy
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Sultan of Awadh
Ans. (b) Rammohan Roy

Question.43. Who among the following reintroduced slavery in France after it was abolished by Jacobin regime ?
(a) Louis XIV
(b) Robespierre
(c) Napoleon
(d) Marat
Ans. (c) Napoleon

Question.44. In the context of France, ‘the fall of Bastille’ took place on:
(a) 14th July 1789
(b) 20th June 1789
(c) 4th Aug 1789
(d) 5th May 1789
Ans. (a) 14th July 1789

Question.45. In the context of France, what was ‘tithes’?
(a) A tax levied by the Church
(b) Direct tax levied by the State
(c) The tax levied on the articles of everyday consumption
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) A tax levied by the Church

Question.46. Tax from peasants to Church was called:
(a) Taille
(b) Tithe
(c) Lagan
(d) Jazia
Ans. (b) Tithe

Question.47. In France the period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as Reign of _____ .
(a) Happiness
(b) Terror
(c) Peace
(d) Mal-administration
Ans. (b) Terror

Question.48. The National Assembly of France voted in April 1792, to declare war against:
(a) Britain and Germany
(b) Prussia and Austria
(c) Italy and Germany
(d) Russia and Prussia
Ans. (b) Prussia and Austria

Question.49. Who among the following proposed the Social Contract theory?
(a) Locke
(b) Thomas Paine
(c) Montesquieu
(d) Rousseau
Ans. (d) Rousseau

Question.50. Austrian Princess Marie Antoniette was the queen of which of the following French rulers?
(a) Louis XIII
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XV
(d) Louis XVI
Ans. (d) Louis XVI

Question.51. King Louis XVI belonged to which dynasty of kings?
(a) Hapsburg
(b) Bourbon
(c) Romanov
(d) Windsor
Ans. (b) Bourbon

Question.52. The French Revolution led to the formation of National Assembly. Which statement is incorrect about the National Assembly?
(a) It abolished the feudal system of obligations and taxes
(b) It confiscated the land owned by the churches
(c) It abolished slavery in France
(d) It drafted the constitution
Ans. (c) It abolished slavery in France

Question.53. Identify the statement which is wrong with reference to Robespierre.
(a) He banned the use of white flour
(b) He rationed meat and bread
(c) He exempted his party men from punishment
(d) He converted churches into barracks or offices
Ans. (c) He exempted his party men from punishment

Question.54. In which of the battle was Napoleon finally defeated?
(a) Russia
(b) Waterloo
(c) Versailles
(d) Paris
Ans. (b) Waterloo

Question.55. Which of the following theory was proposed by Montesquieu?
(a) Social Contract theory
(b) Theory of division of power
(c) Theory of popular Sovereignty
(d) Theory of division of labour
Ans. (b) Theory of division of power

Question.56. The term ‘Old Regime’ (France) refers to:
(a) The society and institution under an old emperor
(b) Society and institution of France before 1789
(c) The society and institution of France after 1789
(d) The society and institution of France under Jacobins
Ans. (b) Society and institution of France before 1789

Question.57. The book ‘Two Treatises on Government’ was written by:
(a) Rousseau
(b) John Locke
(c) Montesquieu
(d) Karl Marx
Ans. (b) John Locke

Question.58. ‘The Spirit of Laws’ was written by:
(a) Montesquieu
(b) Rousseau
(c) Jean Paul Marat
(d) John Locke
Ans. (a) Montesquieu

Question.59. When was the battle of Waterloo fought ?
(a) 1815 AD
(b) 1820 AD
(c) 1810 AD
(d) 1720 AD
Ans. (a) 1815 AD

Question.60. Which Revolution gave the ideas of Liberty, Freedom and Equality to the world?
(a) The American Revolution
(b) The French Revolution
(c) The Russian Revolution
(d) None of these
Ans. (b) The French Revolution

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. What was the subsistence crisis? Why did it occur in France during the Old Regime?
Answer. The population of France was on the rise. It rose from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. This led to increase in the demand for food grains. The production of food grains could not keep pace with the demand and the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. The wages also did not keep pace with the rise in prices. The gap between the rich and the poor widened. This led to the subsistence crisis.

