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History

India and Contemporary World - II

Class 10

Chapter 1

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe is very important from the examination point of view. History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe is a continuations of History chapter 1: The French Revolution of Class 9.

We have tried to provide the best study material covering all the topics. We have also indexed all the topics in the start so that reader can easily access the topic directly by clicking into the topic.

History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe have been prepared in such a way that reader will not be needed any other material. Starting with Revision notes, which covers Important symbols, Important Personalities, Important Dates to remember, Important terms and summary of the History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe. After this, solutions  of Intext questions along with NCERT solution is also given. 

Extra questions have also divided categorically such as Very Short Answer Type Questions covering MCQs, Fill ups and True/False, Short Answer Type Questions, Long Answer Type Questions and HOTS.

According to the new education policy, new type of questions have been introduced since 2020. In accordance to that Assertion Reason and Case Study Questions have also been included in the study material of History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe.      

Revision Notes

1. Important Symbols

  • Broken chains – Liberty (being freed)
  • Breastplate with eagle – Strength (Symbol of the German empire)
  • Crown of oak leaves – Heroism
  • Sword – Readiness to fight
  • Olive branch around the sword – Willingness to make peace
  • Black, red and gold tri-colour – Flag of the liberal nationalists in 1848 banned by the Dukes of the German States.
  • Rays of the rising sun – Beginning of a new era

2. Important Personalities

  • Frederic Sorrieu : He was a French artist famous for a series of four prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of ‘Democratic and Social Republics’.
  • Napoleon (1769-1821) : A French military and political leaders who gained prominence during the French Revolution. Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini : Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
  • Duke Metternich : The chief architect and host of the Treaty of Vienna was the Austrian Chancellor, Duke Metternich.
  • Louise Otto-Peters : He was a German suffragist and women’s rights movement activist who wrote novels, poetry, essays, and libretti.
  • Carl Welcker : Carl Welcker, a member of the Frankfurt Parliament, had tremendous reservation against equal rights for women, and he ridiculed their demands as being against nature.
  • Otto Von Bismarck : Otto von Bismarck was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.
  • Kaiser William : Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. In newly formed Germany a lot of emphasis was placed on modernising the currency, and the banking, legal and judicial systems.
  • Count Camillo di Cavour : The Chief Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, helped the king in forming an alliance with France, and they defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi : He was an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy. He has been hailed as one of the ‘Fathers of the Fatherland’ for his contribution to the Italian Risorgimento, which unified the fractured nation under one rule. He joined the war along with his armed volunteers called the ‘Red Shirts’. In 1860, Garibaldi and his troops marched into Southern Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
  • Marianne and Germania : Marianne and Germania were the female allegories of France and German nations respectively. These were allegory of nation the same way as Bharat Mata, a female figure is imagined in India. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic the red cap, the tri-colour and the cockade. The Statues of Marianne were made and erected at public places and picture of Marianne printed on postage stamps. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves because that tree stands for heroism. She holds a sword in her hand.

3. Important Dates to Remember

  • 1797 : Napoleon invades Italy; Napoleonic wars begin.
  • 1804 : Napoleonic Code was introduced, did away with all privileges based on birth. Upheld equality before the law.
  • 1814-15 : Fall of Napoleon; the Vienna Peace Settlement.
  • 1821 : Greek struggle for independence begins.
  • 1830 : The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
  • 1830 : Period of Economic Crisis in Europe.
  • 1832 : Greece gained independence.
  • 1834 : Zollverein or the Customs Union was formed in Prussia to abolish tariff barriers.
  • 1848 : Revolutions in Europe; Artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolt against economic hardships; middle classes demand Constitutions and representative governments; Italians, Germans, Magyars, Poles, Czechs, etc., demanded for nation-states.
  • 1848 : Germans voted for National Assembly in Frankfurt.
  • 1855 : The Kingdom of Sardinia participated from the sides of British and French in the Crimean War.
  • 1858 : Cavour formed an alliance with France.
  • 1859-1870 : Unification of Italy.
  • 1859 : Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces. Large number of people under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the movement.
  • 1860 : Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
  • 1861 : Victor Emmanuel II was declared as the King of United Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
  • 1866-1871 : Unification of Germany.
  • 1871 : The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
  • 1905 : Slav nationalism gathers their force in the Habsburg and Ottoman empire.
  • 1914 : Beginning of the First World War.

4. Important Terms

  • Utopian vision : Utopian vision refers to a vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
  • Absolutism : Absolutism refers to a system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised.
  • Plebiscite : The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
  • French Revolution : The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
  • Nationalism : A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
  • Nation-state : A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19th century Europe as a result of the growth of nationalism.
  • Modern State : A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and population.
  • Liberal Nationalism Means :
  • Individual freedom
  • Equality before law
  • Government by consent
  • Freedom of markets
  • Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
  • Napoleonic Code : The Civil Code of 1804 introduced by Napoleon, was known as the Napoleonic Code. This code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
  • Zollverein : A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
  • Habsburg Empire : The empire that ruled Austria, Hungary including the Alpine regions of Tyrol, Austria, the Sudetenland and Bohemia.
  • Ottoman Empire : A former Turkish empire ruled by the Caliph-the spiritual and temporal head of the Muslims.
  • Ideology : System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
  • Conservatism : It is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
  • Suffrage : The right to vote in political elections.
  • Romanticism : A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past for arousing nationalism.
  • Revolutionaries : Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19th century.
  • Feminism : Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on political economic and social equality of genders is also known as Feminism.
  • Frankfurt Parliament : A large number of political associations comprising of professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt decided to vote for all German National Assembly. On 18th May-1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened at St. Paul’s Church. They drafted a Constitution based on the system of Constitution monarchy.
  • Nationalistic Feeling (1830s) : The sense of recognizing the society and nation as “we” and the sharing of many traits by its members. Culture with art and poetry, stories and music played a major role in the shaping and expression of nationalistic feelings and nation.
  • Ethnic : Relates to a common racial, tribal or cultural origin or background that a community identifies with or claims.
  • Symbol : A symbol is a visual image that represents something other than itself. It may be a representation using an object, picture, written word, sound or a particular mark.
  • Imperialism : A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
  • Allegory : When an abstract idea (for instance greed, envy, freedom, liberty, etc.) is expressed through a person or a thing. An allegorical story has two meanings, one literal and one symbolic.

