History Chapter 2

History

India and Contemporary World - II

Class 10

Chapter 2

Nationalism in India

History Chapter 2: Nationalism in India is very important from the examination point of view. History Chapter 2: Nationalism in India gives a detailed idea about the freedom struggle of India and how the feeling of Nationalism developed in people of India. 

We have tried to provide the best study material covering all the topics. We have also indexed all the topics in the start so that reader can easily access the topic directly by clicking into the topic.

History Chapter 2: Nationalism in India have been prepared in such a way that reader will not be needed any other material. Starting with Revision notes, which covers Important symbols, Important Personalities, Important Dates to remember, Important terms and summary of the History Chapter 2: Nationalism in India. After this, solutions  of Intext questions along with NCERT solution is also given. 

Extra questions have also divided categorically such as Very Short Answer Type Questions covering MCQs, Fill ups and True/False, Short Answer Type Questions, Long Answer Type Questions and HOTS.

According to the new education policy, new type of questions have been introduced since 2020. In accordance to that Assertion Reason and Case Study Questions have also been included in the study material of History Chapter 2: Nationalism in India.     

In last, various practice papers are given. 

Revision Notes

1. Important Dates to Remember

  • 1885 : The first meeting of the Indian National Congress in Bombay.
  • 1905 : The Partition of Bengal officially came into existence.
  • 1906 : Formation of the Muslim League.
  • 1913 – 1918 : The war prices increased in double.
  • 1914 – 1918 : The First World War.
  • 1917 : Mahatma Gandhi organized Satyagraha Movement in Kheda District (Gujarat).
  • 1918 : Mahatma Gandhi organized Satyagraha Movement in Ahmedabad.
  • 1919 : Rowlatt Act was Passed (It gave the government enormous power to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years).
  • 10th April, 1919 : The police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession. Martial law was imposed.
  • 1918-1919 & 1920
  • 1921 : Crop failure.
  • March, 1919 : Khilafat Committee founded in Bombay.
  • 13th April, 1919 : Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
  • September, 1920 : Congress Session in Calcutta- Decided to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
  • 1920 : Mahatma Gandhi leads the Congress; Non-Cooperation Movement launched.
  • December, 1920 : Congress Session at Nagpur — A compromise was worked out and the Non-cooperation programme was adopted.
  • 1920 : The peasant movement in Awadh spread, but the Congress Leader were not happy with them.
  • 1921 : Famines and the epidemic.
  • 1921 : A militant Guerrilla movement spread in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. Movement started by Alluri Sitaram Raju.
  • 1921-1922 : The Import of foreign cloth halved. June,1920 Jawaharlal Nehru going around the village in Awadh.
  • February, 1922 : Mahatma Gandhi decided to Withdraw Non-Cooperation Movement. Establishment of Swaraj Party by Motilal Nehru and C.R.Dass.
  • 1924 : Raju was captured and executed.
  • 1927 : The Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI).
  • 1928 : Simon Commission arrived in India.
  • 1928 : Foundation of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA).
  • October, 1929 : A vague offer of ‘Dominion Status ‘ for India offered by Lord Irwin.
  • October, 1929 : Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by J.L. Nehru.
  • December, 1929 : Lahore Session of the Congress- Demand for Purna Swaraj.
  • January 26,1930 : Celebrated as the Independence day.
  • January 31,1930 : Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating 11 demands.
  • April, 1930 : Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested.
  • April 6, 1930 : The salt march reached Dandi, Gandhiji violated the Salt Law.
  • 1930 : Civil Disobedience Movement continues; Salt Satyagraha: Gandhi’s Dandi March; First Round Table Conference.
  • 1930 : Dr. B. R. Ambedkar established Depressed Classes Association.
  • March 5, 1931 : Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed.
  • December, 1931 : Gandhiji went for Second Round Table Conference.
  • 1931 : Second Round Table Conference; Irwin-Gandhi Pact; Census of India.
  • 1932 : Suppression of the Congress movement; Third Round Table Conference.
  • September, 1932 : Poona Pact between Gandhiji and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
  • 1934 : Civil Disobedience Movement called off.
  • 1934 : Civil Disobedience Movement lost its momentum.
  • 1935 : The Government of India Act receives Royal Assent.
  • 1937 : Election held for Provincial Assemblies.
  • 1939 : Outbreak of the Second World War.

2. Important Terms

  • Nationalism : It is a system created by people who believe their nation is superior to all others.
  • Satyagraha : The policy of passive political resistance inaugurated by Mohandas Gandhi during his stay in South Africa. It is based on the ideals of truth and non-violence.
  • Khalifa : The spiritual head of the Islamic World.
  • Begar : Labour that villagers were forced to contribute without any payment.
  • Forced Recruitment : A process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army.
  • Rowlatt Act : It was an Act which gave the government enormous power to repress political activities. It allowed that government could arrest anybody without a trial for two years.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre : The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Baishakhi pilgrims, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
  • Non-Cooperation Movement : Began in January 1921. The main aim of this movement was not to cooperate with the British made goods. It included surrendering of government titles, boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, school, and foreign goods; and a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
  • Swadeshi : The Swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic made products and production technique.
  • Boycott : A boycott is a form of consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying or dealing with a person, organization or country as an expression of protest usually for political reason.
  • Picket : A form of demonstration or protest by which people block the entrance to a shop, factory or office.
  • Civil Disobedience : During Civil Disobedience Movement people were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break the colonial laws.
  • Swaraj : “Swaraj” means freedom or self-rule. In 1920, “Swaraj” meant “Self-Government” within the empire if possible and outside if necessary.
  • Simon Commission : The New Tory government in Britain constituted a statutory Commission under Sir John Simon. The Commission was sent to India to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. It arrived in India in 1928.
  • Salt Law : Salt is consumed by both the poor and the rich, and is one of the most essential items of foods everywhere in the world. The British government had the monopoly on the production of salt in India. By imposing a ‘salt tax’ the government hit both the rich and the poor, specially the poor. Gandhiji thought it was the most repressive Act of the British government and chose to defy it by breaking the “Salt Law”.
  • Gandhi Irwin Pact : When British government responded with a policy of brutal repression against the Civil Disobedience Movement, Mahatma Gandhiji decided to call off the movement. He entered into a pact with Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. Under this pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London.
  • Folklores : The traditional beliefs, customs and stories of a community that are passed through the generations by word of mouth. Many nationalist leaders took help of folk tales to spread the idea of nationalism. It was believed that the folk tales revealed the true picture of traditional culture.
  • Reinterpretation of History : Many Indians felt that the British had given a different interpretation of the Indian history. They felt that it was important to interpret the history from an Indian perspective. They wanted to glorify the rich past of India so that the Indians could feel proud of their history.