Question.2. What was the system of voting in the Estates General? What change did the Third Estate want in this system?
Answer. Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. Members of the Third Estate demanded that voting must now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. This was according to the democratic principles put forward by philosophers like Rousseau in his book, The Social Contract.

Question.3. Describe the incidents that led to the storming of the Bastille.
Answer. While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France was seething with turmoil. A severe winter had meant a bad harvest, the price of bread rose. Often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies. After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops. At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed Bastille.

Question.4. Describe how the new political system of constitutional monarchy worked in France.
Answer.
The Constitution of 1791
The constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.

Question.5. What were ‘natural and inalienable rights’?
Answer. The constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were established as ‘natural and inalienable rights’, i.e., they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away. It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural right.

Question.6. Why did slavery begin and why was it abolished in French colonies?
Answer. The slave trade began in the 17th century.
The colonies in the Caribbean – Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo – were important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee. But the reluctance of Europeans to go and work in distant and unfamiliar lands meant a shortage of labour on the plantations. So this was met by a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas.

Throughout the eighteenth century there was little criticism of slavery in France. The National Assembly did not pass any laws, fearing opposition from businessmen whose incomes depended on the slave trade. It was the Convention which in 1794 legislated to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions. This, however, turned out to be a short-term measure. Ten years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery. Plantation owners understood their freedom as including the right to enslave African Negroes in pursuit of their economic interests. Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848.

Question.7. Explain what a revolution is. In what way did the French Revolution mean different things to different people?
Answer. It is an attempt by a large number of people to change the government of a country, especially by violent action. The Third Estate comprising the common men benefitted from the Revolution. The clergy and nobility had to relinquish power. Their land was confiscated. Their privileges were finished. The people of lower middle class also benefitted. Position of artisans and workers improved. Clergy, feudal lords, nobles and even women were disappointed. The revolution did not bring real equality as everyone was not given the right to vote meaning women who got it finally in 1946.

Question.8. What was the importance of the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Answer. The document ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man’ hit the prevailing European system which was based on privileges. It declared faith in equality, liberty and fraternity. It was a remarkable declaration and is regarded as ‘‘gospel of modern time’’.

Question.9. Discuss the role of women in the French Revolution.
Answer. Women were active participants in the events related with the French Revolution of 1789. Most women of the Third Estate had to work for a living as seamstresses, flower-sellers, vegetable and fruit sellers. They led a hard life, and were paid lower wages. So to discuss and voice their interests they began their own newspapers and political clubs. They put forward their political and economic demands.

Question.10. Who were the people who comprised the Third Estate? Who paid the taxes and to whom?
Answer. The people who comprised the Third Estate were big businessmen, merchants, lawyers, peasants, artisans, small peasants, landless labour and servants. These were 95 percent of the population. They had to pay taxes to the state. Taxes included taille, tithes and a number of indirect taxes.

Question.11. Who formed the National Assembly? On what date is ‘Bastille Day’ celebrated and why?
Answer. The representatives of the Third Estate assembled at Versailles on 20 June and declared themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France. The Bastille Day is celebrated on 14th July every year because on this day the unruly Paris mob stormed and attacked the prison of Bastille which was considered a symbol of terror and despotism.

Question.12. Name three famous writers and philosophers who influenced the French Revolution. What were their ideas?
Answer. Jean Jacques Rousseau – a French Swiss philosopher. His main idea was – man is naturally good and that society of civilisation makes man anxious and unhappy. Mirabeau – he brought about a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds at Versailles. Voltaire – A famous French writer. He exposed the evils prevailing in the Church and administration.

Question.13. Who were the sans culottes? Who were able to control them in the end?
Answer. A large among the Jacobins decided to start wearing long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers. To set themselves apart from the fashionable sections of the society, especially nobles, who wore knee breeches. It was a way of proclaiming the end of the power wielded by wearers of knee breeches. These Jacobins came to be known as the sans culottes, literally meaning ‘those without knee breeches’.
After the fall of Jacobins, power was seized by the wealthier middle class.

