Extra Questions 9th History Chapter 3 : Nazism and The Rise of Hitler

Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Question.1. What was the response of the Germans to the new Weimar Republic?
(a) They held the new Weimar Republic responsible for Germany’s defeat and the disgrace at Versailles
(b) The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation
(c) It became the target of attacks in the conservative national circles
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.2. In what ways did the First World War leave a deep imprint on European society and polity?
(a) Soldiers were put above civilians, trench-life was glorified
(b) Politicians and publicists laid stress on men to be aggressive and masculine
(c) Aggressive war propaganda and national honour were given the most support and Conservative dictatorships were welcomed
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.3. Which of the following statements is false about soldiers in the World War I?
(a) The soldiers, in reality, led miserable lives in trenches, survived with feeding on the copras
(b) They faced poisonous gas and enemy shelling and loss of comrades
(c) All soldiers were ready to die for their country’s honour and personal glory
(d) Aggressive propaganda glorified war
Ans. (c) All soldiers were ready to die for their country’s honour and personal glory

Question.4. The following statements are about Hitler’s early life. Which of them is incorrect?
(a) Hitler was born in 1889 in Austria and spent his youth in poverty
(b) He joined the army during World War I and earned accolades for bravery
(c) He was totally unaffected by German defeat in the war and only thought of improving his career
(d) In 1919 he joined a small group called the German Workers’ Party, which later was known as the Nazi Party.
Ans. (c) He was totally unaffected by German defeat in the war and only thought of improving his career

Question.5. The Treaty of Versailles (1920) signed at the end of World War I, was harsh and humiliating for Germany, because
(a) Germany lost its overseas colonies, and 13 percent of its territories
(b) It lost 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania, was forced to pay compensation of 6 billion pounds
(c) The western powers demilitarised Germany and they occupied resource-rich Rhineland in the 1920s
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.6. Which of the following was a special surveillance and security force created by Hitler?
(a) Regular police force in green uniform and stormtroopers
(b) Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (the protection squads)
(c) Criminal police (SD), the security service
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.7. What was Hitler’s historic blunder and why?
(a) Attack on Soviet Union in 1941 was a historic blunder by Hitler
(b) He exposed his western front to British aerial bombing
(c) The Soviet Red Army inflicted a crushing and humiliating defeat on Germany at Stalingrad
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.8. Hitler’s world view, which was also the Nazi ideology, was
(a) There was no equality between people, only a racial hierarchy
(b) The blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top and Jews at the bottom. The coloured people were placed in between
(c) Jews were the anti-race, the arch enemies of the Aryans
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.9. Why did Helmuth’s father kill himself in the spring of 1945?
(a) He was depressed by Germany’s defeat in Second World War
(b) He feared that common people would mishandle him and his family
(c) He feared revenge by the Allied Powers
(d) He wanted to die because of the crimes he had committed during Nazi rule
Ans. (c) He feared revenge by the Allied Powers

Question.10. Which of the following countries led the Allied Powers in the Second World War?
(a) UK and France
(b) USSR and USA
(c) Germany and Austria
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.11. Which of the following bodies was set up to try and prosecute the Nazi war criminals at the end of World War II?
(a) International Military Tribunal
(b) British Military Tribunal
(c) Allied Military Tribunal
(d) Allied Judicial Court
Ans. (a) International Military Tribunal

Question.12. Germany’s ‘genocidal war’ was against which of the following people?
(a) Jews and political opponents
(b) Gypsies and Polish civilians
(c) Germans who were considered mentally and physically disabled
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.13. Why did the Nuremburg Tribunal sentence only 11 Nazis to death for such a massive genocide?
(a) Only these 11 Nazis were found guilty
(b) The Allies did not want to be harsh on the defeated Germany as they had been after World War I
(c) Germany promised never to repeat such an act
(d) Germany was ready to pay a huge compensation to the Allied countries for these killings
Ans. (b) The Allies did not want to be harsh on the defeated Germany as they had been after World War I

Question.14. Against which of these countries had Germany fought during World War I (1914-1918) ?
(a) England
(b) France
(c) Russia
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.15. What was the most important result of the Spartacus League uprising in Germany in 1918-19 ?
(a) The Weimar Republic crushed the rebellion
(b) The Spartacists founded the Communist Party of Germany
(c) The Weimar government accepted the demands of the Spartacus League
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.16. Who were called the ‘November criminals’?
(a) The Opponents of Weimar Republic
(b) The Emperor who abdicated, and his men
(c) The supporters of Weimar Republic
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) The supporters of Weimar Republic