Summary

  • Effects of First World War : The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure. This was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes. Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced to raise extra revenue. Prices of items increased during the war years. The prices doubled between 1913 and 1918. The common people were the worst sufferers because of price rise. Forced recruitment of rural people in the army was another cause of widespread anger among people.
  • Crop failure in many parts of India resulted in acute shortage of foods. Influenza epidemic further aggravated the problem. According to 1921 census, about 12 to 13 million people died because of famines and epidemic.
  • The Idea of Satyagraha
    • Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January, 1915. His heroic fight for the Indians in South Africa was well known. His novel method of mass agitation known as Satyagraha had yielded good results.
    • The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. In 1916, Gandhi travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    • Mahatma Gandhi advocated a novel method Delhi of mass agitation; called Satyagraha. This method Delhi was based on the idea that if someone is fighting for a true cause, there is no need to take recourse to physical force to fight the oppressor. Gandhiji believed that a satyagrahi could win a battle through non-violence, i.e., without being aggressive or revengeful.
  • Some early Satyagraha movements organized by Gandhiji :
    • Peasants’ Movement in Champaran (Bihar) in 1916.
    • Peasants’ Movement in Kheda district (Gujarat) in 1917.
    • Mill workers’ Movement in Ahmedabad in 1918.
  • The Rowlatt Act (1919) :
    • The Rowlatt Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. The Indian members did not support the Act, but it was passed; nevertheless. The Act gave enormous powers to the government to repress political activities. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    • On 6th April, 1919; Gandhiji launched a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. The call of strike on 6th April got huge response. People came out in support in various cities, shops were shut down and workers in railway workshops went on strike. The British administration decided to clamp down on the nationalists. Several local leaders were arrested. Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
  • Jallianwalla Bagh :
    • On 10th April 1919; in Amritsar; the police fired upon a peaceful procession. This provoked widespread attacks on government establishments. Martial law was imposed in Amritsar and the command of the area was given to General Dyer.
    • The infamous Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre took place on 13th April; the day on which Baisakhi is celebrated in Punjab. A crowd of villagers came to participate in a fair in Jallianwalla Bagh. This was enclosed from all sides with narrow entry points.
    • General Dyer blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed in the incident. Public reaction to the incident took a violent turn in many north Indian towns. The government was quite brutal in its response. Things took highly violent turn. Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement as he did not want violence to continue.
  • Khilafat Movement : The Khilafat issue gave Mahatma Gandhi an opportunity to bring the Hindus and Muslims on a common platform. The Ottoman Turkey was badly defeated in the First World War. There were rumours about a harsh peace treaty likely to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor; who was the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa). A Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 to defend the Khalifa. This committee had leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They also wanted Mahatma Gandhi to take up the cause to build a united mass action. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, the resolution was passed to launch a Non-Cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and also for swaraj.
  • Non-Cooperation Movement : In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909), Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come. Gandhiji believed that if Indians begin to refuse to cooperate, the British rulers will have no other way than to leave India.
  • Some of the proposals of Non-Cooperation Movement :
    • Surrender the titles which were awarded by the British government.
    • Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils and schools.
    • Boycott of foreign goods.
    • Launch full civil disobedience campaign, if the government persisted with repressive measures.
  • Differing Strands within the Movement : The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different things to different people.
  • Awadh : The peasants’ movement in Awadh was led by Baba Ramchandra. He was a sanyasi who had earlier worked in Fiji as an indentured labourer. The peasants were against the high rents and may other cesses, which were demanded by talukdars and landlords. The peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  • Tribal Peasants : Tribal peasants gave their own interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of swaraj. The tribals were prevented from entering the forests to graze cattle, or to collect fruits and firewood. The new forest laws were a threat to their livelihoods. The government forced them to do begar on road construction.
    • Many rebels from the tribal areas became non-violent and often carried guerrilla warfare against the British officials.
  • Swaraj in the Plantations : The plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission; as per the Indian Emigration Act of 1859. When the news of Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the plantations, many workers began to defy the authorities. They left plantations and headed towards their homes. But they got stranded on the way because of a railway and steamer strike. They were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
  • Simon Commission
    • The British government constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon. The Commission was made to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. But since all the members in the Commission were British, the Indian leaders opposed the Commission.
    • The Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’. All parties joined the protest. In October 1929, Lord Irwin announced a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India but its timing was not specified. He also offered to hold a Round Table Conference to discuss the future Constitution.
  • Salt March (Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement)
    • Mahatma Gandhi believed that salt could be a powerful symbol to unite the whole nation. Most of the people; including the British scoffed at the idea. Abolition of the salt tax was among many demands which were raised by Gandhiji through a letter to Viceroy Irwin.
    • The Salt March or Dandi March was started by Gandhiji on 12th March 1930. He was accompanied by 78 volunteers. They walked for 24 days to cover a distance of 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi. Many more joined them in the way. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji ceremonially violated the law by taking a fistful of salt.
    • The Salt March marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Thousands of people broke the salt law in different parts of country. People demonstrated in front of government salt factories. Foreign cloth was boycotted. Peasants refused to pay revenue. Village officials resigned. Tribal people violated forest laws.
  • Response of British Rulers : The colonial government began to arrest the Congress leaders. This led to violent clashes in many places. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested about a month later. People began to attack the symbols of British rule; such as police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations. The government’s repression was quite brutal. Even women and children were beaten up. About 100,000 people were arrested.
  • Round Table Conference : When things began to take a violent turn, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement. He signed a pact with Irwin on 5th March 1931. This was called the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. As per the Pact, Gandhiji agreed to participate in the Round Table Conference in London. In lieu of that, the government agreed to release the political prisoners. Gandhiji went to London in December 1931. The negotiations broke down and Gandhiji had to return with disappointment. When Gandhiji came back to India, he found that most of the leaders were put in jail. Congress had been declared illegal. Many measures were taken to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement. By 1934, the movement had lost its momentum.
  • Farmers : For the farmers, the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues. When the movement was called off in 1931; without the revenue rates being revised; the farmers were highly disappointed. Many of them refused to participate when the movement was re-launched in 1932. The small tenants just wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They often joined the radical movements which were led by Socialists and Communists. Congress did not want to alienate the rich landlords and hence, the relationship between the poor peasants and Congress was uncertain.
  • Businessmen : The Indian merchants and industrialists could grow their business during the First World War. They were against those colonial policies which restricted their business activities. They wanted protection against imports and a Rupee-Sterling Foreign Exchange ratio which would discourage imports. The Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress was formed in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) was formed in 1927. These were the results of attempts to bring the common business interests on a common platform. For the businessmen, Swaraj meant an end to oppressive colonial policies. They wanted an environment which could allow the business to flourish. They were apprehensive of militant activities and of growing influence of socialism among the younger members of the Congress.
  • Industrial Workers : The industrial workers showed lukewarm response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Since industrialists were closer to the Congress, workers kept a distance from the movement. But some workers selectively participated in the Movement. Congress did not want to alienate the industrialists and hence preferred to keep the workers’ demands at bay.
  • Women’s Participation : Women also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers. However, most of the women were from high-caste families in the urban areas and from rich peasant households in the rural areas. But for a long time, the Congress was reluctant to give any position of authority to women within the organization. The Congress was just keen on the symbolic presence of women.
  • The Sense of Collective Belonging
    • Nationalist Movement Spreads when people belonging to different regions and communities begin to develop a sense of collective belongingness. The identity of a nation is most often symbolized in a figure or image.
    • This image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 when he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ for our motherland. Indian folk songs and folk sung by bards played an important role in making the idea of nationalism. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore and in Madras, Natesa, Sastri collection of folk tales and songs, this led the movement for folk revival.
    • During the Swadeshi Movement, a tri-color (red, green and yellow) flag was designed in Bengal. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.
    • Means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history. The nationalist writers urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

In-Text Questions Solution

Activity (Page 31)

Question 1: Read the text carefully. What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said Satyagraha is active resistance?Intext-01

  1. Satyagraha does not mean to inflict pain on the adversary rather it is the source of soul.
  2. Truth is the substance of soul and so it is the substance of Satyagraha.
  3. It does not mean destruction but it means to clear the minds of adversaries and convert destructive thoughts into constructive by showing them love, compassion and truth.
  4. Hence Satyagraha is active resistance.

Activity (Page 34)

Question 2: The year is 1921. You are a student in a government-controlled school. Design a poster urging school students to answer Gandhiji,s call to join the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Wake up call Throw the British rule in 1921!

Dear students,
Our Motherland India is suffering badly at the hands of Britishers, who are exploiting our countrymen socially and economically.
Gandhiji has full faith upon the students of the country that they will fight for their motherland and make India an independent country.
Join your hands with our beloved Bapu and immediately stop cooperating with the British government.
The success of the non cooperation movement depends on you.

Activity (Page 35)

Question 3: If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj? Give reasons for your response.

I would have responded to Gandhiji call for swaraj in a positive non – violent manner. His way of truth and non- violence was the most potent way to attain swaraj, therefore, I would have followed him.

Activity (Page 36)

Question 4: Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British. Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo-China (Chapter 2)?

There were many participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death or otherwise killed by the British. These included Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Chandrashekhar Azad, Lala Lajpat Rai, Khudiram Bose and Madan Lal Dhingra.

Discuss (Page 43)

Question 5: Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?

The various classes and groups of Indian participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement due to their own, limited motives. To them “swaraj” meant something they carvedfor.

For example:

  • To businessmen, swaraj meant a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
  • Similarly to rich peasant classes, swaraj was a struggle against high land revenue.
  • Women took swaraj as the attainment of elevated status and equality with men in Indian society.
  • Poor peasants considered swaraj as the time when they would have their own land, would not have to pay rents or do beggar.
  • Working class dreamed for high wages and excellent working conditions.
  • Hence, swaraj was different for different classes and group of Indians.

Discuss (Page 45)

Question 6: Read the Source D carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?intext-02

No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism as it was based upon the thought that India is a land of racial and religious variety.
That does not really mean that India needed any type of communal settlement or division on the basis of community.
According to me, communalism believes in the government of a specific community. It does not have any element of nation in it, which was the motive of nationalist struggle for India’s freedom.

Activity (Page 48)

Question 7: Look at Figs. 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities? Explain your views briefly.