Summary

  • Nineteenth Century was associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states.
  • Nationalism in Europe can be traced back to the decline of Feudalism and the beginning of Renaissance. The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
  • Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics.
  • Nationalism is a feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
  • Nationalism is a sense of identity with the nation. Many European nations experienced heightened periods of nationalism in the 19th century.
  • Nationalism in Europe can be traced back to the decline of feudalism and the beginning of the Renaissance. The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
  • The concepts of liberty, equality, fraternity and nationalism dominated the social and political scene of Europe in the 19th century.
  • French Revolution :
    • The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
    • It paved the way for the achievement of bigger goals of national identity and national pride, which can be aptly called Nationalism.
    • After the French Revolution, emerged a famous historical personality and warrior, Napoleon Bonaparte. He introduced several effective administrative changes like the Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic code.
  • Salient features of the French Revolution were:
    • France was under absolute monarchy in 1789.
    • The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people.
    • Ideas of La patrie (the fatherland) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted.
    • Estates General elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
    • French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers.
  • Advent of Liberalism in Europe :
    • During the mid-18th century, Europe was divided into several small kingdoms and principalities. The concept of nation-states did not exist at all. People from diverse ethnic groups lived in Eastern and Central Europe.
    • The prominent empires in Europe were the autocratic Ottoman Empire that ruled over Eastern and Central Europe, and Greece and the Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary.
  • Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries :
    • The middle class believed in freedom and equality of all individuals before law. Liberalism was used to end aristocracy and clerical privileges. After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815, the European government adopted the idea of conservatism.
  • Napoleon (1769-1821) ruled France from 1799 to 1815.
    • Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
    • Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804).
    • Established equality before law and abolished all privileges based on birth.
    • Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.
    • Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made mandatory.
  • Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
  • After 1815, several liberals began working in secret societies all over Europe to propagate their views and train revolutionaries.
  • Revolutionaries were seen as a threat to the restored monarchies, and hence, were repressed.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne.
  • In 1831, Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy. These societies were joined by like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy, and the German states.
  • Liberalism and nationalism became associated with revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
  • The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
  • The Greek War of Independence was another event which mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite in Europe.
  • Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories, music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
  • Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
  • Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  • The 1830s saw a rise in prices, bad harvest, poverty in Europe. Besides the poor, unemployed and starving peasants, even educated middle classes, revolted.
  • In 1848, a large number of political associations came together in Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
  • The issue of extending political rights to women became a controversial one.
  • Conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, but could not restore the old order.
  • After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
  • After 1848, the conservatives began to use nationalist ideas to strengthen the monarchy. The unification of Italy and Germany came about through this process.
  • Unification of Germany (1866-1871)
    • In 1848, middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation state under an elected parliament.
    • In Prussia, nation building acts were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military and were supported by the landowners (Junkers).
    • Prussia took over the leadership of the movement.
      Otto von Bismarck, chief minister of Prussia, was the architect of the leading role of Prussia in the process of nation-building.
    • Prussia emerged victorious after fighting three wars over seven years against the combined forces of Austria, Denmark and France and the process of unification of Germany was completed.
    • 18th January 1871: The new German empire headed by the German Emperor Kaiser William I was declared in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
    • The unification of Germany established Prussian dominance in Europe.
    • The New German Empire focused on modernizing the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems.
  • Unification of Italy
    • Italy was divided into seven states.
    • Only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
    • The North Italy was under Austrian Habsburgs.
    • The centre part was under Pope.
    • The South region was under the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
    • During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini formed a coherent program for uniting the Italian Republic and formed a secret society called Young Italy.
    • Failure of the 1831 and 1848 revolutionary uprisings prompted King Victor Emmanuel II from Sardinia Piedmont to unify the Italian states.
    • Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont, Count Cavour, led the movement for the unification of Italy.
    • In the year 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces.
    • In 1860 Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into south Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Scillies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
    • In 1861, Victor Emanuel was declared as the king of united Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
  • Britain has a different history of how it consolidated as a nation—state without uprisings and revolutions. The British Isles was inhabited by ethnic English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. The English nation grew more in power and wealth, and it began to exert influence over the other nations of the islands.
  • The concept of nation states, with England as the centre, came in 1688 after the Parliament snatched power from the monarchy. In 1707, the Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
  • To ensure the growth of British identity, Scotland’s cultural and political institutions were suppressed. The British imposed control over Ireland as well. Ireland was deeply divided into two groups, Catholics and Protestants. The English favoured the protestants, and helped them establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Ireland.
  • In 1801, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom after a failed Irish revolt. The symbols of new Britain were the English language, the British Flag (Union Jack), and the British national anthem (God save our Nobel King).
  • Visualising the Nation :
    • Nation was personified in the female form by the artists of the 19th century.
    • Female allegories such as that of liberty, justice and republic were invented.
    • In Germany, Germania became the allegory of the nation.
    • In France, the idea of a people’s nation was the christened Marianne. She was characterized by the ideas of liberty and republic.
    • These symbols were usually popular images from everyday life that uneducated masses could easily identify with.
    • During revolutions, artists represented a nation as a person. This personification gave life to an abstract concept like nation.
    • The way of expressing an abstract idea like freedom or liberty through a symbol that may be person or thing is known as Allegory. An allegory has a literal and a symbolic meaning. In the nineteenth century, French artists used the female allegory to represent France. She was Christened Marianne. She symbolises reason, liberty and the ideals of the republic.
    • Marianne’s fasces or a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle was used to symbolise strength in unity.
    • The red Phrygian cap signified freedom of a slave. It was also known as the liberty cap. French people wore these caps a few days before the storming of the Bastille.
  • Nationalism and Imperialism :
    • Through the 18th and the mid 19th century, Europe was marked by a lot of chaos and turmoil. After 1871, there was a significant change in the concept of nationalism in Europe.
    • Nationalist groups in Europe had become increasingly incompatible with each other and were constantly in conflict. The major European powers, namely Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary began taking advantage of nationalism in Europe, to materialise their aims for imperialism.
    • The European powers sighted the much-disturbed Balkan region to fulfil their imperialist goals. The Balkan region consisted of the following countries of our times – Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

In-Text Questions Solution

Activity (Page 3)

Question 1: In what way do you think this print (Fig. 1) depicts a utopian vision?Intext-01

The print was a utopian vision coz:-

  1. All countries were together.
  2. The countries were supposed to be nation which didn’t existed till then.
  3. Men, women and children were given equal status.

Discuss (Page 4)

Question 2: Summarize the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important?

Ernst Renan was a French philosopher who delivered a speech at the University of Sorbonne in 1882. In his speech he outlined the idea of what makes a nation. According to Renan, nations are formed by a common language, race, religion or territory. It is the culmination of a long past of endeavor, sacrifices and devotion. A nation does not take any interest in annexing or holding onto another Nation against its will.

Nations are important because their existence guarantee Liberty. The liberty of individuals would be lost if they are no nations.

Discuss (Page 10)

Question 3: Describe the political ends that List hopes to achieve through economic measures.

A customs union known as Wolverine was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. This union removed internal impediments and summed up 32 currencies into two. Besides this, it the aim of the union is to bind the Germans economically into a nation by strengthening the nation materially through its protection of interests externally and stimulating its internal production.

Activity (Page 11)

Question 4: Plot on a map of Europe the changes drawn up by the Vienna Congress.

The Vienna Congress in 1815 changed the boundaries of Europe after the Napoleonic era. The boundaries were changed to make a strong France. Many countries opposed this, but it was remapped with Russia taking most parts of the Napoleonic under its control. The new states with new border were created although Europe with Switzerland being neutral territory. Although Napoleon escaped while in exile but was defeated in Waterloo.