Question.17. War in 1917 led to the strengthening of Allies and the defeat of Germany because of entry of
(a) China
(b) Japan
(c) the USA
(d) Spain
Ans. (c) the USA

Question.18. The National Assembly met at Weimer and decided to establish
(a) a democratic constitution with a federal structure
(b) a communist form of government
(c) a powerful monarchy
(d) a military state
Ans. (a) a democratic constitution with a federal structure

Question.19. What was ‘Dawes Plan’?
(a) A plan which imposed more fines on Germany
(b) A plan which withdrew all punishment from Germany
(c) A plan which reworked the terms of reparation to ease financial burden on the Germans
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) A plan which reworked the terms of reparation to ease financial burden on the Germans

Question.20. Which of the following statements is true about the economic crisis in Germany in 1923?
(a) The value of ‘Mark’ (German currency) collapsed
(b) Prices of goods soared high
(c) Weimer Republic brought economic prosperity
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.21. What gave Nazi state its reputation as the most dreaded criminal state?
(a) Extra-constitutional powers were given to the newly organised forces like Gestapo, the SS and SD
(b) People could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers and sent to concentration camps
(c) No legal procedures were there for the arrested people
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.22. Which of the following was a feature of Hitler’s foreign policy?
(a) He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933
(b) He decided not to attack any country
(c) He thanked the Allied Powers for having put Germany on the right track
(d) All the above
Ans. (a) He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933

Question.23. What was the slogan coined by Hitler when he followed his aggressive foreign policy?
(a) Messenger from God
(b) Conquer the world
(c) One people, One empire, and One leader
(d) We are Aryans, the real rulers
Ans. (c) One people, One empire, and One leader

Question.24. Which incident led to the start of World War II?
(a) German invasion of Switzerland
(b) German invasion of Poland
(c) Russian invasion of Germany
(d) Japan’s sinking of ship at Pearl Harbour
Ans. (b) German invasion of Poland

Question.25. When and among which countries was the Tripartite Pact signed?
(a) 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan
(b) 1939, Germany, Austria and USSR
(c) 1940, England, France and USA
(d) 1938, England, Germany and USSR
Ans. (a) 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan

Question.26. When did Germany attack the Soviet Union?
(a) 1939
(b) 1941
(c) 1942
(d) 1943
Ans. (b) 1941

Question.27. Which incident persuaded the USA to join the war?
(a) Hitler’s attack on Eastern Europe
(b) Hitler’s policy of genocide of the Jews
(c) Helplessness of England and France
(d) Japan’s attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour
Ans. (d) Japan’s attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour

Question.28. When did the Second World War come to an end?
(a) January 1944
(b) May 1945
(c) June 1946
(d) August 1947
Ans. (b) May 1945

Question.29. What was Hitler’s ideology of ‘lebensraum’ or living space?
(a) Multi-storeyed buildings should be built in Germany to increase the living space
(b) The world must be occupied enabling the material resources and power of the German nation.
(c) New territories had to be acquired for settlement
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Ans. (d) Both (b) and (c)

Question.30. According to the Nazis, which people were to be regarded as desirable?
(a) Pure and healthy Nordic Aryans
(b) German soldiers who helped in territorial expansion
(c) German police of different types
(d) All those who were willing to consider Hitler as God
Ans. (a) Pure and healthy Nordic Aryans

Question.31. Which of these were the reasons of Nazi hatred of the Jews?
(a) Jews had been stereotyped as killers of Christ
(b) They were ‘usurers’, i.e. moneylenders
(c) The Jews had always cheated the Nazis
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question.32. In which country did Nazi Germany first try its experiment of ‘concentration of Germans in one area’?
(a) Poland
(b) France
(c) Czechoslovakia
(d) England
Ans. (a) Poland

Question.33. What was the destination of all ‘undesirables’ of the German Empire called?
(a) Land of ‘undesirables’
(b) Cursed land
(c) General government
(d) Land for the abnormals
Ans. (c) General government

Question.34. The Nuremburg laws of citizenship of 1935 stated that :
(a) Only persons of German or related blood would henceforth be German citizens
(b) Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden
(c) Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.35. Who wrote ‘Mein Kampf’?
(a) Herbert Spencer
(b) Charles Darwin
(c) Adolf Hitler
(d) Goebbels
Ans. (c) Adolf Hitler