No, I do not think that these images would appeal to all castes and communities of India.
Because, these images of “Bharat Mata” show her in the incarnation of a Hindu Goddess.
This gives a religious biasness to the image. It should be avoided. The image should reflect the nationalist idea of unity of all castes and communities.

NCERT Solution

Write in Brief

(Page 50)

Question 1: Explain:
(a). Why the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.

Colonisation affected people’s freedom, and nationalist sentiments rushed during the process of struggle against the British domination. For people, the sense of oppression and exploitation became a common bond, which gave rise to the nationalist ideas. Thus, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is very much important to an anti-colonial movement.

(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

There was forced recruitment in the rural areas of India by the British army during the First World War. To finance the defence expenditure, high custom duties and income taxes were imposed. This caused widespread anger among the rural and common people. At this stage, a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle. Crops failed in many parts of India, during 1918-19 and 1920-21, which resulted in severe food shortage.

(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 by the imperial legislative.

  1. This had unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspect without trial for two years maximum.
  2. This had enabled the Government to suspend the right to ‘Habeas Corpus’ (a writ requiring a person to be brought before a judge or court), which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
  3. It caused a wave of anger among all sections and societies of India. It led to the first countrywide agitation by Mahatma Gandhi and marked the foundation of the Non-cooperation movement.

(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

(i) In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent at many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
(ii) Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic.

Question 2: What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?

The idea of Satyagraha mainly implies a unique method of mass agitation that highlights the powers of truth, and the need to search for truth. It focuses on non-violence and emphasis that if the cause is true and the fight is against injustice then there is no need for coercion. Gandhiji believed in the institution of dharma – non-violence and that it could led to national unity and harmony.

Question 3: Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

On Baisakhi day, a large crowd of people, mostly from neighbouring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The army surrounded the gathering under order from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around 1000. The incident was followed by uncivilised brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar. The entire nation was stunned. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest. Gandhi was overwhelmed by the total atmosphere of violence and withdrew the movement in April 1919.

(b) The Simon Commission

There was a chorus of protest by all Indians against the appointment of an all-white, seven member Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon) in November 1927. The Commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms and on what lines. Set up in response to the nationalist movement, the commission was to look into functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. But as reported, the commission did not have a single Indian member. The Indian response was against the commission and the basic notion behind the exclusion that foreigners would discuss and decide upon India’s fitness for self-government. This notion was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination, and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of Indians.

The Commission landed in Bombay in February 1928. On that day, a countrywide strike was organised and mass rallies were held. Wherever the commission went, there were black flag demonstrations, hartal and slogans of ‘Go back Simon’.

Question 4: Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in chapter 1.

Abanindranath’s image of Bharat Mata shows her as imparting learning, food and clothing. A mala is worn by her, which shows aesthetic quality. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism. One can say, it is similar to the image of Germania painted by Philip Veit, where she is holding a sword, but also looks more feminine. Whereas the other painting of Bharat Mata shows her more masculine in nature as it shows power and authority which is denoted by lion and elephant beside her in the painting. The latter image is more parallel to the image of Germania by Lorenz Clasen, where she holds a sword and a shield, and seems ready for a fight. In France she was Christened Marianne, a popular Christian name which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic—the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Status of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity. Similarly Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In a visual representations Germania wears a crown of Oak leaves, as the German Oak stands for heroism.

Discuss

(Page 50)

Question 1: List all the different social groups which joined the non-cooperation movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

The different social groups that joined the Non-cooperation Movements of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, teachers and headmasters, students, peasants, tribals and workers.

  1. Peasants, Tribal and workers joined the movement from the countryside. They did so with hopes of self-emancipation. Peasants rebelled against talukdars and landlords, who demanded high rents and had to do begar or free labour.
  2. Tribal peasants – They revolted against the enclosure of large forest tracts by the British government, which left them devoid of a livelihood as well as traditional rights.
  3. Plantation workers – They desired freedom to move about and retain links with the villages they came from.
  4. All three believed that Gandhi Raj would come with the Non-Cooperation Movement, and this would mark an end to their sorrows. Hence, they joined the anti-colonial struggle.

Question 2: Discuss the salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Gandhi on January 31, 1930 sent a letter to the Viceroy Irwin, consisting 11 most essential demands. Some of these were of general interest while others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within the Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign. But the most unusual of the demand was the abolishment of salt tax. The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because it was done in revolt against a commodity-salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt, and the government monopoly over its production was a severely oppressive administrative move. Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum. According to which if the demands were not fulfilled by 11th March, the congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhi stated his famous salt march accompanied by 79 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufactured salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question 3: Imagine you are a woman participating in the civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

I participated in the National Movement for the first time by being a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It was feeling of pride for me. During Gandhi’s ‘Salt March’, I participated with thousands of women who came out of their homes to listen to him. We also participated in manufacturing salt, protest marches, picketed foreign goods and liquor shops. Women like me who came from the high caste families also joined in the protests in the urban areas. We all took part in the movements with great enthusiasm. We all stood by men and suffered physical blows with them. Even though it did not bring us any status in the movements but we all contributed in the struggle for freedom of our motherland. Even in Gandhi’s views, a women’s place was at home; as mothers, and good wives. The Congress also on the other hand did not give us any position in the organisation but we with all made our presence felt by our hard work and enthusiasm. There were many famous personalities amongst us like Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Nehru, Annie Beasant, who contributed to the national movements.

Question 4: Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

The political leaders represented the different classes and communities of the Indian society. The question they mainly differed on was of separate electorate because of the difference in opinions. The main purpose to secure separate electorates for them was for by showing favours to their followers by reserving separate electoral seats for them. But Congress Party, especially Gandhi had an opinion that having a separate electoral would slow down the freedom movement and also adversely affect the unity of the country. His main fear was that the system of separate electorates would give a push to communalism and divide the country into pieces.

Project

Question 1: Find out about the anti-colonial movement in Indo-China. Compare and contrast India’s national movement with the ways in which Indo-China became independent.

The Indo-China region of modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos struggled with colonization from the Europeans just like India. They too fought back to gain their independence and this where their nationalist movement started. Vietnam actually gained formal independence even before India. Let us take a look at the rise of the nationalist movement in Indo-China.
Did you know that like the British, the French to were colonisers? The French had an iron grip on the Indo-China region. They colonised Vietnam from 1858 to 1880.This helped Vietnam escape Chinese influence and eventually gain independence. Let us study their history.
Vietnam Emerging from the Shadows of China
When we read history, we come across different terms that mix names of countries and regions. Some examples are ‘South- East Asia’, ‘South Asia’, ‘Tibeto- Burman’, etc. Similarly, ‘Indo- China’ was a collective term for Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia together. How do you think each of these countries carved out a separate identity for them-selves?
We shall see how Vietnam was emerging from the shadows of China. This was mainly led by the French colonial rule. However, anti-colonial feelings helped strengthen nationalism in later phases.
As mentioned earlier, Vietnam was just a surrounding area of China, that followed the same governance system and cultures. It was also a part of the rich silk trade route that exchanged people, goods and ideas. This started to change after they became a colony of the French.
European Conquests
In medieval ages, Europeans embarked upon a quest to make colonies out of Asian countries. The reason they gave for this was the infamous ‘white man’s burden’ theory. It stated that Europeans were the most civilised and thus had a ‘duty’ to civilise the rest of the world.
But in reality, Europeans wanted a place where they could buy cheap raw material from and a market to sell goods. This system was extremely exploitative and created the division between the ‘developed’ and ‘underdeveloped’ countries.
Vietnam as a Colony
Like the British did in 1757 in India, the French too established their colony in Vietnam from 1858- 1880. After the Franco- China war, the French gained control of Tonkin and Anaam. Thereafter, they created a firm grip over the country, creating dissatisfaction among the masses, that led to the rise of nationalism.
At first, the French aimed at giving agriculture a boost. They made many canal networks and also reclaimed marshy lands for cultivation. The area of rice cultivation rose from 274000 hectares to 2.2 million hectares in 1930. By 1931, Vietnam had become the third largest producer of rice in the world. Two- thirds of this was exported and all the profits were reaped by the French.
Even infrastructure was added to help build the mass production in Vietnam. Railway networks were laid for the easy transportation of good and people. Railways linked the north and south of Vietnam to Yunan in China as well as Siam (Thailand).
Vietnamese people worked as bonded labor to build these infrastructures. They suffered wide human rights violation and were badly exploited for the sake of profits.
Why did the French try to develop Vietnam?
You may think, why did the French spend money and effort in a place where they had no interest? Building the economy of Vietnam would make the people richer and thus, they could buy more goods from the French. This would ultimately benefit the French. Thehuge population, lack of land resources, etc., are problems in developing Vietnam.
This article gives the backdrop to the rise of nationalism in Vietnam (Indo- China). We have seen how Vietnam was a country that was just emerging from the shadows of China. It then became a colony for the French and that set the stage for the rise of nationalism. All the exploitative policies of the French thus united the Vietnamese with a spirit of nationalism.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Each of the following questions is of 1 mark and has to be answered in one word or one sentence.