Discuss (Page 11)

Question 5: What is the caricaturist trying to depict?intext-11

The caricaturist is depicting the club of liberal nationalists which dates back 1820. Conservative regimes were set up in 1815. These regimes were autocratic they were not ready to tolerate criticism and dissent. They curbed all the actions which put a question mark on the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of the regimes had imposed censorship law to have control over freedom of the press and over songs motivating the ideas of liberty.

Discuss (Page 15)

Question 6: Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.

A person is identified as belonging to a particular nation by his cultural traditions and the language that he speaks. The language as well as the traditional practices usually develop and get established over a long period of many hundreds of years.

They give an identity to an individual wherever he is. For instance, a Frenchman will normally speak the French language fluently. He will also follow French traditions and customs wherever he is in the world, as he would have imbibed them in his family from his childhood days. Thus, he will be identified as a French national.

Discuss (Page 16)

Question 7: Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.

The cause of the Silesian weaver’s uprising was the cheating of the weavers by the contractors. In 1845, the weavers raised a revolt against the contractors who used to supply them raw material to weave textiles in finished form. The contractors drastically reduced their payments. The viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wolft for this uprising was as fellows- Weaver’s crowd reached the house of the contractor and demanded higher wages.

They were not treated well, so a group of the crowd entered the contractors house forcibly and destroyed the furniture, window panes, plundered it. This shows that the viewpoint of the journalist was biased against the weavers and in favour of the contractor. On the other hand, the journalist did not understand the root cause of the uprising. He did not understand the poverty of weavers.

Activity (Page 16)

Question 8: Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded. Write a report on what you saw.

I have worked very hard to supply the woven cloth in time, but received very little payment than what was agreed to by the contractor. Since, other weavers had also got less payment, on the afternoon of 4th June,

I went along with my partner and other weavers to the contractor’s house for asking for better wages for our weaving.

Our demands were scornfully refused and we were even threatened that no more work would be given to us if we did not work at the same rate as what was paid to us. Some of my fellow weavers got angry at this and broke the windowpanes of the contractor’s house, barged inside and damaged his furniture and crockery.

Some weavers also broke open his store of woven cloth and tore it all up. Seeing this, the contractor ran away from the house with his family to a nearby village, but there also he did not get shelter. Next day, the contractor returned with soldiers from the army, who fired at our group of weavers, killing eleven of us. I was injured in the leg by a bullet and now, I am nursing my wounds as I write this.

Discuss (Page 18)

Question 9: Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?

The liberal politician Carl Welcker, an elected member of the Frank furt Parliament, says that

  1. Woman is weaker than man and her sphere is the home where she keeps children and does household duties such as cooking, washing and cleaning, etc.
  2. Equality between the sexes or woman and man would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.

According to Louise Otto-Peters, a political activist and founder of a woman’s journal and a feminist political association, Men who try to gain freedom and liberty for all do not obey this but their untiring efforts are intended for the welfare of only men. She advocated that liberty cannot be divided among the men and women.
An Anonymous writer says that

  1. It is injustice to discriminate against women on the basis of gender.
  2. The women should not be deprived of the right to vote while an illiterate man has given the right to vote.
  3. The above discussion shows that Louise Otto-Peters and the Anonymous writer favor woman on the basis of rights of liberty and equality.
  4. The first writer does not favor woman’s rights of liberty and equality.

Activity (Page 20)

Question 10: Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?

The caricature depicts Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany as holding a whip (signifying that he is a ruthless man ruling with an iron hand) while leading the Parliament. The deputies who were elected are afraid of him and so are hiding under their tables. The caricature depicts the dominance of Bismarck over the deputies and how he despised liberalism and parliamentary assemblies. The artist is trying to convey that the democratic process in Germany was very shallow and the roots of constitutionalism were poor.

Activity (Page 21)

Question 11: Look at Fig. 14(a). Do you think that the people living in any of these regions thought of themselves as Italians?intext-11

In 1858, Italy was divided into seven states, with the North being under the Austrian Habsburgs, the centre being ruled by the Pope and the Southern regions being under Spain’s domination. Only one state, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The Italian language also had not acquired a common form and had many regional and local variations. So people living in these regions, except Sardinia -Piedmont, would not have thought of themselves as Italians.

Question 12: Examine Fig. 14(b). Which was the first region to become a part of unified Italy? Which was the last region to join? In which year did the largest number of states join?intext-12

  1. The first regions to become a part of unified Italy in 1858 were Savoy Sardinia followed by the Northern states.
  2. The last region to join was the Papal State in 1870.
  3. The largest number of states joined in 1860.

Activity (Page 22)

Question 13: The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the King of Sardinia-Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?intext-13

The base of the boot symbolizes the Kingdom of the Two Sicilians, which lay in the southernmost part of the Italian peninsula. Garibaldi had won this kingdom and handed it over to King Victor Emmanuel II. This cartoon signifies the unification of Italy and Garibaldi’s role in it.

Activity (Page 24)

Question 14: With the help of the chart in Box 3, identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broken chain. Explain the significance of this change.intext-14

The symbolic meaning of the painting is that the German nation has emerged. The female figure of Germania is an allegory of the German nation. All the attributes of the German nation out be seen in the painting as given in the chart. The replacement of the Kaiser’s crown with the broken chain signifies that the German nation is now free from autocratic monarchical rule.

Activity (Page 24)

Question 15: Describe what you see in Fig. 17. What historical events could Hübner be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation?intext-06

Julius Hübner painted this picture of Germania, allegory of the German -nation, in 1850, 2 years after the national assembly at Frankfurt was rejected by the monarchs. In the foreground of the picture, there are symbols of absolutism and Germania lies before it. This shows that the united hope if German becoming a nation is now shriveled. And the entire nation falls down before the monarchy.

Thus, the Frankfurt parliament being forced to disband, by the monarchs, was the event Hübner is referring to in his painting.

Activity (Page 25)

Question 16: Look once more at Fig. 10. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you

  • (a) As a man seated in the hall of deputies, and
  • (b) As a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling?Intext-05
  • (a) As a man seated in the hall of deputies, I would relate positively to the banner of Germania, as I would feel all that it symbolized was coming true.
  • (b) As a woman observing from the galleries, I would consider the banner to depict the truth only partially Women had participated with men equally in the struggle for constitutionalism with national unification, but they were denied suffrage rights during elections to the National Assembly, Women were only admitted to the assembly as passive citizens and observers.

NCERT Solution

Write in Brief

(Page 28)

Question 1: Write a note on:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini

Giuseppe Mazzini: He was an Italian revolutionary, who played an important role in promoting the idea of unification of Italian state. He was sent into an exile at the age of 24 in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He came to France in 1830 and founded two secret underground societies, under the name of ‘Young Italy’ and ‘Young Europe’, which aimed at infusing the spirit of fraternity among Italians. Their members were from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini roamed in England and France, but continued writing articles, addressing and inspiring his countrymen. Mazzini laid the foundation of Italy’s unification and inculcated the thoughts of patriotism among Italians duty and sacrifice. He was a poet, an idealistic thinker and a pioneer of revolution.