Question.36. What was Nazi Ideology with regard to schoolchildren?
(a) He believed that education of children was not necessary
(b) A control should be kept over children both inside and outside school
(c) All children should be regarded as equal
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) A control should be kept over children both inside and outside school

Question.37. What was the process of Nazi schooling for ‘Good German children’?
(a) Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race
(b) School textbooks were rewritten
(c) Even the function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.38. What was ‘Jungvolk’ in Nazi Germany?
(a) Magazine
(b) Holocaust camp
(c) Youth organisation
(d) Schools
Ans. (c) Youth organisation

Question.39. What was the thinking of Nazi Germany about women?
(a) The fight for equality between men and women was wrong
(b) Girls had to maintain the purity of the race and teach their children Nazi values
(c) Their role was to be of mothers who had to be bearers of the Aryan culture and race
(d) All the above
Ans. (d) All the above

Question.40. Which of the following points about state behaviour towards women in Germany is not correct?
(a) In Nazi Germany, all mothers were treated equally
(b) Women who bore racially undersirable children were punished
(c) Those who produced racially desirable children were awarded
(d) Honour crosses were awarded to women to produce more children
Ans. (a) In Nazi Germany, all mothers were treated equally

Question.41. What did the term ‘Evacuation’ mean?
(a) Living in separately marked areas called ghettos
(b) Deporting people to gas chambers
(c) Arrested without any legal procedures
(d) Detained without due process of law
Ans. (b) Deporting people to gas chambers

Question.42. Who among the following was assigned the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler?
(a) Goebbels
(b) Hindenburg
(c) Hjalmar Schacht
(d) Adam Smith
Ans. (c) Hjalmar Schacht

Question.43. In context of Germany what was ‘Holocaust’?
(a) Nazi propaganda
(b) Nazi Honour Crosses
(c) Nazi killing operations
(d) A Nazi School
Ans. (c) Nazi killing operations

Question.44. When did Germany withdraw herself from the League of Nations?
(a) 1930
(b) 1931
(c) 1932
(d) 1933
Ans. (d) 1933

Question.45. Who was the propaganda minister of Hitler?
(a) Hjalmar Schacht
(b) Hindenburg
(c) Goebbels
(d) Helmuth
Ans. (c) Goebbels

Question.46. In Germany students between 10-14 years of Age had to join an organisation named :
(a) Jungvolk
(b) Hitler’s youth
(c) Volkswogan
(d) Young Nazi Party
Ans. (b) Hitler’s youth

Question.47. What was the name given to gas chambers by Nazis ?
(a) Killing Machine
(b) Solution Areas
(c) Revolutionary Ground
(d) Disinfection Areas
Ans. (d) Disinfection Areas

Question.48. Name the book written by Charlotte Beredt about dreams of Jews :
(a) Fearfull Dreams
(b) Third Reich of Dreams
(c) Dreams of Death
(d) Dreams of Reich
Ans. (b) Third Reich of Dreams

Question.49. Hitler took over the German Workers Party and re-named it as :
(a) Secular German Workers
(b) Socialist Workers of Germany
(c) National Socialist Party
(d) National Workers of Germany
Ans. (c) National Socialist Party

Question.50. Which article of the Weimar Constitution gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree in Germany ?
(a) 46
(b) 47
(c) 48
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) 48

Question.51. The Great Depression was a period of :
(a) Economic crisis
(b) Global crisis
(c) Political crisis
(d) Social crisis
Ans. (a) Economic crisis

Question.52. An infamous film, which was made to create hatred for Jews was :
(a) The Essential Jew
(b) The Evergreen Jew
(c) The Eternal Jew
(d) The Emigrant Jew
Ans. (c) The Eternal Jew

Question.53. The Nazi party had become the largest party by :
(a) 1930
(b) 1931
(c) 1932
(d) 1933
Ans. (c) 1932

Question.54. In May 1945, Germany surrendered to :
(a) Britain
(b) USA
(c) Italy
(d) Allies
Ans. (d) Allies

Question.55. To justify Nazi ideas of race :
(a) Social Science was introduced
(b) Racial Science was introduced
(c) Biological Science was introduced
(d) Moral Science was introduced
Ans. (b) Racial Science was introduced