Question.14. Which single event turned the revolution into a Reign of Terror? Describe the role of Robespierre in it.
Answer. The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the ‘‘Reign of Terror’’. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All these he saw as enemies of the republic – exnobles, clergymen and other party members, with whom he did not agree — were arrested, imprisoned, tried and guillotined if found guilty. He pursued his policies relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation.

Question.15. Describe the role of the Bourbon kings in the French Revolution.
Answer. The Bourbon kings maintained an extravagant court. They lived and spent lavishly. The many wars and their lavish style of living had drained the financial resources of France. The treasury was empty. France was under a debt of more than 2 billion livres. To meet expenses the state under Louis XVI, who was only 20 years of age when he ascended, increased taxes. There was a steep rise in prices, extreme shortage of food, low wages, the gap between the rich and the poor widened. All this finally led to the French Revolution.

Question.16. How was French Society organised? What privileges did certain sections of society enjoy? OR
How far was the French society responsible for the drastic changes brought about by the revolution?
Answer. French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three Estates–two privileged estates, i.e. the clergy and the nobility, and the Third Estate comprising businessmen, traders, lawyers, peasants, workers, poor people. Out of these, only the members of the Third Estate paid taxes. The maximum burden of taxes was borne by the common people, which gave rise to the ‘subsistence crisis’. The growth of an enlightened, educated middle class plus the role of philosophers like Locke and Rousseau, together brought about the changes caused by the revolution.

Question.17. Write the importance of Napolean Bonaparte in the History of France and the world.
Answer. Napoleon saw himself as a moderniser of Europe. He introduced many laws such as protection of private properly and uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system. He carried out the revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws to other parts of Europe which he conquered. They had a great impact on people. He was a great general too.

Question.18. How did Robespierre propose to bring about equality in the French society?
Answer. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment to bring about equality in the French society. He put a maximum ceiling on wages and prices. Meat and bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to transport their gain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. The use of expensive white flour was prohibited. All citizens were required to eat the equality bread made of whole wheat. Equality was also practised through forms of speech and address. All French men and women were called Citoyen and Citoyenne respectively (citizen). Churches were shut down and converted into barracks or offices (the church buildings).

Question.19. What was the Estates General? Which demand of the Third Estate did Louis XVI reject?
Answer. The Estates General was the division of French society in the 18th century into three estates. The numbers of the first two estates were the
(i) Clergy and
(ii) Nobility respectively.
The Third estate comprised big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants and artisans and small peasants, landless, labour, servants only the members of the Third Estate paid taxes. The members of the first two estates enjoyed privileges because of birth. The nobility had feudal privileges too.
The Third Estate demanded that voting in the assembly should be conducted as a whole and each member should have one vote. This was rejected by King Louis XVI.

Question.20. What are the three important ideas of the French Revolution? How were they guaranteed under the constitution of 1791?
Answer. Main idea of the French revolutionaries was to limit the powers of the monarch. These powers were not to remain concentrated in the hands of one person but now separated and assigned to different institutions – legislature, executive and judiciary. France was to become a constitutional monarchy. The feudal system of obligation and laws were to be abolished.
The constitution of 1791 vested power in the Gemds of the National Assembly. Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn choose the assembly. All citizens did not give the right to vote, only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes (equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage) were entitled to vote. Rest of the men and women were passive citizens. The constitution passed the right of man and citizen and the following rights were established as ‘natural and unalienable’ rights :
(i) Right to life,
(ii) Freedom of speech,
(iii) Freedom of opinion,
(iv) Equality before law.
Rights were given by birth and could not be taken away. The duty of the state was to protect each citizen’s natural rights.

Question.21. What were the causes for the empty treasure of France under Louis XIV? Assess any three causes.
Answer. (i) Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. Under Louis XIV, France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, British. The war added more than a billion lives to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion lives.
(ii) Lenders who gave the state credit begun to change 10 per cent interests on loans. So the French government was obliged to spend on increasesing percentage of its budget on interest payments alone.
(iii) The cost of maintaining army, the court, government officials and universities was very high.