(b) Count Camillo de Cavour

Count Camillo de Cavour: In 1848, he was elected a member of the first of Sardinia- Piedmont. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democratic. He was convinced that economic progress and powerful army were two vital forces for the unification of Italy. In 1852, he became the Prime Minister and a new chapter opened in the history of Italy. He proved himself to be an extraordinary diplomat and marvellous politician of his time. Like Mazzini and Garibaldi, Cavour also was a true patriot and had determined to see Italy independent and unified.

(c) The Greek war of Independence

The Greek war of independence: An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of Independence. The war of independence took place from 1821-1829 among the Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire. The Greek nationalists were inspired by the idea of Liberal nationalism. They got support from the other Greeks living in exile and also from many Western European who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. There were poets and artists who hailed Greece as the cradle of European civilisation. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an Independent nation.

(d) Frankfurt Parliament

Frankfurt parliament: A large number of middle class professionals-businessmen and prosperous artisans belonging to different regions of Germany came together in a political association and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly in the city of Frankfurt. In 1848, 831 people were elected and decided to organise the Parliament at Frankfurt in the Church of St. Paul. This Assembly drafted a Constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarch, subject to a parliament. When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes, who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end, troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.

(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles

The role of women in nationalist struggles: Over the years, a significant role was played by women in the national struggle, all over the world. They were active participants, who suffered the torture, stood in the protests, founded newspapers, taken part in political meetings and demonstrations, spread the idea of Liberal nationalism and also formed few revolutionary organisations. Though they were given either very little or no political rights; an example being the Frankfurt parliament, where women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitor’s gallery.

Question 2: What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among
the French people?

  1. Ideas of La Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (the citizen) popularised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
  2. A new French tricolour flag was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
  3. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  4. Poets composed new hymns, leaders took oath and martyrs were commemorated, all in the name of the nation. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised. Collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation building.
  5. To formulate uniform laws for all its citizens, a new centralised administrative system was established.
  6. A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted and internal customs duties and dues were abolished.
  7. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, was adopted as the common language of the nation.

Question 3: Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were
portrayed?

  1. Marianne was mainly portrayed as a female figure, which was a given name for the French nation. Likewise, Germania was a given name for the German motherland.
  2. They stood as personifications of the ‘Republic’ and ‘Liberty’. They mainly represented the idea of a nation in a concrete form.
  3. Their main purpose was to install a sense of nationality among the citizens of the country.
  4. Artists in the 18th & 19th centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words, they represented a country as if it were a person.
  5. They used female allegory during French revolution to portray ideas of liberty, justice and republic. These ideas were represented through specific objects or symbols like red cap representing liberty.
  6. In France, she was Christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Statues of the Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity.
  7. In visual representation, Germania wears a crown of Oak leaves, as the German Oak stands for heroism.

Question 4: Briefly trace the process of German unification. (OR)
Describe the process of unification of Germany.

  1. The middle class Germans united in 1848, to create a nation-state out of the numerous German states. But the initiative was repressed by the combined forces of the Monarchy and big landlords of Prussia. From then onwards, Prussia took over the initiative to unite Germany.
  2. This was carried out by the Chief Minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismarck, and Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  3. His main objective was to unify Germany and this was done by three wars, which they fought over 7 years; with Austria, Denmark and France.
  4. The win led to Bismarck becoming the chancellor of North Confederation in 1867.
  5. After the win, in the Royal Palace of Versailles, the King of Prussia was crowned as the German Emperor. It symbolised the birth of a united Germany.

Question 5: What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the
territories ruled by him?

There were several changes introduced by Napoleon in the administrative system, to make it more efficient, they are as follows:

  1. He established the Civil Code also known as the ‘Napoleonic Code’ in 1804. Due to this, privileges based on birth were abolished.
  2. The civil code also established equality before law and secured right to property.
  3. He also simplified the administrative division. There was abolishment of feudal system and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues.
  4. In towns, the guild system was removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  5. New found freedom was thoroughly enjoyed by workers, peasants and artisans and new businessmen.
  6. Small scale producer of goods began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods–capitals from one region to another. Businessmen appreciated the benefits of uniform laws.

Discuss

(Page 28)

Question 6: Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

1848 Revolution of Liberals

  1. In 19th century Europe, the ideas of national unity were closely related to the ideology of liberalism. The happenings of 1848 movements in France brought the renunciation of monarchy and a republic, which was mainly based on the universal male franchise. While in countries like France, food shortages and widespread unemployment during 1848 led to popular uprisings, in other parts of Europe (such as Poland, Italy, Germany and the AustroHungarian Empire), men, and women of the liberal middle classes came together to voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles.
  2. Frankfurt Parliament: In German regions, a large number of political associations of the middle class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for the all German National Assembly. On 18th May, 1848, 831 elected representatives marched to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy, subject to a parliament.
  3. Issue of Women: In the liberal movement, a large number of women had participated actively. Women had formed their own political associations, and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite that, they were denied the right to vote. Social, Political and economic ideas were supported by the liberals which were mainly based on the democratic ideas. Their demand was mainly, constitution with national unification- a nation state with a written constitution and parliamentary administration. They wanted to abolish class based partialities and birth rights from the society. Their national goal was to abolish serfdom and pursue equality. Another significant concept of the Liberians were ‘the right to property’, which was important to build a nation based on political, social and economic freedom.

Question 7: Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

  1. Romanticism: A European cultural movement that aimed at developing national unity was Romanticism. It created a sense of shared heritage and a common history. Emotions, intuition and mystical feelings were some of the expressions used by the Romantic artists by which they tried to emphasise on national sentiments of the people.
  2. Folk songs, dances and poetry: They contributed to the popularising spirit of nationalism and patriotic fervour in Europe. As folk culture was a major part of the lives of people, it carried a message of nationalism to a large and diverse population. The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and popularised the Polish nationalist struggle through his operas and music, by turning folk dances into nationalist symbols.
  3. Language Association: Another important factor which played a significant role was language. For example, during Russian occupation, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. In this period, Russian language was imposed everywhere and Polish was even taken out of schools. After the 1831 rebel against the Russians, large number of the polish clergy started using language as a weapon of national resistance. This was done by using Polish language in Church gatherings and religious instructions and refused to preach Russian.

Question 8: Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the 19th century?

We would be taking Germany and Italy as our two examples:

  1. Revolutionary uprising: The revolutions and uprisings of the masses in the 19th century was led by the educated, liberal middle classes. An all-German National Assembly was formed in 1848, where middle classes from various regions of Germany came together. However, on facing opposition from the aristocracy and military, and on losing its mass support base, it was forced to disband.
  2. Role of Leaders: Unitary Italian Republic was established due the revolutions led by leaders like Giuseppe Mazzini during the 1830s. Though the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy.
  3. Political fragmentation: The present-day nations of Germany and Italy were divided into separate regions and kingdoms, which were ruled by various princely houses till the middle of the 19th century.
  4. Unification with the help of army: After the Failures of the revolutions, the aristocracy and the army continued the process of unification of German and Italian. The Chief Minister of Prussia Otto Von Bismarck united Germany with the help of the bureaucracy and Prussian army. The German empire was formed in 1871.
  5. Movements of Italian State: And important role was played by the Italian state of Sardinia-Piedmont similar to that played by Prussia. The Movement was led by Count Camillo de Cavour, the Chief Minister, to unite the different states of 19th century Italy in which he had the alliance of France and the support of the army. The regions conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a united Italy. The Italian nation recognised in 1861 and in 1870, the Papal states joined in.