Question.56. People who supported the Weimar Republic were :
(a) Socialists, Communists, Democrats
(b) Democrats only
(c) Catholics, Protestants, Conservatives
(d) Socialists, Catholics, Democrats
Ans. (d) Socialists, Catholics, Democrats

Question.57. Who amongst these offered Chancellorship to Hitler ?
(a) Churchil
(b) Plato
(c) Helmuth
(d) Hindenburg
Ans. (d) Hindenburg

Question.58. Who among the following propounded the theory of the “Survival of the Fittest’’ ?
(a) Charles Darwin
(b) Herbert Spencer
(c) Adolf Hitler
(d) Isaac Newton
Ans. (b) Herbert Spencer

Question.59. The German Parliament is known as :
(a) National Parliament
(b) German Legislature
(c) Duma
(d) Reichstag
Ans. (d) Reichstag

Question.60. The Treaty of Versailles was hated by Germany because :
(a) Germany lost 75% of its iron
(b) Germany was demilitarised
(c) Both of the above
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) Both of the above

Short Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Describe what happened to Germany after its defeat in the First World War.
Answer. World War I, ended with the Allies defeating Germany and the Central powers in November 1918. The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating treaty. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13 percent of its territories, 75 percent of its iron and 26 percent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.

The Allied Powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to 6 billion. The Allied armies also occupied the resource-rich Rhineland for much of the 1920s.

Question.2. Give four reasons for Hitler’s rise to power. OR
Discuss the factors contributing to the meteoric rise of Hitler.
Answer.

  1. The crisis in the economy, polity and society formed the background of Hitler’s rise to power. Born in 1889 in Austria, Hitler spent his youth in poverty. The German defeat horrified him and the Versailles Treaty made him furious (1st reason).
    In 1919, he joined a small group called the German Workers’ Party. He subsequently took over the organisation and renamed it the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party. This party came to be known as the Nazi Party. Hitler assured the Germans about the establishment of the old prestige.
  2. The economic crisis : Germany had to face a great economic crisis after the First World War. Many soldiers were no longer in service, so they became unemployed. Trade and commerce was ruined. Germany was in the grip of unemployment and starvation.
  3. Exploiting the mentality of the Germans : The Germans had no faith in democracy. It was against their culture and tradition. They at once gave their support to a strong man like Hitler who could transfer their dreams into reality.
  4. Making the best use of his personal qualities : Hitler was a powerful orator, an able organiser.

Question.3. Explain any three of the following terms :
(a) Lebensraum
(b) A Racial State
(c) Propaganda
(d) Ghettoisation and concentration camps
(e) Jungvolk
Answer. (a) Lebensraum : It was an aspect of Hitler’s Ideology which is related to the geopolitical concept of living space. He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement. This would enhance the area of the mother country while enabling the settlers on new lands to retain an intimate link with the place of their origin.
(b) Racial State : Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure Germans by physically eliminating all those who were seen as ‘undesirable’ in the extended empire. Nazis only wanted a society of ‘pure and healthy Nordic Aryans’. They alone were considered ‘desirable’.
(c) Propaganda : The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect. They used films, pictures, radio, posters, etc. to spread hatred for the Jews. Propaganda is a specific type of message directly aimed at influencing the opinion of people through the use of posters, films, speeches etc.
(d) Ghettoisation and Concentration Camps : From September 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David on their breasts. This identity mark was stamped on their passport, all legal documents and houses. They were kept in Jewish houses in Germany and in ghettos like Lodz and Warsaw in the east. These became sites of extreme misery and poverty. The largest Nazi concentration camp is identified with Auschwitz (Poland). Built in 1940, the camp served as a major element in perpetration of the holocaust, killing around 16 million people of whom 90 % were Jews. The camp was surrounded with barbed wire. The camp held 100,000 prisoners at one time. The camp’s main purpose was not internment but extermination. For this purpose, the camp was equipped with four gas chambers, and each chamber could hold 2,500 people at one time.
(e) Jungvolk : These were Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age. Youth organisations were made responsible for educating German youth in ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk. At 14, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organisation.

Question.4. Explain the role of women in Hitler’s Germany. OR
What responsibilities did the Nazi state impose on women.
Answer. According to Hitler’s ideology, women were radically different from men. The democratic idea of equal rights for men and women was wrong and would destroy society.

  1. While boys were taught to be aggressive, masculine and steel-hearted, girls were told that they had to become good mothers and rear pure blooded Aryan children.
  2. Girls had to maintain the purity of the race, distance themselves from Jews, look after the home and teach their children Nazi values. They had to be the bearers of the Aryan culture and race.