Question.22. What is the significance of ‘The Tennis Court Oath’ in the French Revolution?
Answer. The representatives of the Third Estate viewed themselves as spokesmen for the whole French nation. On 20th June, 1789, they assembled in the hall of on indoor tennis court in the grommols of versailles. They declared themselves a national assembly and score not the disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch. They were led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes.

Question.23. Write three main features of the French constitution of 1791.
Answer.
(i) The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791. Its main objective was to limit the powers of the monarch.
(ii) The power to make laws was vested in the National Assembly. Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the assembly.
(iii) Rights like the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights. It as the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights.

Question.24. ‘‘The inequality that existed in the French society in the Old Regime became the cause of French Revolution.’’ Justify the statement by giving three suitable examples.
Answer. (i) Peasants constituted about 90 per cent of the population but about 60 per cent of the land was owned by nobles, the church and richer members of the Third Estate.
(ii) The members of the First Estate and the Second Estate, that is the clergy and the nobility, enjoyed certain privileges by birth. The most important of these was exemption from paying taxes to the state. The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges. These included feudal dues, which they extracted from the peasants, peasants were obliged to render services to the lord–to work in his house and fields, to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
(iii) The burden of financing activities of the state through taxes was borne by the Third Estate alone. Taxes included tithes collected by the church from the peasants and taille, a direct tax, and a number of indirect taxes which were levied on activities of everyday consumption like salt and tobacco.
Thus the members of the Third Estate groaned under heavy taxation with no privileges whatever. This led to a deep sense of resentment among the members of the Third Estate who galvanised and led the revolution.

Question.25. Why did King Louis XIV conclude to increase taxes? Assess any three points.
Answer.
(i) Upon his accession, Louis XIV found the treasury empty. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. France had helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence. Total debt rose to more than 2 billion livres. Lenders began to charge 10 per cent or more as interest.
(ii) Added to this financial burden was the huge cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immeuse of Versailles.
(iii) The French government was obliged to spend an increasing percentage of its budget on interest payments alone. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes.

Question.26. Explain the condition which led to the rise of Jacobins.
Answer.
(i) The revolutionary wars brought losses and economic difficulties to the people. Huge sections of the population were convinced that the revolution had to be carried further, as the constitution of 1791 gave political rights only to the richer sections of society.
(ii) Political clubs became an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action. The most successful of these clubs ws that of the Jacobins which got its name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris.
(iii) In the summer of 1792, the Jacobins planned an insurrection of a large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food. On August 10, they stormed the palace of the Tuileries, massacred the king’s guards and held the king himself hostage for several hours. Later the Assembly voted to imprison the royal family.
The Jacobin regime from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror.

Question.27. What was the contribution of Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes to the French Revolution?
Answer. On 20 June, 1789, the representatives of the Third Estate had assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared themselves a National Assembly and did not disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France. They were led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes. Himself from a noble family, Mirabeau was convinced of the need to do away with a society of feudal privileges. He brought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles. Abbe Sieyes, originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’?

Question.28. How was the Church responsible for the French Revolution? Mention three points.
Answer.
(i) The members of the church, clergy belonged to the First Estate. The clergy enjoyed all privileges with no obligations. They lived in pomp and extravagance which led to resentment among the members of the Third Estate.
(ii) The church was owner of a big chunk of land in France. It maintained a fedal set up.
(iii) The church too extracted its share of taxes called tithes from the peasants. Apart from this, the church also collected several other dues.