Question 1: Name the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi.

‘Hind Swaraj’.

Question 2: What was the impact of reduction of imports?

Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Question 3: Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932?

Poona pact

Question 4: What were the demands of peasants in Awadh?

Reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

Question 5: Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju?

Leader of Andhra Movement.

Question 6: What action was taken by the tribals of Gudem Hills in their movement?

The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

Question 7: What was Inland Emigration Act of 1859?

Plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.

Question 8: How did plantation workers of Assam react to Non-Cooperation Movement call?

Thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.

Question 9: Why Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off Non-cooperation Movement?

He felt the movement was turning violent at many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they could be ready for mass struggles.

Question 10: Who formed Swaraj Party?

C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru.

Question 11: Which two factors shaped Indian Politics towards the late 1920s?

(i) The effects of worldwide economic depression.
(ii) Agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930.

Question 12: Why was Simon Commission rejected in India?

The problem was that the commission did not have a single Indian member. They were all British.

Question 13: How was Simon Commission greeted in India?

He was greeted with the slogan, ‘Go back Simon’.

Question 14: How long was Dandi March and how much time did it take?

It was over 240 miles. Gandhiji walked for 10 miles a day and took 24 days to reach Dandi.

Question 15: Name some prominent Industrialists of that time.

Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla.

Question 16: In what way women participated in Civil Disobedience Movement?

They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Question 17: What was ‘Poona Pact’?

Poona Pact gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.

Question 18: Who created the first image of ‘Bharat Mata’?

The first image was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

Question 19: How was Bharat Mata depicted in the painting of Abanindranath Tagore?

In his painting, Bharat Mata was portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.

Question 20: What kind of Indian flag was introduced during Swadeshi Movement?

A tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.

Question 21: Who wrote the song ‘Vande Mataram’?

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Question 22: What is the meaning of ‘Begar’?

Labour that villagers were forced to contribute without any payment.

Question 23: Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath.’

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Question 24: Who financed the defence expenditure of World War I?

War was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.

Question 25: When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?

Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in January 1915.

Question 26: What is meant by Satyagraha?

The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.

Question 27: Why did Kheda farmers protest against Britishers?

Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and demanded that revenue collection be released.

Question 28: What was Rowlatt Act of 1919?

It gave the British government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Question 29: Why did General Dyer fire on innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?

To strictly enforce martial law in Amritsar, to create the feeling of terror and awe in the minds of Satyagrahis, to demoralise the local congress leaders.

Question 30: Who were the two main leaders of the Khilafat Movement?

Two young brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started Khilafat Movement.

Question 31: What resolution was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?

At the Calcutta session of the congress in September 1920, Gandhiji convinced other leaders of the need to start a Non-cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj.

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Choose the correct option from the choices given:

Question 1: Who remarked “When France Sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”?
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
(b) Metternich
(c) Louis Philippe
(d) Johann Gottfried

(b) Metternich

Question 2: Which country had been party of the ‘Ottoman Empire’ since the 15th century?
(a) Spain
(b) Greece
(c) France
(d) Germany

(b) Greece

Question 3: Which country became full-fledged territorial state in Europe in the year 1789?
(a) Germany
(b) France
(c) England
(d) Spain

(b) France

Question 4: When was the first clear expression of nationalism noticed in Europe?
(a) 1787
(b) 1759
(c) 1789
(d) 1769

(c) 1789

Question 5: Which of the following did the European conservatives not believe in?
(a) Traditional institution of state policy
(b) Strengthened monarchy
(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

Question 5: Which of the following did the European conservatives not believe in?
(a) Traditional institution of state policy
(b) Strengthened monarchy
(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

Question 6: Name the Italian revolutionary from Genoa.
(a) Metternich
(b) Johann Gottfried
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) None of these

(c) Giuseppe Mazzini

Question 7: Which language was spoken for purposes of diplomacy in the mid 18th century in Europe?
(a) German
(b) English
(c) French
(d) Spanish

(c) French

Question 8: What was ‘Young Italy’?
(a) Vision of Italy
(b) Secret society
(c) National anthem of Italy
(d) None of these

(b) Secret society

Question 9: Treaty of Constantinople recognised ___________ as an independent nation.
(a) Greece
(b) Australia
(c) Italy
(d) None of the above

(a) Greece

Question 10: Which of the following did not play a role to develop nationalist sentiments?
(a) Art
(b) Music
(c) Climate

(c) Climate

Question 11: Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy, in 1861?
(a) Giuseppe Garibaldi
(b) Victor Emmanuel II
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Cavour

(b) Victor Emmanuel II

Question 12: Liberal-nationalits mainly belong to which class?
(a) Elite class
(b) Educated middle-class elite
(c) Working class
(d) Artisans

(b) Educated middle-class elite

Question 13: Where was the first upheaval took place in July, 1803?
(a) Italy
(b) France
(c) Germany
(d) Greece

(b) France

Question 14: The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe, after 1871, was an area called:
(a) Ottoman
(b) Prussia
(c) Balkans
(d) Macedonia

(c) Balkans

Question 15: Which of the following was not a part of Napoleon’s defeat?
(a) Britain
(b) Australia
(c) Italy

(c) Italy

Question 16: Which newly designed flag was chosen to replace the formal flag ‘Royal Standard’ in France?
(a) Union Jack
(b) Tricolour
(c) White Saltire
(d) Red Cross

(b) Tricolour

Question 17: Which of the following reforms made the whole system in France more rational and efficient?
(a) Administrative reform
(b) Social reform
(c) Economic reform
(d) Political reform

(a) Administrative reform

Question 18: Who destroyed democracy in France?
(a) Adolf Hitler
(b) Mussolini
(c) Napolean Bonaparte
(d) Bismarck

(c) Napolean Bonaparte

Question 19: Which region is ruled over by ‘The Habsburg Empire’?
(a) Austria-Hungary
(b) France-Netherlands
(c) Spain-Portugal
(d) Scotland-Ireland

(a) Austria-Hungary

Question 20: What was the main occupation in the mid 18th century in Europe?
(a) Trade and commerce
(b) Peasantry
(c) Craftmanship
(d) All of the above

(b) Peasantry

Question 21: What was the main feature of the pattern of land holding prevailing in the Eastern and Central Europe?
(a) Tenants
(b) Vast estates
(c) Small owners
(d) Landlords

(b) Vast estates

Question 22: Which country began to use language as a weapon of national resistance?
(a) Poland
(b) Prussia
(c) Hungary
(d) Austria

(a) Poland

Question 23: What major issue was criticised against by the liberal nationalists?
(a) Censorship laws to control the press
(b) Preservation of the Church
(c) A modern army
(d) Efficient bureaucracy

(d) Efficient bureaucracy

Question 24: German philosopher, Johann Gottfried clamined that true German culture was to be discovered among the:
(a) Common people
(b) Aristocratic
(c) Middle class elite
(d) None of above

(a) Common people

Question 25: The meaning of ‘Volksgeist’:
(a) Common people
(b) Spirit of the nation
(c) Music
(d) None of above

(b) Spirit of the nation

Question 26: The place where the priests and bishops were punished.
(a) Siberia
(b) Tundra
(c) Mongolia
(d) None of above

(a) Siberia

Fill in the Blanks

Complete the following statements with appropriate word(s).

Question 1: The Act of Union of 1707 was between _________ and _________.

England and Scotland

Question 2: Jacob clubs were the ___________.

Political Clubs

Question 3: When conservative regimes were restored to power, many liberal minded people went underground because of the fear of _____________.

Repression

Question 4: ____________ allegory represent the nation of France.

Marianne

Question 5: __________ were the most serious nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.

Balkans

True/False

Read each of the following statements and write if it is true or false.

Question 1: In Britain, formation of a nation-state was a long parliamentary process.

True

Question 2: Jacobin clubs influenced German Army.

False

Question 3: The Napoleonic Bode upheld reforms and equality.

True

Question 4: From 1848, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement of national unification.

True

Question 5: Mazzini was a great revolutionary leader of Romanian.