Hitler said, ‘‘In my state the mother is the most important citizen.’’ But in Nazi Germany all mothers were not treated equally.

Question.5. Explain the main views of Hitler as expressed in his book ‘Mein Kampf’.
Answer. Adolf Hitler wrote a book entitled ‘Mein Kampf’. Its literal meaning is ‘My Struggle’. This book expresses some of the most monstrous ideas of the Nazi movement.

He glorified the use of force and brutalities and the rule by a great leader and ridiculed internationalism, peace and democracy. These principles were accepted by all followers of Hitler. Throughout Germany an atmosphere of terror was created. Hitler glorified violent nationalism and extolled war. He wrote this book at the age of 35, it is an autobiographical book; in this book Hitler has poured out his hatred for democracy, Marxism and the Jews. He also revealed his bitterness over German surrender in World War I.

Question.6. Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but for the entire Europe? OR
How did Hitler destroy democracy in Germany? Explain.
Answer. Nazi ideology specified that there was racial hierarchy and no equality between people. The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were located somewhere on the lowest rung of the ladder. The number of people killed by Nazi Germany were 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 million Polish civilians, 70,000 Germans.

Nazism glorified the use of force and brutality. It ridiculed internationalism, peace and democracy. Nazi Germany became the most dreaded criminal state. Hitler chose war as the way out of approaching the economic crisis. Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England in September 1940.

Question.7. ‘The German economy was the worst hit by the economic crisis.’ Discuss.
Answer. The image of a German carrying cartloads of currency notes to buy a loaf of bread was widely publicised evoking worldwide sympathy. This crisis came to be known as a ‘‘hyperinflation’’, a situation when prices rise phenomenally high. The German economy was the worst hit by economic crisis. Industrial production was reduced to 40 percent of the 1929 level. Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages. The number of the unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million.

On the streets of Germany you could see men with placards around their necks saying, ‘‘willing to do any work.” The economic crisis created deep anxieties and fears in people. The middle classes, specially the salaried employees and pensioners saw their savings diminish when the currency lost its value.

Small businessmen, the self-employed and retailers suffered as their business got ruined. Only organised workers could manage to keep their heads above water. The big business was in crisis, the peasantry was affected by a sharp fall in agricultural prices.

Question.8. Explain how the fragility of Weimar Republic led to the rise of Hitler.
Answer. The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was the biggest problem faced by the Weimar Republic. Due to this treaty, Weimar Republic was not received well by its own people, i.e. the Germans, largely because of the harsh terms it was forced to accept after Germany’s defeat in the First World War.

At this time started the Nazi movement. It believed in glorification of state. It also believed in war, colonialism, militarism and expansionism. It was opposed to democracy, liberalism, socialism, world peace and internationalism.

The unpopularity of Weimar Republic paved the way for the rise of Nazism and Hitler. Hitler was a tireless worker and an able organiser. He was an effective orator, he promised to save the country. He won the nationalists by promising to vindicate national honour by repudiating the Treaty of Versailles. The middle class was assured economic relief and the disbanded soldiers’ employment. This led to the rise and popularity of Hitler and Nazism in Germany.

Question.9. ‘Nazi ideology was synonymous with Hitler’s world view.’ Explain.
Answer. ‘Nazi’ ideology was synonymous with Hitler’s world view. It said and meant that there was no equality between people but only a racial hierarchy. According to it, blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung of the ladder. They came to be regarded as an anti-race. Darwin was a natural scientist, who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer later added the idea of the ‘survival of the fittest.’ Their ideas were borrowed by the Nazis – whose argument was, the “strongest race would survive and the weak ones would perish. The Aryan race was the finest. It had to retain its purity, became stronger and dominate the world.”

The other aspect of Hitler’s ideology was the concept of ‘lebensraum’ or living space meaning new territories should be acquired, as it would enhance the area of the mother country.

Question.10. Explain the social utopia of the Nazis.
Answer. According to Hitler and Nazi ideology, there was no equality between people, but only social hierarchy. In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung. They came to be regarded as an anti-race, the arch enemies of the Aryans.

Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure German by physically eliminating all those who were seen as ‘undesirable’ in the extended empire. Nazis wanted in a society of ‘pure and healthy Nordic Aryans’. They alone were considered ‘desirable’. Under the shadow of war, the Nazis proceeded to realise their murderous, racial ideal.