Question.29. How did the peasants contribute to the outbreak of the French Revolution? Explain.
Answer. The peasants constituted the majority of the Third Estate which led the revolution. Peasants made up about 90 per cent of the population. However, only a small number of them owned the land they cultivated. They had to bear the burden of taxation. The nobles extracted fedal dues from the peasants. Peasants were obliged to render services to the lord–to work in his house and fields and to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
The exploitation of peasantry and their misery led the peasants to revolt. They became the most vociferous section of the Third Estate which led the revolution. Moreover, the peasants were the worst victims of the Subsistence Crisis which occurred frequently in France during the Old Regime.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Describe any four causes for the fall of Jacobin government in France.
Answer. (i) The Jacobin government in France was based on extreme measures. The period from 1793-1794 is referred to as the reign of terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those he saw as being ‘enemies’ of the republic–nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods–were arrested, imprisoned and guillotined. This led to chaos and resentment among the people.
(ii) The Jacobin government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wage and prices. Meat and bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. This led to a feeling of resentment against the Jacobins. Peasants began opposing them.
(iii) Robespierre’s government ordered shutting down of churches and converting church buildings into barricades or offices. Thus the clergy turned against the Jacobin regime and hastened its fall.
(iv) Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters turned against him. They began to demand moderation and a middle path.
Finally, he himself was tried by a court in July 1794, arrested and guillotined.

Question.2. ‘The French philosophers of the 18th century greatly influenced the people and it led to the French Revolution.’ Comment on this statement.
Answer. Philosophers such as Montesquieu and Rousseau put forward ideas envisaging a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all. In his Two Treatises of Government, John Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch. Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on ‘social contract’ between people and their representatives. In the spirit of the laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. This form of government was put into force in USA. It was an important example for political thinkers in France.

Question.3. Explain the importance of the following events on the course of the French Revolution:
(a) Storming of the Bastille
(b) March on the Versailles by the women of Paris
(c) The passing of the Civil Constitution of the clergy
Answer. (a) On July 14, 1789, a mob of Paris stormed the fortress – the prison of Bastille – considered a symbol of oppression and despotism. The Swiss guards were killed and prisoners set free. The mob stole arms and ammunition. To this day, France celebrates ‘Bastille Day’ on 14th July every year.
(b) The march on the Versailles by women of Paris signified the fact that women became an active participant in the French Revolution. They gained an equal status in the society. The slogans of liberty, equality and fraternity became true.
(c) In 1790, the Civil Constitution nationalised the church. The clergy or group of persons who enjoyed special powers in the church were also forced to relinquish power. Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the church were confiscated.

Question.4. Describe the Reign of Terror and role played by Robespierre in it.
Answer. The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. Maximilian Robespierre, leader of the Jacobins, followed the policy of severe control and punishment. All those he saw as enemies of the Republic — ex-nobles, clergy, political opponents — were arrested, tried and guillotined if found guilty. He issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices. Meat and bread were rationed. Use of expensive white flour was forbidden. Robespierre followed his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. Finally, he was convicted, arrested and guillotined in July 1794.

Question.5. What is the legacy left by the French Revolution?
Answer. The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of the Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. Colonised people reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign state. Tipu Sultan and Rammohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas coming from the revolutionary France.

Question.6. What did the following symbols convey in the Declaration of Rights?
(i) The broken chain
(ii) The bundle of rods or fasces
(iii) The eye within a triangle radiating light
(iv) Sceptre
(v) Snake biting its tail to form a ring
(vi) Red Phrygian cap
(vii) Blue-White-Red
(viii) The winged woman
(ix) The law tablet
Answer.
(i) The broken chain : Chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.
(ii) The bundle of rods or fasces : One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle. Strength lies in unity.
(iii) The eye within a triangle radiating light : The all-seeing eye stands for knowledge. The rays of the sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance.
(iv) Sceptre : Symbol of royal power.
(v) Snake biting its tail to form a ring : Symbol of eternity. A ring has neither beginning nor end.
(vi) Red Phrygian cap : Cap worn by a slave upon becoming free.
(vii) Blue-white-red : The national colours of France.
(viii) The winged woman : Personification of the law.
(ix) The law tablet : The law is the same for all, and all are equal before it.