Question 9: How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

  1. No British nation existed prior to the 18th century. The British Isles consisted of different ethnic groups like the English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. Each group followed their own cultural and political traditions. On the other side, due to the growth of wealth and importance of power in the English state, could easily extend its influence over the other states of islands. National symbols like the English language, British Flag and National Anthem were promoted to identify the nationality of the nation.
  2. No Revolution: While in France, nationalism was developed through revolutions, in Britain, it was the result of a long drawn out process.
  3. English Parliament: While other European countries like Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, etc., had to wage wars either to gain independence or to unify their countries, Britain accomplished this objective through Parliamentary Acts.
  4. The British parliament played a major role in restraining the power of the monarchy in 1688, through various bloodless revolutions. England and Scotland formed an Act of Union (1707) which laid the crux of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. English culture mainly dominated the British nation, whereas Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were slowly and systematically supressed. Thus, unlike the rest of the Europe, nationalism came in Britain from the decisions of the people in power and not by people’s desire to unite or countrywide movements.

Question 10: Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

One of the main reasons for the tension to emerge in Balkans was because the people aspired to nationalism. During the 19th century, major portion of Balkans was under the Ottoman Empire. They tried to adopt modern techniques to make changes in the internal backwardness of the state but they did not succeed.

  1. Ethnic Variation: The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. Their inhabitants were known as slaves.
  2. Disintegration of Ottoman Empire: A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman empire. The ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
  3. Subjugation: Soon many foreign powers attempted to subjugate these newly independent states. The Balkan people tried to claim independence by using history to prove that they had once been independent. Hence, the rebellious nationalities struggled to win back their long-lost independence.
  4. Jealousy: There was a jealousy among the Balkan states and each hoped to expand their boundaries at the expense of others. During this period, the ideology of Europe was changed, the liberal feelings were narrowed down with limited ends. Intolerance followed among the groups and they were ready to fight a war.
  5. Power struggle: Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary and Britain, the European powers were interested to expand their own imperialism. Trade, colonies, naval and military powers were some of the major factors which all the European powers were struggling for. They were all very keen on controlling the hold of the other powers and extending their own.

Project

Question 11: Find out more about nationalist symbols in countries outside Europe. For one or two countries, collect examples of pictures, posters or music that are symbols of nationalism. How are these different from European examples?

Some of the nationalist symbols of the countries other than European countries are as under:

National SymbolsAmericaRussiaChinaIndia
Flag50 stars on blue color background surrounded by red and white strips3 horizontal strips of white, blue and red colorRed flag with one big and five small yellow color stars3 strips of orange, white and green color with chakra in the middle (white) strip.
Bird EagleBald EagleDouble head (Bice phallic) EagleChinese DragonPeacock
FlowerThe RoseCamomile (sun flower variety)PeonyThe Lotus
AnthemThe star spangled banner by Francis Scott KeyHymn of Russian Federation by Sergey MikhalkovThe March of VolunteersJana, Gana, Mana by Rabindra Nath Tagore
Music PatrioticGod Bless America by Irving BerlinGrom pobedy, raz davaysay! by Gatril Derzhavini. The plum blossom
ii. The East in Red
Vande Mataram by Bankin Chandra Chattopadhyay

These nationalist symbols are very different from the symbols of European countries in the manner that they manifest nationalist sentiments of their respective countries.

Images showing the difference between the flag of Europeans and others:Flag

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Each of the following questions is of 1 mark and has to be answered in one word or one sentence.

Question 1: Which countries met at Treaty of Vienna?

In 1815, representatives of the European powers—Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria—who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.

Question 2: Who hosted the Treaty of Vienna?

Austrian chancellor, Duke Metternich hosted this congress at Vienna in 1815.

Question 3: What was the objective of Treaty of Vienna? OR What was the main aim of Treaty of Vienna
1815?

The aim was to reverse most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic war. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.

Question 4: What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815?

To oppose monarchial forms of government.

Question 5: Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?

Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Genoa in 1807. He was one of three revolutionaries who made a significant contribution to Italian unification.

Question 6: Which two underground societies were formed by Giuseppe Mazzini?

(i) Young Italy in Marseilles.
(ii) Young Europe in Berne.

Question 7: How did Metternich describe Mazzini?

‘The most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

Question 8: Who were liberal nationalists?

The liberal nationalists belonged to the educated middle class elite, among whom were the professors, school teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle classes.

Question 9: Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation. 

Treaty of 1832: Constantinople of Treaty of 1832.

Question 10: Name the event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830–1848.

Event that mobilized nationalist feelings: The Greek War of Independence.

Question 11: Who supported Nationalists of Greeks in their Independence war?

Greeks living in exile and also from many west Europeans, who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.

Question 12: What was ‘Romanticism’ during the age of revolutions?

A cultural movement, which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.

Question 13: What led to widespread pauperism in Europe?

The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest.

Question 14: Who was Otto von Bismarck?

Bismarck was the Chief Minister of Prussia and was the architect of the unification of Germany.

Question 15: Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861?

Victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed King of United Italy in 1861.

Question 16: What is an Allegory? State any one example to clarify the same.

Allegory: When an abstract idea for instance; greed, envy, freedom, liberty is expressed through a person or a thing. It is symbolic. Examples: Statue of Liberty, Marianne, Germania, etc.

Question 17: Which female Allegory was invented by artists in France?

‘Marianne’, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.

Question 18: What was the Allegory of Germany?

Germania

Question 19: Who remarked “when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”.

Metternich

Question 20: Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?

Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor.

Question 21: Who was Frederic Sorrieu?

A French artist, who prepared a series of four prints, visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics.

Question 22: To which country did the artist Frederic Sorrieu belong?

France.

Question 23: Why did French artist, Frederic Sorrieu prepare a series of print based on democratic and socialist republics in 1848?

To depict his Utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costumes offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.

Question 24: What was the concept of a ‘modern state’?

A centralised power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory.

Question 25: What does ‘Nation-state’ mean?

The one in which the majority of its citizens and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.

Question 26: What do the ideas of ‘la Patrie’ and ‘le Citoyen’ emphasize?

They emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

Question 27: Which new name was given to ‘The Estates General’?

‘National Assembly’.

Question 28: When did industrialisation begin in England and other parts of Europe?

Second half of the 18th century, but in France and parts of German states, it occurred only during the 19th century.

Question 29: What was the strong demand of the emerging middle classes in Europe during nineteenth century?

The strong demand of emerging middle classes in Europe was freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

Question 30: When and why was Zollverein formed?

To harness economic interests which lead to national unification of Germany in 1834.