Genocide and war became two sides of the same coin. Occupied Poland was divided up. Much of north-western Poland was annexed to Germany. Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe. Poles were then herded like cattle in the other part called the ‘General Government’, the destination of all ‘undesirables’ of the empire. With some of the largest ghettos and gas chambers, the General Government also served as the killing field for the Jews.

Question.11. What happened in schools under Nazism? OR
How were the schools in Germany ‘cleansed’ and ‘purified’ under Nazi rule?
Answer. All schools were cleansed and purified. This meant that teachers who were Jews or seen as politically unreliable were dismissed. Children were segregated — Germans and Jews could not sit together or play together. Later on the undesirable children — the Jews, the physically handicapped, gypsies — were thrown out of schools. In the 1940s, they were taken to gas chambers. Children in school were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews and worship Hitler. Sports was given great importance. The function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children. Stereotypes of Jews was propagated through all classes. Schooling was a prolonged period of ideological training.

Question.12. ‘In my state the mother is the most important citizen.’ Discuss this statement made by Hitler.
Answer. Though Hitler said that in my state the mother is the most important citizen, it was not true. In Nazi Germany, all mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially desirable children were awarded, while those who bore racially undesirable children were punished. Women who bore ‘desirable’ children were entitled to privileges and rewards. They were given special treatment in hospitals and concessions in shops and on theatre tickets and railway fares.

Question.13. What were the steps taken by Hitler as Chancellor to deal with the economic difficulties? Which two things symbolized the economic recovery of Germany?
Answer.

  1. First, Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht, who aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work creation programme.
  2. Hitler chose was as the way out of the approaching economic crisis. Resources were to be accumulated through expansion of territory.

The famous German highways and the people’s car, the Volkswagen became the symbols of Germany’s economic recovery.

Question.14. Describe the main provisions of Treaty of Versailles?
Answer. The Treaty of Versailles was harsh and humiliating peace for the Germans.

  1. Germany lost all its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population.
  2. 13 percent of its territories, 75 percent of its iron and 26 percent of its coal to France.
  3.  Germany was demilitarised to weaken its power.
  4. The war guilt clause held Germany responsible for war and damages the Allied countries suffered. It was forced to pay a compensation amounting to £6 billion.
  5. The Allied forces occupied the resource-rich Rhineland till the 1920s.

Question.15. How did the ordinary Germans react to Nazism?
Answer. Many saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in Nazi language. They felt hatred and anger even when some one they thought who looked like a Jew. They reported against suspected Jews and marked their houses. They believed Nazism would make them prosperous and happy.

  • The large number of Germans were passive onlookers, too scared to act, to differ or protest.
  • They preferred to keep away.
  • Only a few organised active resistance to Nazism.

Question.16. Examine any three features of racial hierarchy that was promoted by Hitler in Germany under his Nazi ideology.
Answer.

  1. According to Nazi ideology, there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy. In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung.
  2. Hitler’s racism borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Darwin believed in the theory of natural selection. Herbert Spencer added the idea of survival of the fittest.
  3. The Nazi believed that the strongest race would survive and the weak would perish. The Aryan race was the finest. It had to retain its purity, become stronger and dominate the world.

Question.17. From whom did Hitler borrow his racist ideology? Explain.
Answer. Hitler borrowed his racist ideology from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer later on added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species survived on earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions. Darwin never advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection. However, his ideas were used by racist thinkers and politicians to justify imperial rule over conquered peoples.

Question.18. Why did Germany suffer from ‘‘Hyperinflation” in 1923? Who bailed her out from this situation?
Answer. Germany had fought the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold. This depleted gold reserves at a time resources were scarce. In 1923 Germany refused to pay and the French occupied Ruhr, to claim their coal. Germany retaliated with passive resistance and printed paper currency recklessly. With too much printed money in circulation the value of the German mark fell. In April the US dollar was equal to 24,000 marks, in July 353,000 marks and at 98,860,000 marks by December, the figure had run into trillions. As the value of the marks collapsed, prices of goods soared. This crisis came to be known as hyperinflation, a situation when prices rise phenomenally high.