False

Short Answer Type Questions

Each of the following questions is of 3 marks and has to be answered in about 80 words.

Question 1: Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular prints etc., in shaping the nationalism during freedom struggle.

Role of folklore:

  1. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of Nationalism.
  2. Identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
  3. In the 1870s, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
  4. Idea of Nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.

Question 2: What were Mahatma Gandhi’s views on women’s participation in the national movements?

During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. But Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and health, be good mothers and good wives.
For a long time, the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation.

Question 3: Why was Poona Pact signed?

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was demanding separate electorates for dalits. Mahatma Gandhi believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by general electorate.

Question 4: “When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities.” Why was it so? (OR)
Why Muslims did not willingly participate in Civil Disobedience Movement?

Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

Question 5: “Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.” Elaborate.

In the late 19th century, Indian nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.

Question 6: What do you know about Natesa Sastri?

Many people were collecting ballads, folk tales and myths, etc. to revive Indian folklore. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature; it was ‘the most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thoughts and characteristics’.

Question 7: How did Mahatma Gandhi uplift untouchables?

Mahatma Gandhi called the untouchables, ‘Harijans’ or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools. He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the sweepers (bhangi) and persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the sin of ‘untouchability’.

Question 8: How did the salt Satyagraha become an effective tool of resistance against British colonialism in India during 1930? Explain. 

  1. Salt was something consumed by the rich and poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.
  2. So Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March accompanied by his 78 trusted volunteers.
  3. On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
  4. Thousands in different parts of country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
  5. As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
  6. Worried by developments, the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
  7. In May 1930, even Mahatma Gandhi was arrested.
  8. A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression.
  9. This shows the success of Salt Satyagraha as an effective tool of resistance against British Colonialism.

Question 9: Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘swaraj flag.’

Mahatma Gandhiji designed the “Swaraj Flag” by 1921.
Features:

  1. It had tricolours-Red, Green and White
  2. It had a spinning wheel in the center.
  3. It represents the Gandhian idea of self-help.
  4. It had become a symbol of defiance.

Question 10: “The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.” Support the statement with examples.

The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Non-Cooperation Movement:

  1. The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
  2. Foreign goods were boycotted.
  3. Liquor shops were picketed.
  4. Foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
  5. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade on foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
  6. Students left the government owned schools and colleges.
  7. Lawyers gave up legal practices.

Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. People were asked to break colonial laws.
  2. The countrymen broke the salt law.
  3. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
  4. Village officials resigned from their jobs.
  5. Forest people violated forest rules and laws.

Question 11: Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Different social groups joined the Civil Disobedience Movement due to following reasons:

  1. Rich Peasantry Group— The patidar and jats demanded reduction in revenue and participated in the boycott program.
  2. Poor Peasantry Group— They wanted unpaid rent to be remitted , joined radical movement led by the socialist and communist.
  3. Business Class Group— Prominent industrialist like Purushottam Das, G.D. Birla formed FICCI. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and rupee sterling exchange ratio and refused to sell imported goods.
  4. Working Class Group— Nagpur Workers adopted boycott of foreign goods, against low wages and poor working conditions.
  5. Women— participated in the protest marches, manufacturing of salt and boycotted foreign goods.

Question 12: What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.

During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal the flag designed was Tricolour flag.
The three features of the flag were:

  1. The colour of the flag was — Red, Green and Yellow.
  2. It represented eight provinces in British India.
  3. It had crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

Question 13: “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments. 

The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and notion of Swaraj.

  1. For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
  2. Swaraj meant relating a link with the village from which they had come.
  3. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.
  4. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation movement thousands of workers defined the authorities, left planations and headed home.
  5. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.

Question 14: Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.

Role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ :

  1. The business classes reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
  2. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  3. In order to organise business interest, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  4. They gave financial assistance for the movement.
  5. They refused to buy and sell imported goods.

Question 15: How did the First World War create a new economic situation in India? Explain with examples.

First World war created a new economic situation:

  1. It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure.
  2. Increase in taxes.
  3. Custom duties were raised.
  4. Introduction of income tax.
  5. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and forced recruitment in rural area.

Question 16: What was the Khilafat Movement?

  1. It was a movement started by the Ali brothers, Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.
  2. It was started to show their allegiance to the spiritual head of the Ottoman Empire, Khalifa.
  3. To save Khalifa, who was deposed by the British after the World War I, a Khilafat Committee was formed in India.

Question 17: Why was Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji ? Explain any three reasons.

Reasons for the launching of Non Cooperation Movement :

  1. To support Khilafat agitation.
  2. To protest against Rowlatt Act.
  3. To redress the wrong done in Punjab.
  4. The dissatisfaction from the government of India act of 1919.
  5. Demand for Swaraj

Question 18: Why did Gandhi write the letter to Lord Irwin?

Mahatma Gandhi found, in salt, a powerful symbol that could unite the country. The idea was to make the demands wide ranging, so that all classes within the Indian society could identify with them and could be united in a united campaign against Britishers.

Question 19: What were the main 11 demands of Mahatma Gandhi to Viceroy Irwin?

Gandhi put forward 11 demands to Irwin. They were:

  1. Abolition of salt tax,
  2. Reduce the military expenditure,
  3. Prohibit intoxicants,
  4. Release all political prisoners,
  5. Abolish the CID department,
  6. Change the ratio between the rupee and the sterling,
  7. Reduce the rate of land revenue,
  8. Reduce expenditure on civil administration,
  9. Impose custom duty on foreign cloth,
  10. Accept the Postal Reservation Bill,
  11. Issue licenses of arms to citizens for self-protection.

Question 20: How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-cooperation Movement?

  1. People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
  2. Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
  3. Peasants refused to pay land revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned and in many places forest people violated forest laws by entering into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.

Question 21: How did the Muslims respond to the Civil Disobedience Movement?

  1. Muslim response was lukewarm to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. After the Non-cooperation-Khilafat Movement declined, relations between the Hindus and Muslims worsened as each community organised religious processions, provoking Hindu–Muslim communal clashes and riots.
  3. The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.
  4. When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between the communities.

Question 22: Which three early satyagrahi movements were organised by Mahatma Gandhi?

  1. Champaran Movement (1916) in Bihar: To inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
  2. Kheda Movement (1917): To support the peasants of Kheda district of Gujarat, who could not pay the revenue due to crop failure and a plague epidemic.
  3. Movement in Ahmedabad (1918): To organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers against British atrocities.

Question 23: Give a brief description of the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

  1. Rallies were organised, workers went on strike and shops closed down.
  2. British administration clamped down on nationalists. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
  3. Police firing on a peaceful procession at Amritsar provoked widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.

Question 24: “Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha emphasized the Power of truth and the need to search for truth.” In the light of this statement assess the contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha.

Contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha :
The idea of satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth . It suggested that if the cause was true , if the struggle was against injustice , then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive , a satyagrahi could win the battle through non violence. This could be done by appealing to the consciousness of the oppressor .People including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth , instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence . By this struggle truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non violence could unite all Indians. Based on the above principle Gandhiji started non cooperation movement and later civil disobedience movement.

Question 25: How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the freedom movement? Explain.

Sense of collective belonging was developed during the freedom movement:

  1. It came partly through the experience of united struggles.
  2. Variety of cultural process through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
  3. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
  4. The identity of the nation was symbolized in a figure image ‘Bharat Mata’.
  5. Vande Matram was widely sung during the Swadesh movement in Bengal.
  6. Icons and symbols helped in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
  7. Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folk lore.
  8. Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages to give a true picture of traditional culture.
  9. Reinterpretation of history created a feeling of nationalism. 
  10. The nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in Indian great achievement in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

Question 26: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 ? Explain any three reasons. 

Nationwide Satyagraha was decided to be launched against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 because:

  1. This act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
  2. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities.
  3. Allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Question 27: How did Indians participate in the Non-cooperation Movement?

  1. They surrendered the titles awarded to them by the British government.
  2. They boycotted civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
  3. Gandhiji felt that British were running their government with Indian cooperation only and if Indians had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have been collapsed.

Question 28: What were the conditions of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact?

  1. Mahatma Gandhi signed the pact with Lord Irwin on 5th March, 1931.
  2. Gandhiji agreed to participate in a Round Table Conference in England.
  3. Government agreed to release all the political prisoners.

Question 29: Why did the rich peasants refuse to participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, when it was restarted in 1932?

  1. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenue.
  2. But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised.
  3. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, they refused to participate, as their wishes were not fulfilled.

Question 30: How had the First World War created economic problems in India ? Explain.