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's)

Choose the correct option from the choices given:

Question 1: Who remarked “When France Sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”?
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
(b) Metternich
(c) Louis Philippe
(d) Johann Gottfried

(b) Metternich

Question 2: Which country had been party of the ‘Ottoman Empire’ since the 15th century?
(a) Spain
(b) Greece
(c) France
(d) Germany

(b) Greece

Question 3: Which country became full-fledged territorial state in Europe in the year 1789?
(a) Germany
(b) France
(c) England
(d) Spain

(b) France

Question 4: When was the first clear expression of nationalism noticed in Europe?
(a) 1787
(b) 1759
(c) 1789
(d) 1769

(c) 1789

Question 5: Which of the following did the European conservatives not believe in?
(a) Traditional institution of state policy
(b) Strengthened monarchy
(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

Question 5: Which of the following did the European conservatives not believe in?
(a) Traditional institution of state policy
(b) Strengthened monarchy
(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

(c) A return to a society of pre-revolutionary days

Question 6: Name the Italian revolutionary from Genoa.
(a) Metternich
(b) Johann Gottfried
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) None of these

(c) Giuseppe Mazzini

Question 7: Which language was spoken for purposes of diplomacy in the mid 18th century in Europe?
(a) German
(b) English
(c) French
(d) Spanish

(c) French

Question 8: What was ‘Young Italy’?
(a) Vision of Italy
(b) Secret society
(c) National anthem of Italy
(d) None of these

(b) Secret society

Question 9: Treaty of Constantinople recognised ___________ as an independent nation.
(a) Greece
(b) Australia
(c) Italy
(d) None of the above

(a) Greece

Question 10: Which of the following did not play a role to develop nationalist sentiments?
(a) Art
(b) Music
(c) Climate

(c) Climate

Question 11: Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy, in 1861?
(a) Giuseppe Garibaldi
(b) Victor Emmanuel II
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Cavour

(b) Victor Emmanuel II

Question 12: Liberal-nationalits mainly belong to which class?
(a) Elite class
(b) Educated middle-class elite
(c) Working class
(d) Artisans

(b) Educated middle-class elite

Question 13: Where was the first upheaval took place in July, 1803?
(a) Italy
(b) France
(c) Germany
(d) Greece

(b) France

Question 14: The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe, after 1871, was an area called:
(a) Ottoman
(b) Prussia
(c) Balkans
(d) Macedonia

(c) Balkans

Question 15: Which of the following was not a part of Napoleon’s defeat?
(a) Britain
(b) Australia
(c) Italy

(c) Italy

Question 16: Which newly designed flag was chosen to replace the formal flag ‘Royal Standard’ in France?
(a) Union Jack
(b) Tricolour
(c) White Saltire
(d) Red Cross

(b) Tricolour

Question 17: Which of the following reforms made the whole system in France more rational and efficient?
(a) Administrative reform
(b) Social reform
(c) Economic reform
(d) Political reform

(a) Administrative reform

Question 18: Who destroyed democracy in France?
(a) Adolf Hitler
(b) Mussolini
(c) Napolean Bonaparte
(d) Bismarck

(c) Napolean Bonaparte

Question 19: Which region is ruled over by ‘The Habsburg Empire’?
(a) Austria-Hungary
(b) France-Netherlands
(c) Spain-Portugal
(d) Scotland-Ireland

(a) Austria-Hungary

Question 20: What was the main occupation in the mid 18th century in Europe?
(a) Trade and commerce
(b) Peasantry
(c) Craftmanship
(d) All of the above

(b) Peasantry

Question 21: What was the main feature of the pattern of land holding prevailing in the Eastern and Central Europe?
(a) Tenants
(b) Vast estates
(c) Small owners
(d) Landlords

(b) Vast estates

Question 22: Which country began to use language as a weapon of national resistance?
(a) Poland
(b) Prussia
(c) Hungary
(d) Austria

(a) Poland

Question 23: What major issue was criticised against by the liberal nationalists?
(a) Censorship laws to control the press
(b) Preservation of the Church
(c) A modern army
(d) Efficient bureaucracy

(d) Efficient bureaucracy

Question 24: German philosopher, Johann Gottfried clamined that true German culture was to be discovered among the:
(a) Common people
(b) Aristocratic
(c) Middle class elite
(d) None of above

(a) Common people

Question 25: The meaning of ‘Volksgeist’:
(a) Common people
(b) Spirit of the nation
(c) Music
(d) None of above

(b) Spirit of the nation

Question 26: The place where the priests and bishops were punished.
(a) Siberia
(b) Tundra
(c) Mongolia
(d) None of above

(a) Siberia

Fill in the Blanks

Complete the following statements with appropriate word(s).

Question 1: The Act of Union of 1707 was between _________ and _________.

England and Scotland

Question 2: Jacob clubs were the ___________.

Political Clubs

Question 3: When conservative regimes were restored to power, many liberal minded people went underground because of the fear of _____________.

Repression

Question 4: ____________ allegory represent the nation of France.

Marianne

Question 5: __________ were the most serious nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.

Balkans

True/False

Read each of the following statements and write if it is true or false.

Question 1: In Britain, formation of a nation-state was a long parliamentary process.

True

Question 2: Jacobin clubs influenced German Army.

False

Question 3: The Napoleonic Bode upheld reforms and equality.

True

Question 4: From 1848, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement of national unification.

True

Question 5: Mazzini was a great revolutionary leader of Romanian.

False

Short Answer Type Questions

Each of the following questions is of 3 marks and has to be answered in about 80 words.

Question 1: Explain the concept of liberal nationalism which developed in Europe in early 18th century.

Liberalism meant different things to different people.

Political liberalism:

  1. It stood for equality before the law.
  2. Revolutionary France marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy in which right to vote and get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men.
  3. Men without property, and all women were excluded from political rights.
  4. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.

Economic liberalism:

  1. It stood for freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
  2. Customs Union or ‘zollverein’ was formed in Prussia, joined by most of the German states.
  3. The Union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.

Question 2: What do you mean by conservatism? Highlight the main features of the beliefs.

Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of the tradition and preferred gradual development to quick change.

Features of the believers of conservatism:

  1. They believed in established, traditional institutions of state and society.
  2. They believed in a monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, etc.
  3. They did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised that modernisation could in fact, strengthen the traditional institutions like the monarchy.

Question 3: Write three features of the painting of Frederic Sorrieu.

Features:

  1. Men and women walking across the statue of liberty offering homage.
  2. Statue of liberty has a torch of enlightenment and Charter of the Rights of Man.
  3. On the Earth lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.

Question 4: How was France responsible in spreading nationalism to other parts of Europe?

  1. Students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs like in France, in European countries.
  2. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for French armies which moved into Holland, Switzerland, Belgium and much of Italy in the 1970s.
  3. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

Question 5: Give a short note on the Habsburg Empire.

  1. It ruled over Austria-Hungary.
  2. It was a patchwork of many different regions and people.
  3. It included the Alpine regions — the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland — as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking.
  4. It also included the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.

Question 6: Which conditions in France depicted their political liberalism?

  1. The right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men.
  2. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
  3. The Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of father and husband.

Question 7: Explain the role of romanticism in national feeling.
OR
“The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.” Elaborate upon the statement.

  1. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation; art and poetry, stories and music. They all helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
  2. Romantic artists and poets created a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
  3. It was through folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
  4. Emphasis was given on the vernacular language and the collection of folklore to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences.