Question.19. Why did USA enter into the Second World War?
Answer. When the Second World War broke out, the US announced her neutrality. In July 1941, the Japanese had occupied Vietnam in Indo-China. In October, an even more aggressive government came to power in Japan. On 7 December 1941, the Japanese bombers attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. The US had expected Japanese attack on the British and Dutch colonial possessions in the area and was completely taken by surprise. In bombing, 188 aircraft and many battleships, cruisers and other naval vessels of the US were destroyed and over 2000 sailors and soldiers killed. The US was angry at this development. On 8 December, the US declared war on Japan. On 11 December, Germany and Italy declared war on the US and the US declared war on Germany and Italy.

Question.20. What were the promises made by Hitler to people of Germany?
Answer. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. He promised employment for those looking for work, and a secure future for the youth. He promised to weed out all foreign influences and resist all foreign conspiracies, against Germany.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question.1. Give reasons why the Weimar Republic failed to solve the problems of Germany.
Answer.

  • The birth of the Weimar Republic coincided with the uprising of the Spartacus League on the pattern of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. The Democrats, Socialists and Catholics opposed it. They met in Weimar to give shape to a democratic republic. The republic was not received well by its own people largely because of the terms it was forced to accept after Germany’s defeat at the end of the First World War.
  • Many Germans held the new Weimar Republic responsible for not only the defeat in the war but the disgrace at Versailles. This republic was finally crippled by being forced to pay compensation. Soon after the economic crisis hit Germany in 1923, the value of German mark fell considerably. The Weimar Republic had to face hyperinflation. Then came the Wall Street
    exchange crash in 1929.
  • Politically too the Weimar Republic was fragile. The Weimar Constitution had some inherent defects, which made it unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship. One was proportional representation. This made achieving a majority by any one party a near impossible task, leading to a rule by coalitions.
  • Another defect was Article 48, which gave the president the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree. Within its short life, the Weimar Republic saw twenty different cabinets lasting on a average 239 days, and a liberal use of Article 48. Yet the crisis could not be managed. People lost confidence in the democratic parliamentary system, which seemed to offer no solutions.

Question.2. Why was Nazism considered to be a negation of both democracy and socialism?
Answer. After assuming power on 30th January 1933, Hitler set out to dismantle the structure of democratic rule. The Fire decree of 28th February 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly that had been guaranteed by the Weimar constitution. The repression of the Jews and Communists was severe. On 3rd March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Adolf Hitler all political and administrative power to sideline the German parliament. All political parties of Germany and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary. Special surveillance and security forces besides the existing regular police force, the Gestapo, the SD plus the extra-constitutional powers of these newly constructed forces gave the Nazi state its reputation of being the most dreaded criminal state.

Question.3. Describe Hitler’s rise to power with reference to his
(a) Policy towards the youth
(b) His personal qualities
(c) Development of the art of propaganda
Answer. (a) Policy towards youth : Hitler was fanatically interested in the youth of the country. He felt that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children the Nazi ideology. This required a control over the child, both inside and outside school. Good German children were subjected to a process of Nazi schooling, a prolonged period of ideological training. School textbooks were rewritten. Racial science was introduced to justify the Nazi ideas of race. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews, worship Hitler. Even the function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children. Hitler believed that boxing could make children iron-hearted, the strong and masculine.

Youth organisations were made responsible for educating the German youth in ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk. At 14, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organisation – Hitler youth – where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, condemn democracy, hate Jews, Communists, Gypsies and all those termed as ‘undesirables’.

After a period of rigorous ideological and physical training, they joined the labour service usually at the age of 18. Then they had to serve in the armed forces and enter one of the Nazi organisations.
(b) His personal qualities : Hitler was a tireless worker and an able organiser. He had a charming personality. He was an effective orator. Bitterly anti-Communist, he promised to save the country from the onslaught of communism. He won over the nationalists by promising to vindicate national honour by repudiating the Treaty of Versailles.
(c) Development of the art of propaganda : The Nazi regime used language and media with care, and often to great effect. The terms they coined to describe their various practices were not only deceptive, they were chillings. Nazis never used words ‘‘kill’’ or ‘‘murder’’ in their official communications. Mass killings were termed ‘special treatment’, final solution (for the Jews), euthanasia (for the disabled), selection and disinfections. ‘Evacuation’ meant deporting people to gas chambers. The gas chambers were labelled as ‘disinfection areas’, and looked like bathrooms equipped with fake shower-heads. Media was carefully used to win support for the regime and popularise its world view. Nazi ideas were spread through usual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogans and leaflets. In posters, groups identified as the ‘enemies’ of Germans were stereotyped, mocked, abused and described as evil.