The First World War created a new political and economic situation.

  1. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
  2. Through the war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918-leading to extreme hardship for common people.
  3. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
  4. In 1918-1920 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by influenza epidemic.

Question 31: Which ideas of the Gandhian Programme were adopted by the industrial working class?

  1. Boycott of foreign goods
  2. Movement against low wages
  3. Movement against poor working conditions of the workers.

Question 32: “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.

  1. The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region.
  2. As the industrialists came closer to the congress, workers stayed aloof.
  3. But inspite of that, some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, selectively adopting some ideas of the Gandhian programme. But the congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of its programme of struggle.
  4. It felt that this would alleviate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.

Question 33: Why did Gandhiji relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement after the Second Round Table Conference? Explain any three reasons.

Reasons for Gandhiji relaunching of Civil Disobedience Movement

  1. The negotiations with regard to India’s freedom broke down in the Second Round Table Conference held at London.
  2. Back in India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
  3. Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were put to jail.
  4. The Congress had been declared illegal.
  5. A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.

In such a situation he decided to relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question 34: Evaluate the ‘Satyagraha Movement’ of Gandhiji against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919.

Satyagraha Movement Against The Rowlatt Act

  1. Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
  2. Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6 April.
  3. Rallies were organised in various cities.
  4. Workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
  5. lines of communication such as the railways and telegraph would be disrupted.
  6. The British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists.
  7. Local leaders were put to jail.
  8. On 13 April the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
  9. Crowd took to streets in many towns.
  10. Government started brutal repression.
  11. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he felt the need to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

Long Answer Type Questions

Each of the following questions is of 5 marks and has to be answered in about 150 words.

Question 1: Explain the importance of the ‘Salt March’ of Gandhiji as a symbol to unite the nation.

Gandhiji’s salt march was undoubtedly a symbol to unite the nation because:

  1. All classes of Indian society came together as a united campaign.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law with the march from Sabarmati to Dandi.
  3. Thousands others in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
  4. As the movement spread, foreign clothes were boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
  5. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
  6. Village officials resigned.
  7. In many places, forest people violated forest laws – going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
  8. The different social groups participated.
  9. In the countryside, rich peasants and poor peasants were active in the movement.
  10. The business class workers of Nagpur and women also joined the Movement.

Question 2: What were the effects of Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front?

  1. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire.
  2. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore.
  3. In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade.
  4. As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Question 3: How did business classes of India relate to Civil Disobedience Movement?

  1. During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and became powerful.
  2. Keen on expanding their business, they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
  3. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  4. The industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
  5. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

Question 4: How did the industrial working classes participate in Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM)?

  1. The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) in large numbers as the industrialists came closer to the Congress, workers stayed aloof.
  2. But in spite of that, some workers did participate in the CDM selectively adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movement against low wages and poor working conditions.
  3. There were strikes by railway workers and dock workers in 1930 and 1932 respectively.
  4. In 1930, thousands of people wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.

Question 5: Who had organised the dalits into depressed classes association in 1930? Describe his achievements.

It was B.R Ambedkar who played an important role in raising the spirits of the depressed class. He belonged to the Mahar caste, one of the untouchable/Dalit castes in India. Amedkar became a staunch anti-oppression advocate for Dalits through his politics and writing. One of his critical works is ‘The Annihilation of Caste, which was an undelivered speech he wrote in 1936.Gandhi was a caste Hindu, a Vaishya. Ambedkar was a Mahar Dalit and knew discrimination firsthand. Gandhi never repudiated the varna theory of four major groups, although he fought against the idea of a group below the varnas and he held all varnas to be equal. Ambedkar repudiated the entire caste hierarchy, dismissing what was a current effort among untouchables to “sanskritize,” that is, adopt upper-class customs in order to raise their status. Gandhi did not believe in political battles for untouchables’ rights or approve their attempts to enter temples unless the temple authorities agreed. Ambedkar felt political power was part of the solution to untouchability. Basically, Gandhi’s faith was in change of heart; Ambedkar’s trust was in law, political power, and education. Dr. BR Ambedkar after joining politics in 1930 organised an association namely the Depressed Classes Association for uplifting the dalits. The role of Ambedker in uplifting dalits was as follows:

  1. Dr. BR Ambedkar joined active polities in 1930 and organised the Depressed Classes Association to uplift the dalits.
  2. He demanded separate electorates for dalits and reservation of seats in educational institutions for them.
  3. He signed the Poona Pact that gave reserved seats to the depressed classes in provincial and central legislative councils to ensure that the upliftment occurs at a faster rate.

Question 6: Why did the Muslims feel alienated from Congress during the Civil Disobedience Movement?

  1. Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. After the decline of the Non-cooperation and Khilafat Movements, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress.
  3. The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.
  4. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, one of the leaders of the Muslim League, was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces.
  5. Negotiations over the questions of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts for compromise.
  6. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

Question 7: How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging? 

  1. This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among people against the colonial government.
  2. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination:
    • (a) The identity of the nation symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings, etc.
    • (b) Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
    • (c) Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
    • (d) Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.

Question 8: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? How was it organised? Explain. 

Satyagrah against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919:

  1. The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.
  2. Indian members unitedly opposed it.
  3. It gave government enormous powers to repress political activities.
  4. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trials for two years.

Organization of Satyagrah:

  1. Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
  2. It was started with a ‘Hartal’ on 6th April.
  3. Rallies were organized in various cities.
  4. Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
  5. Shops closed down.

Question 9: Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain. 

Mahatma Gandhi found ‘salt’ a powerful symbol: Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands on 31st January 1930. The most stirring of all was to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the most essential items of food. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhiji started famous salt march. The march was over 240 miles, from Sabarmati to Dandi. Thousands came to hear Gandhiji wherever he stopped. He urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially, violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

Question 10: How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.

Role of cultural processes in making of nationalism in India:

  1. The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
  2. There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured peoples’ imagination.
  3. History, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols played a part in the making of nationalism.
  4. The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or an image.
  5. This helped to create an image with which people can identify the nation.

Question 11: Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off Civil Disobedience Movement because:

  1. Worried by the development of civil Disobedience movement the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
  2. This led to violent clashes in many places.
  3. When Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devoted disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930) angry crowds demonstrated in the street of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
  4. A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police force municipal building, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolised British rule.
  5. A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
  6. The peaceful satyagrahi were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested.

Under these circumstances, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question 12: Why did Gandhiji launch the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain any three reasons.

Reasons to launching Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. Economic depression of 1930.
  2. Arrival of Simon Commission without any Indian representative
  3. Vague offer of Dominion status by the British, failed to satisfy Indians.
  4. Decisions taken in Lahore session of the Congress in 1929.
  5. Tax on salt by Britishers.

Question 13: Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension?
Explain.

Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:

  1. In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the Round table conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
  2. In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
  3. Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail.
  4. The Congress had been declared illegal.
  5. A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.

Question 14: How had Non-cooperation Movement spread in cities? Explain.

Non-cooperation movement in cities:

  1. The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
  2. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
  3. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
  4. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved.
  5. In many places. merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  6. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Question 15: How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples. (OR)
How had the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples.

First world war created new economic and political situation in India

  1. It led to huge increases in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
  2. Custom duties were raised
  3. Income tax introduced.
  4. Through the war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
  5. Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers.
  6. Forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
  7. Crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortage of food. This was accompanied by influenced evidences.

Question 16: Briefly explain the incident of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and its effects on Punjab.

  1. On 13th April 1919, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
  2. On that day, a crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh.
  3. Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.
  4. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the only exit point, and opened fire on the crowd, killing and wounding hundreds of people.
  5. His objective was to ‘produce a moral effect’ to create a feeling of terror and awe in the minds of satyagrahis.

Effects: As the news spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression. Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.

Question 17: “British rule in India would have been collapsed if Indians had not cooperated.” How did this statement help in starting a mass movement in India against the British rule? (OR)
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think of Non-cooperation only?

  1. Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and if they had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have been collapsed within a year.
  2. He proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
  3. It should begin with the surrendering of titles that the government had awarded to the Indians.
  4. A boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative assemblies, schools and foreign goods would show their non-cooperation to the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi felt that in case the government used suppression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Question 18: What action did the British government take after the famous Dandi March? (OR)
How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ ? Explain.

  1. Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
  2. This led to violent clashes in many places.
  3. A month later when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations—all structures that symbolised British rule.
  4. A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal suppression.
  5. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 1,00,000 people were arrested.
  6. Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930).
  7. Angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar facing armored cars and police firing, many were killed.