Question 8: What kind of policy was followed by Bismarck? How did he manage to oust Austria from the German federation?

  1. Bismarck followed the policy of ‘Blood and Iron’.
  2. He was the architect of this process, which he carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  3. Three wars were fought for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, which ended in the victory of Prussia and completed the process of unification.

Question 9: How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples.

The Napoleonic Code was drafted by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force in 1804. The Code was a major step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. It has a special place as it is one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world. The Napoleonic Code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system; it was preceded by many but it was, however, the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope, and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars. The Napoleonic Code influenced developing countries outside Europe, especially in the Middle East, attempting to modernize their countries through legal reforms.

Question 10: Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

  1. A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
  2. Ideas of nationalism in the Balkans with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
  3. The rebellion nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long lost independence.

Question 11: How was the concept of ‘Nationalism’ introduced by the French Revolution?

France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would, henceforth, constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

Question 12: What was the political status of Europe before the concept of ‘Nation States’?

  1. Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
  2. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse people. They did not see themselves, as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.

Question 13: Describe any three conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation State.
OR
In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. Validate the statement with relevant arguments.

The conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation State were:

  1. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
  2. The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
  3. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.

Question 14: What do you understand by ‘Economic liberalism’?

  1. In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.
  2. In German-speaking regions during Napoleon’s rule, there were 39 states, each of it possessed its own currency and weights and measures.
  3. A merchant travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them.

Question 15: How did liberal nationalism develop in Europe?

  1. As conservative regimes tried to consolidate their power. Liberalism and nationalism came to be increasingly associated with revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of Ottoman Europe, Ireland and Poland.
  2. These revolutions were led by the liberal nationalists belonging to the educated middle class elite. Among them, there were professors, school-teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle classes, who all believed in liberal nationalism and wanted to fight for it.

Question 16: How were the feelings of nationalism kept alive by the people of Poland?

Poland had been partitioned at the end of the 18th century by the Great Powers—Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, nationalist feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

Question 17: What conditions prevailed in 1848 France?

  1. The year 1848 was the year of food shortages and widespread unemployment. It brought the population of Paris on the roads.
  2. Barricades were erected and Louis Phillippe was forced to flee.
  3. A National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above the age of 21 and guaranteed the right to work. National workshops to provide employment were also set up.

Question 18: Were anti-imperial movements nationalist? Could the anti-imperialists movements be considered as nationalist movements?

Yes, the anti-imperial movements could be considered as nationalist as it was the struggle to form an independent nation-states and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism. European ideas of nationalism were nowhere replicated, for people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism. But the idea that societies should be organised into ‘nation-states’ came to be accepted as natural and universal.

Question 19: ‘Ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism’. Support the statement with arguments.

Liberalism: Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.

  1. Derived from’ liber’ means free
  2. Stood for freedom for all and equality for all before the law
  3. Politically –Government by consent
  4. Universal suffrage, right to vote for all
  5. French revolution stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
  6. Struggles for equal political rights.
  7. It stressed on economically, inviolability of private property.
  8. Freedom of markets and abolition of state restrictions.

Question 20: Describe any three Economic Hardship faced by Europe in the 1930s.  (OR)
Describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in Europe during the 1830s. (OR)
The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. Explain how? (OR)
“The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe”. Support the statement with arguments. 

Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s :

  1. There was enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
  2. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
  3. Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
  4. In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
  5. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.

Question 21: How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in
Europe? Analyse.

The female figures as an allegory of the nation:

  1. Artists found a way out to represent a country in the form of a person.
  2. Then nations were portrayed as female figures.
  3. The female figure was chosen to personify the nation. It did not stand for any particular woman in real life.
  4. It gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
  5. Thus, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
  6. During the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray idea such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.

Question 22: “Culture had played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” Support the statement with examples. 

  1. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation, art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
  2. Emotions, intuition and mystical feelings were not focused.
  3. Their effort was to shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
  4. They criticized the glorification of reason and science.
  5. German philosopher Johann Gottfried popularised true spirit of nation through folksongs, folk poetry and folk dance.

Question 23: ‘The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.’ Support the statement in the context of Balkan nationalism in the early 19th century.

The Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

  1. The disintegration of the ruling Ottoman Empire and the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism made this area explosive.
  2. The European subject nationalities started breaking from its control to declare independence.
  3. The Balkan revolutionaries’ acts were directed to gain back the long-lost independence.
  4. The Balkan States were fiercely jealous of each other and wanted to gain more territory at the expense of the other.
  5. There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies, naval might and military might. European powers such as Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary were keen on opposing the hold of other powers over the Balkans for extending their own area of control.
  6. All these events ultimately triggered the First World War (1914).

Question 24: What changes were introduced after the French Revolution in France?

  1. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  2. Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.

Question 25: What was the main aim of the revolutionaries behind the French revolution?

The revolutionaries declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and to help other people of Europe to become nations.

Question 26: After becoming the Monarch what changes were introduced by Napoleon?

He had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

  1. Napoleonic Code or the Civil Code,
  2. Simplified administration abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

Question 27: How did Napoleonic trade benefitted the businessmen and small scale producers?

Businessmen and small scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

Question 28: What does ‘Liberalism’ stand for, since the French revolution?

  1. For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
  2. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
  3. Since the French Revolution, liberalism has stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges. A constitution and representative government through parliament.

Question 29: How was liberalism adopted in revolutionary France?

  1. Revolutionary France, marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy.
  2. The right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property owning men.
  3. Men without property and all women were excluded from the political rights.

Question 30: What kind of conservative regimes were set up in 1815?

  1. Conservative regimes did not tolerate criticism and dissent and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic government.
  2. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom. They were autocratic in nature.
    One of the major issues taken up by the liberal–nationalists was the freedom of the press.

Question 31: What was Mazzini’s role in the unification of Italy?

  1. Mazzini believed that god had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.
  2. So, Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
  3. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a under alliance of nation.

Question 32: How did Polish use their language as a weapon of national resistance against Russia?

  1. Polish language was used for church gatherings and all religious instructions.
  2. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian.
  3. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

Question 33: How did Prussia outstrive in Germany?

  1. The nation building process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power.
  2. The new state placed a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.
  3. Prussian measures and practices often became a model for the rest of Germany.

Long Answer Type Questions

Each of the following questions is of 5 marks and has to be answered in about 150 words.

Question 1: Give a brief description of the French Revolution of 1830.

The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830. The Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head. Metternich once remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.” The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdoms of the Netherlands.

Question 2: Explain how folklore, folk songs raised the spirit of nationalism in Europe.

It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised. So, collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation building. The emphasis on vernacular languages and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. In Poland, they popularised their language, folk stories, folk songs and folk dances to propagate nationalism among Polish people, who were under the rule of Russia, Prussia and Austria.

Question 3: How did the Polish language work as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance?

Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for church gathering and all religious instructions. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russia. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

Question 4: What do you understand by the term ‘allegory’? How did a female figure become an allegory of a nation?