Question.7. Who were the Jacobins? What was their contribution to the French Revolution?
Answer. Political clubs had become rallying point for people who wanted to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action. The most successful of these clubs was that of the Jacobins. They got their name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris. They belonged to the less prosperous sections of the society. They included small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily wage earners. Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre. A large group among the Jacobin decided to wear long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers. This was to set themselves apart from the fashionable sections of society especially the nobles who wore knee breeches. It was a way of proclaiming the end of the power wielded by the wearers of knee breeches. These Jacobins came to be known as sans-culottes, literally meaning ‘those without knee breeches’. San-culottes men wore in addition the red cap that symbolised liberty. Women, however, were not allowed to do so.

In the summer of 1792, they planned an insurrection of a large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food. On August 10, they stormed the Palace of the Tuileries, massacred the king’s guards and imprisoned the king. Elections were now held. The newly elected assembly was called the Convention. On 21st September, 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.

Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on the charge of treason and executed on 21st January, 1793. The queen also met with the same fate.

Question.8. Discuss the participation of women in political clubs, their activities and demands. OR
Why were women disappointed by the constitution of 1791 in France? OR
What laws did the revolutionary government introduce to improve the lives of women?
Answer. From the very beginning, women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society. They hoped that their involvement would pressurize the revolutionary government to introduce measures to improve their lives. Most women of the third estate had to work for a living. They worked as seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market, or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people. Most women did not have access to education or job training. Their wages were lower than those of men.

In order to discuss and voice their interests women started their own political clubs and newspapers. About sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities. The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women was the most famous of them. One of their main demands was that women should be given the same political rights as men. Women were disappointed that the constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office.

In the early years, the revolutionary government did introduce laws that helped improve the lives of women. Together with the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls. Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their will. Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law. Divorce was made legal, and could be applied for by both women and men. Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small businesses.

Women’s struggle for equal political rights, however, continued. During the Reign of Terror, the new government issued laws ordering closure of women’s clubs, and banning their political activities. Women’s movements for voting rights and equal wages continued through the next two hundred years in many countries of the world. It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.

Question.9. “The revolutionary government took it upon themselves to pass laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.” Discuss this statement with special emphasis on the abolition of censorship.
Answer. The years following 1789 in France saw many such changes in the lives of men, women and children. The revolutionary governments took it upon themselves to pass laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.

One important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789 was the abolition of censorship. Earlier all written material and cultural activities — books, newspapers, plays — could be published or performed only after they had been approved by the censors of the king. Now the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen declared freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right. They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France. Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. Each side sought to convince the others of its position through the medium of print. Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large numbers of people. This was one way they could grasp and identify with ideas such as liberty or justice that political philosophers wrote about at length in texts. Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they travelled rapidly into the countryside.

Question.10. In what circumstances did the French Revolution start? OR
Discuss the political, economic and social causes of the French Revolution.
Answer. The French society was divided into three estates and only members of the Third Estate paid taxes. Long years of war and the cost of maintaining an extravagant court had sapped the finances of France. Rise in population, increase in the demand for foodgrains, steep rise in prices, low wages also taxed the French finances.

Question.11.State the election process of the National Assembly in France.
Answer. The constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn close the assembly. All citizens did not have the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of tax payeres.

Question.12. What changes were brought in France after the fall of Robespierre’s government? How did it lead to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte?
Answer. The fall of trhe Robespierre’s government led to the seizure of power by the wealthier middle classes. A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to non-propertied sections of society. It provided for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members. This was to check concentration of powers in the hands of a one man executive which could turn tyrannical. But the directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them. The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator Napoleon Bonaparte.

Question.13. Describe the importance of Declaration of the Right of Man in France.
Answer. The Declaration of the Right of Man in France was a landmark decision in the history of France. The constitution began with a declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights. That is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away. It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights. The declaration of the Right of Man and Citizens influenced revolutionary movements elsewhere too.

Question.14. What landmark decisions were taken by the National Assembly led by the Third Estate on 4th August, 1789?
Answer. Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would be checked by a constitution. On 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the fedal system of obligations and taxes. Members of the clergy too were forced to give up their privileges. Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the church were confiscated. As a result, the government acquired assets worth at least 2 billion livres.

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