Question 19: Describe the participation of the rich and poor peasant communities in the Civil Disobedience Movement. 

  1. Rich peasants were hit hard by the trade depression and falling prices, whereas the poor peasants’ cash income dwindled and they could not pay their rents.
  2. Refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment among the rich peasants, whereas the poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted.
  3. For the rich peasants, fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues and for the poor peasants, their ‘no rent’ campaign.
  4. Rich peasants were disappointed since revenue was not reduced and the poor peasants were disappointed with the Congress as it was unwilling to support them.

Question 20: How did large-scale participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement become an important feature? (OR)
Evaluate the role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

There was a large scale participation of Women in Civil Disobedience Movement.

  1. During Gandhi’s salt march, thousands of women came out from their homes to listen to him.
  2. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
  3. Many went to jail in urban areas.
  4. They considered service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

Yet, increased public role did not necessarily mean any radical change in the way the position of women was visualised. And for a long time, the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.

Question 21: Did the dalits participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? (OR)
Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932 in the light of differences between Gandhiji and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

  1. Initially, Congress had ignored the dalits for the fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus.
  2. But Mahatma Gandhi believed that swaraj would not come even after a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
  3. He called them ‘Harijans’ and he himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of sweepers.
  4. But many dalit leaders demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate.
  5. So dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited.

Question 22: How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with example. (OR)
“Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.

It means that people began to believe that they were all a part of the same nation and discovered some unity, which bound them together.

  1. Main cultural processes:
    • (a) It was with the growth of nationalism that the identity of India was associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    • (b) This image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote the song ‘Vande Mataram’ in his novel Anandamath.
    • (c) Then Abanindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata. He was moved by the Swadeshi movement.
    • (d) In this painting, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed divine and spiritual.
    • (e) In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms as it circulated in popular prints and was painted by different artists.
    • (f) Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
  2. Indian folklore:
    • (a) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
    • (b) Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages to give a true picture of the traditional culture, which was corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    • (c) In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths to revive the folk culture.
    • (d) In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India.
  3. Icons and symbols (flag):
    • (a) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
    • (b) It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
    • (c) By 1921, Mahatma Gandhi designed the swaraj flag.
    • (d) It was also again a tricolour (red, green, white) flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
    • (e) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
  4. Reinterpretation of history:
    • (a) The British saw Indians as backward, primitive and incapable of governing themselves.
    • (b) In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievement.
    • (c) They (Indians) wrote about glorious developments in ancient India in arts and architecture, science and maths, religion and culture, law and philosophy, etc.
    • (d) This glorious time was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.

Question 23: What were the reasons for the gradual slowing down of the Non-cooperation Movement in the cities?

  1. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the cloth produced in mills. Poor people could not afford to buy khadi cloth.
  2. Boycott of British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative Indian institutions.
  3. So students and teachers began trickling back to the government schools.
  4. Even lawyers resumed work in the government courts.

Question 24: What do you know about the peasant movement in Awadh?

  1. In Awadh, the peasant movement was led by Baba Ramchandra—a sanyasi, who had earlier worked in Fiji as an indentured labourer.
  2. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents from the peasants.
  3. Peasants had to do begar at landlords’ farms.
  4. The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  5. In many places nai-dhobi bandhs were organised by Panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even washermen and barbers.
  6. Jawaharlal Nehru began talking to the villagers and formed Oudh Kisan Sabha.
  7. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the villages around the region.
  8. As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

Question 25: What were the causes for launching Khilafat Movement in India?

  1. The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
  2. There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor—the spiritual head of the Islamic world—the Khalifa.
  3. To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
  4. A young generation of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue.
  5. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified movement called ‘Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement’.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Question 1: Why did the initial enthusiasm of the merchants and industrialists fade away during the later stage of Civil disobedience movement?

Enthusiasm of the merchants and Industrialists faded away during the later stage of Civil Disobedience Movement due to following reasons:

  1. The industrialists attacked the colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
  2. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  3. Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
  4. But after the failure of Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
  5. They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the congress.

Question 2: Describe the cultural process through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.

  1. Nationalism spread when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together.
  2. There were variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
  3. Allegory of Indian nation– Bharat Mata helped create an image with which people can identify the nation.
  4. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
  5. It was essential to preserve folk traditions, folk tales in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s heart.
  6. National Flag designed by Gandhiji as Swaraj flag, represented the Gandhian ideal of self help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
  7. Reinterpretation of past also developed the interest of people in nationalist histories.

Question 3: Observe the picture and answer the questions that follow:Bharat_mata(a) Who painted this iconic painting?

Abanindranath Tagore painted in the year 1905.

(b) Why this painting is significant?

This painting is significant because of its historical value since it helped in conceptualizing the idea of Bharat Mata (Mother India).

(c) How is Bharat Mata portrayed and what does ‘Mata’ emphasise upon?

She has been portrayed as an ascetic figure and the mata in one hand emphasises her ascetic quality.

Question 4: Read the passage given in the box and answer the questions.
‘To the altar of this revolution we have brought our youth as incense’. Many nationalists thought that the struggle against the British could not be won through non-violence. In 1928, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) was founded at a meeting in Ferozeshah Kotla ground in Delhi. Amongst its leaders were Bhagat Singh, Jatin Das and Ajoy Ghosh. In a series of dramatic actions in different parts of India, the HSRA targeted some of the symbols of British power. In April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeswar Dutta threw a bomb in the Legislative Assembly. In the same year there was an attempt to blow up the train that Lord Irwin was travelling in. Bhagat Singh was 23 when he was tried and executed by the colonial government. During his trial, Bhagat Singh stated that he did not wish to glorify ‘the cult of the bomb and pistol’ but wanted a revolution in society: ‘Revolution is the inalienable right of mankind. Freedom is the imprescriptible birthright of all. The labourer is the real sustainer of society … To the altar of this revolution we have brought our youth as incense, for no sacrifice is too great for so magnificent a cause. We are content. We await the advent of revolution.
Inquilab Zindabad!’
Source: NCERT
(a) What was the philosophy behind the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA), founded in 1928?

Hindustan Socialist Republican Army believed that the struggle against the British could not be won through non-violence.

(b) Do you think sometimes violence is necessary to win the struggle and independence?

Yes, I feel sometimes violence is necessary to defeat the oppressive opponent. It is not necessary but sometimes justified. Ferocity is often regrettable, but not necessary an evil when you are fighting for the country’s dignity and Independence. If the intend behind the act is pious and good then violence can never be bad. However, violence must be tempered by righteous ideals, or it will run wild and hurt the innocent. In the old days, these ideals were known as ‘Chivalry’. C.S. Lewis defined Chivalry as ‘the only possible escape from the world divided between wolves who do not understand and make sheep who cannot defend, the things which make life desirable.’ Non-violence is admirable ideal in itself, but the price it demands is that you must either accept to be the prey of wolves, or be forced to rely on the hunter for defense.’ Violence is warranted in certain situations, when your life or the life of a loved one is in danger then you must do what is needed to protect yourself or others. And yes! I love my country.

Question 5: “Not all social groups were moved by the abstract concept of ‘Swaraj’.” Support the statement in the light of Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930s. 

Not all social groups were moved by the abstract concept of swaraj. Untouchables, who from around the 1930s had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. Many dalit leaders began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. Political empowerment, they believed, would resolve the problems of their social disabilities. Dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was therefore limited, particularly in the Maharashtra and Nagpur region where their organisation was quite strong. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for dalits. The Poona Pact of 1932 gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress led national movement. Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the decline of the Non-Cooperation Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. When the Civil Disobedience Movement started large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

Question 6: “Vernacular language and local folklores carried modern nationalist message to large audiences, who were mostly illiterate.” Justify with suitable examples.

  1. Vernacular languages and local folklores played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe.
  2. This was especially so in the case of Poland which had been partitioned by the great powers — Russia, Prussia & Austria.
  3. Karol Kurpinski of Poland celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the Polonaise, Mazurka into nationalist symbols.
  4. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
  5. Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
  6. Polish was used for church gatherings and all religious instructions.
  7. As a result a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities.
  8. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

Assertion Reason

The following questions consist of two statements — Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Answer these questions selecting the appropriate option given below:

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 1: Assertion (A) : During the years following 1818, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground.
Reason (R) : Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.

(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 2: Assertion (A) : The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion.
Reason (R) : Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 3: Assertion (A) : Language, too, played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
Reason (R) : After Russian occupation, the Polish language was welcomed in schools and the Russian language was forced out.