Question.4. Describe in detail Hitler’s treatment of the Jews. OR
Explain Nazi ideologies regarding the Jews.
Answer.

  • Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure Germans by physically eliminating all those who were seen as ‘‘undesirable’’ in the extended empire were mentally or physically unfit Germans, Gypsies, blacks, Russians, Poles. But Jews remained the worst sufferers in Nazi Germany. They were stereotyped as ‘killers of Christ and usurers’.
  • Until medieval times, Jews were barred from owning land. They survived mainly through trade and moneylending. They lived in separately marked areas called ‘ghettos’. They were often persecuted through periodic organised violence and expulsion from land. All this had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility towards Jews for being the killers of Christ. However, Hitler’s hatred of the Jews was based on pseudo-scientific theories of race, which held that conversion was no solution to ‘the Jewish problem’. It could be solved only through their total elimination.
  • From 1933 to 1938, the Nazis terrorised, pauperised and segregated the Jews, compelling them to leave the country. The next phase of 1939-1945 aimed at concentrating them in certain areas and eventually killing them in gas chambers in Poland.
  • Under the shadow of war, the Nazis proceeded to realise their murderous, racial ideal. Genocide and war became two sides of the same coin.

Question.5. “The seeds of the Second World War were sown in the Treaty of Versailles.” Discuss. OR
What were the effects of peace treaty on Germany after the First World War?
Answer.

  • The defeat of Germany in World War I made Hitler angry. It horrified him. The Treaty of Versailles made him furious. He joined the German Workers Party and renamed it National Socialist German Workers Party. This later came to be known as the Nazi Party.
  • Hitler promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. After First World War, Germany was compelled to sign this treaty under the threat of war.
  • So to undo the wrong of the Versailles Treaty, to put Germany on its feet, to bring financial stability, to realise its dreams of creating a nation of pure Germans who belonged to an exclusive racial community of pure, healthy, Nordic German Aryans, and to make Germany into a mighty power, Hitler choose war.
  • In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England. In 1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan, strengthening Hitler’s claim to international power. Puppet regimes, supportive of Nazi Germany, were installed in a large part of Europe. Hitler then attacked the Soviet Union. But suffered a crushing defeat.
  • After the Pearl Harbour incident, USA entered the war.
  • Thus we see a direct link from the Treaty of Versailles to World War two.

Question.6. What was the Nazi ideology of Lebensraum? How did they proceed to actualise it?
Answer.

  • Lebensraum was the other aspect of Hitler’s ideology related to a geopolitical concept. It meant living space. He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement. This would enhance the area of the mother country, while enabling the settlers on new lands to retain an intimate link with the place of their origin. It would also enhance the material resources and power of the German nation.
  • Hitler intended to extend German boundaries by moving eastwards to concentrate all Germans geographically in one place. Poland became the laboratory for this experimentation.
  • Hitler wrote (Secret Book, ed. Telford Taylor), ‘‘A vigorous nation will always find ways of adapting its territory to its population size.’’ Thus Hitler turned its attention in conquering Eastern Europe. He wanted to ensure food supplies and Living Space for Germans.

Question.7. ‘The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect.” Explain.
Answer.

  • “The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect. They never used such commonplace revealing terms as ‘‘kill, murder’’ in their official communications. Mass killings were termed special treatment, final solution (for the Jews), euthanasia (for the disabled) selection and disinfections.
  • ‘Evacuation’ meant deporting people to gas chambers. Gas chambers were called ‘disinfection areas’. They looked like bathrooms equipped with fake showerheads.
  • Media was carefully used to win support for the regime and popularise its world view. Nazi ideas were spread through visual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogans and leaflets for the Jews. The most infamous film was ‘The Eternal Jew’. They were shown with flowing beards, wearing Kaftans, whereas in reality it was difficult to distinguish German Jews by their appearance because they were a highly assimilated community.

Question.8. Describe the early life of Hitler prior to his assuming power as the dictator of Nazi Germany.
Answer. Hitler was born in 1889 in Austria. He spent his youth in poverty. When the first World War broke out, he enrolled for the army, acted as a messenger in the front, became a corporal, and earned medals for bravery. The German defeat horrified him and the Versailles Treaty made him furious. In 1919, he joined a small group called the German Workers’ Party. He subsequently took over the organisation and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. This party was popularly known as the Nazi party.

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