(c) A is false but R is true.

Question 4: Assertion (A) : The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
Reason (R) : National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work.

(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Question 5: Assertion (A) : During the 1830s, Giuseppe Garibaldi had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.
Reason (R) : The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war.

(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 6: Assertion (A) : Giuseppe Mazzini worked with the conservatives for the monarchy.
Reason (R) : Italy had to continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.

(d) Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations/ It could not be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
Thus both assertion and reason are false.

Question 7: Assertion (A) : Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one was ruled by an Italian princely house.
Reason (R) : The north was under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain.

(c) Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs and the southern regions were under the domination of The Bourbon kings of Spain.
Therefore assertion is true but reason is false.

Question 8: Assertion (A) : Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
Reason (R) : They were closely bound to each other in spite of their autonomous rule.

(c) Germany, Italy land Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Diverse people lived within the territories. They did not share a collective identity or a common culture. They spoke different languages belonged to different ethnic groups, were were no close ties binding them.

Question 9: Assertion (A) : Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
Reason (R) : Weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.

(b) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. The year 1848 was a year when rise in food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. Earlier in 1845, a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages and led a revolt.
Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Question 10: Assertion (A) : On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives revolted in the Frankfurt parliament.
Reason (R) : The elected representatives revolted against the issue of extending political rights to women.

(d) On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Therefore, both assertion and reason are false.

Question 11: Assertion (A) : The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
Reason (R) : The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.

(b) This situation refers to the unification of Britain, Assertion refers to Scotland and how they suffered because of the long-drawn-out process. Their culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. However, the reason refers to how the Irishmen suffered in the hands of Englishmen as it was a country deeply divided between the Catholics and Protestants. It was largely a Catholic country but the Protestants got support from the English to suppress the Catholic revolts. It does not explain the assertion.

Question 12: Assertion (A) : From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices like the idea of la patrie and le citoyen.
Reason (R) : This was done to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

(a) The French Revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. From the very beginning, the French Revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that would create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The centralized administrative system was one of the measures taken for making uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.

Case Study Questions

Case Study Question 01

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad. Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: Which one of the following was not the feature of Napoleonic Code?
(a) Equality before the law
(b) Universal Adult Franchise
(c) Right to Property
(d) Privileges based on birth

(b) Universal Adult Franchise

Question 2: Match the following:

1. Civil code(a) Napoleon
2. Jacobins(b) carried the idea of nationalism abroad
3. Destroyed democracy(c) Napoleonic code in France
4. French armies(d) political club

Choose the correct option:
(a) 1-(c), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(b)
(b) 1-(b), 2-(c), 3-(a), 4-(d)
(c) 1-(a), 2-(c), 3-(d), 4-(b)
(d) 1-(b), 2-(a), 3-(d), 4-(c)

(a) 1-(c), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(b)

Question 3: The Napoleonic Code was exported to which of the following regions?
(a) England
(b) Spain
(c) Regions under French control
(d) Poland

(c) Regions under French control

Question 4: The Civil Code of 1804 in France is usually known as:
(a) The French Revolutionary Code
(b) Napoleonic Code
(c) European Imperial Code
(d) The French Civil Code

(b) Napoleonic Code

Case Study Question 02

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation? Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation. You will recall that during the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. These ideals were represented through specific objects or symbols. As you would remember, the attributes of Liberty are the red cap, or the broken chain, while Justice is generally a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales. Similar female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: What did Germania symbolise?
(a) French nation
(b) German nation
(c) British nation
(d) None of the above

(b) German nation

Question 2: The allegory of the German nation who wears a crown of oak leaves was a:
(a) Marianne
(b) Union Jack
(c) Britannia
(d) Germania

(d) Germania

Question 3: What does a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales symbolise?
(a) Peace
(b) Equality
(c) Justice
(d) Liberty

(c) Justice

Question 4: Which of the given aspects signifies the image of ‘Germania’?
(a) Fold and Cultural Tradition
(b) Auterity and Asceticism
(c) Revenge and Vengeance
(d) Heroism and Justice

(d) Heroism and Justice

Case Study Question 03

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation. The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other peoples of Europe to become nations. When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: The first clear expression of nationalism came with:
(a) The American Revolution
(b) The French Revolution
(c) The Russian Revolution
(d) The Industrial Revolution

(b) The French Revolution

Question 2: The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and it was renamed as:
(a) National Assembly
(b) Body of Executives
(c) Rule of Directory
(d) None of these

(a) National Assembly

Question 3: The political and constitutional changes brought about by the French Revolution were:
(a) it ended the absolute monarchy.
(b) it transferred power to a body of the French citizens.
(c) it proclaimed that henceforth people would constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(d) all the above.

(a) it ended the absolute monarchy.

Question 4: The ideas of a United Community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution were expressed by the French as:
(a) La Patrie
(b) Le Citoyen
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above

(c) Both (a) and (b)

Case Study Question 04

Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of prerevolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: Who among the following was associated with the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
(a) Bismarck
(b) Duke Metternich
(c) Louis Philippe
(d) Victor Emmaunel II

(b) Duke Metternich

Question 2: After the Napoleon which dynasty was restored in France?
(a) Bourbon
(b) Mazzini
(c) Bouborn
(d) none of the above

(a) Bourbon

Question 3: Why was the treaty of Vienna (1815) drawn up?
(a) To establish tariff barriers
(b) To restore the monarchies
(c) To divide the German Confederation of 39 states
(d) To establish democracies

(b) To restore the monarchies

Question 4: Which of the following countries did not attend the Congress of Vienna?
(a) Britain
(b) Russia
(c) Prussia
(d) Switzerland

(d) Switzerland

Case Study Question 05

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance. Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. However, much of the Italian population, among whom rates of illiteracy were very high, remained blissfully unaware of liberal nationalist ideology.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: Cavour’s contribution to Italian unification was:
(a) Diplomatic alliance with the enemies of Austria
(b) War with Austrian and Bourbons3/20
(c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont
(d) Defeated the Bourbon Kings

(c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont

Question 2: Who amongst the following the Italian leaders was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat?
(a) Mazzini
(b) Cavour
(c) Garibaldi
(d) Victor Emmanuel II

(b) Cavour

Question 3: Who was proclaimed King of united Italy in 1861?
(a) Victor Emmanuel II
(b) Louis Philippe
(c) Mazzini
(d) Cavour

(a) Victor Emmanuel II

Question 4: Which one of the following is true regarding the ideas promoted by Mazzini?
(a) opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic
(b) to establish liberty and freedom under a monarchy
(c) disintegration of the German confederation under 39 states
(d) censorship of newspapers, books, plays and songs

(a) opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic

Case Study Question 06

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, BosniaHerzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area of _____________.
(a) Ottoman Empire
(b) Balkans
(c) Greece
(d) Albania

(b) Balkans

Question 2: The Ottoman Empire sought to strengthen itself through:
(a) Modernisation
(b) internal reforms
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of the above

(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 3: The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism was responsible for:
(a) disintegration of Greece
(b) Balkans disintegration from the Ottoman Empire
(c) integration of Macedonia
(d) none of the above

(b) Balkans disintegration from the Ottoman Empire

Question 4: The Balkan people based their claims for __________ or __________on nationality.
(a) independence, political rights
(b) power sharing, federalism
(c) secularism, political rights
(d) modernisation, strength

(a) independence, political rights

Case Study Question 07

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy. Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code -did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was eIported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in taly and Germany, Napoleon simplifed administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: What was the Napoleonic Code2
(a) The Civil Code of 1401 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.
(b) The Civic Code of 1410 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under British control
(c) The Civic Code of 1910 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under German control
(d) The Civil Code of 1901 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established inequality before the law and did not secure the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control

(a) The Civil Code of 1401 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

Question 2: Where were this code exported?
(a) This Code was exported to the regions under Australian control.
(b) This Code was exported to the regions under Indian control.
(c) This Code was exported to the regions under German control.
(d) This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

(d) This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

Question 3: What did Napoleon destroy in France?
(a) Napoleon destroyed monarchy in France.
(b) Napoleon destroyed farmers in France.
(c) Napoleon destroyed secularism in France.
(d) Napoleon destroyed democracy in France.

(d) Napoleon destroyed democracy in France.

Question 4: Which system was abolished by Napoleon?
(a) Napoleon abolished the marriage system.
(b) Napoleon abolished the national employment system.
(c) Napoleon abolished the feudal system.
(d) Napoleon abolished the secular system.

(c) Napoleon abolished the feudal system.

Practice Papers

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