  1. When an abstract idea is expressed through a person or a thing, it is called an allegory. It is the personification of a country.
  2. While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, it is difficult to give a face to a nation. Artists in the 18th and 19th centuries found a way out by personifying a nation.
  3. In other words, they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life, rather it would give an abstract idea of the nation in concrete form.

This is how the female figure became an allegory of the nation.

Question 5: How did the concept of Nation-States develop in Europe? Was it successful in the formation of native states?

  1. During the 19th century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and moral world of Europe.
  2. It resulted into ‘Nation-States’ in place of the multinational dynastic empires of Europe.
  3. It was a concept of modern states having centralised powers exercising sovereign control over their own territory.
  4. In a nation state, people living in it develop a sense of common identity and shared history.
  5. This commonness was developed through struggles, actions of leaders and the struggles of the common people.
  6. This has given every nation state a single or a common language, common culture or tradition and an identity with that particular territory and do and die feeling.

Question 6: What conditions of Balkan areas led to World War I?

  1. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
  2. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.
  3. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as army and naval might.
  4. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problems unfolded.
  5. Each power—Russia, Germany, England, Austria-Hungry—was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

Question 7: Explain the Napoleonic Code. (OR)
What were the advantages and disadvantages of the Napoleonic code?

Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

Advantages:

  1. Established equality before law.
  2. Abolished all privileges based on birth.
  3. Simplified administrative divisions.
  4. Granted the right to property to French citizens.
  5. Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.
  6. Eliminated restrictions on guilds in town.
  7. Made efforts to improve transport and communication.
  8. Standardised weights, measures and a common national currency was introduced.

Disadvantages:

  1. But this initial enthusiasm soon turned into hostility and opposition when it became visible that the new administrative arrangements do not go hand in hand with the political freedom.
  2. Censorship, taxation, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Question 8: Explain the nation building process of Germany. (OR)
Examine the ‘Nation State Building’ process in Germany after 1848.

German Unification

  1. After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
  2. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilized by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe.
  3. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans in 19 century.
  4. In 1848 they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation state governed by an elected parliament.
  5. This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
  6. Prussia took on the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, who became the architect of this process.
  7. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
  8. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor.

Question 9: Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. 

Measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries for collective identity:

  1. The ideas of la patrie and le citoyen emphasized.
  2. A new French flag, the tricolor was chosen.
  3. The Estate General was elected by the active citizens.
  4. The elected body of active citizens renamed as National Assembly.
  5. New hymns were composed.
  6. Oaths were taken.
  7. Martyrs commemorated.
  8. A centralized administrative system was implemented.
  9. Formulated uniform laws.
  10. A uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
  11. French became the common language of the nation.

Question 10: “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyse the statement with arguments. 

Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

  1. All privileges based on birth were removed.
  2. He had established equality before law.
  3. Right to property was given.
  4. Simplified administrative divisions were made.
  5. Feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  6. Guild restrictions were removed.
  7. Transport and communication systems were improved.

Question 11: “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyse the statement with examples.

Nationalism in Europe- The Balkans:

  1. During this period, nationalist groups become increasingly intolerant of each other.
  2. Manipulations of the nationalist aspirations were there.
  3. The Balkan was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
  4. Ideas of romantic nationalism spread in the Balkan.
  5. They claimed for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign domination.
  6. Russia, Germany, England, Austria-Hungry were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans.
  7. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

Question 12: Briefly explain the process of unification of Italy.

  1. Political Fragmentation: Like Germany, Italy was also politically fragmented. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia–Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Prince.
  2. Role of Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini made efforts to unite Italian Republic. He had formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ for achieving his goal.
  3. Role of Count Cavour: He was the chief minister who led the movement to unify Italy. He formed a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces.
  4. Role of Giuseppe Garibaldi: Garibaldi also formed armed volunteers. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and succeeded in driving out the Spanish rulers.

In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of United Italy.

Question 13: What conditions led to the development of a new middle class in Europe?

  1. In Western Europe and parts of Central Europe, the growth of industrial production and trade meant the growth of towns and the emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market.
  2. Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the 18th century, but in France and parts of the German States, it occurred only during the 19th century.
  3. In its wake, new social groups came into being, a working class population and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals.
  4. In Central and Eastern Europe, these groups were smaller in numbers till late 19th century.
  5. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.

Question 14: Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815 ? Analyse the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty.’ (OR)
Describe the main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.

The main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815 were:
Vienna Congress: The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor “Duke Metternich”.

  1. The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.
  2. France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
  3. A series of states were setup on the boundaries of France to prevent French extension in future.
  4. Kingdom of the Netherlands, included Belgium was setup.
  5. Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers.

Question 15: What kinds of conservative regimes were set up in 1815? What did liberals think about them?

Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic.

  1. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of tyrannical governments.
  2. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French Revolution.
  3. The memory of the French Revolution nonetheless, continued to inspire liberals.
  4. One of the major issues taken up by the liberal nationalists (who criticised the new conservative order) was freedom of the press.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Question 1: Explain the statement “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.”

  1. Most of the European countries followed France persistently.
  2. The first upheavel took place in France in July 1830.
  3. The Bourbon kings, who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
  4. ‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’ was spoken by Metternich.
  5. The July revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  6. An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of Independence.

Question 2: ‘‘The first clear expression of nationalism came with the ‘French Revolution’ in 1789.’’ Examine the statement.

“The first clear expression of Nationalism came with the ‘French Revolution’ in 1789”:

  1. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
  2. Sense of collective belonging with La Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (the citizen).
  3. Formation of National Assembly.
  4. Hymns were composed and oaths were taken.
  5. Centralised and uniform laws were introduced.
  6. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measure were adopted.
  7. French became the common language of the nation.
  8. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

Question 3: Which conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange & growth by the new commercial classes during Napoleon’s rule?

Following conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchanges & growth by the new commercial classes:

  1. There was an enormous increase in population.
  2. Feudal system, serfdom and manorial dues were taxing for the poor landless peasants.
  3. There were no standardised weights and measures and neither a common national currency.
  4. There was an increased taxation, censorship, forced recruitment into the French armies to conquer Europe.
  5. There was no freedom to peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen.

Question 4: How was Europe closely allied to the ideology of liberalism?

  1. Ideas of national unity in early 19th century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.
  2. The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word ‘liber’ which means free.
  3. For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law.
  4. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.
  5. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representatives government through parliament.

Question 5: “The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungry, was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples.” Justify the statement with suitable examples.

  1. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse people.
  2. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture.
  3. The Habsburg empire that ruled over Austria-Hungry, for example, was a patchwork of many different regions and people.
  4. It included the Alpine regions—the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland— as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German speaking.
  5. It also included the Italian speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
  6. In Hungry, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.
  7. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish.
  8. Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived within the boundary of empire, a mass of subject peasant peoples — Bohemians, Slovaks to the north, slovens in Carniola, Croats in the south and Romans to the east in Transylvania.
  9. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Question 6: “Vernacular language and local folklores carried modern nationalist message to large audiences, who were mostly illiterate.” Justify with suitable examples.

  1. Vernacular languages and local folklores played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe.
  2. This was especially so in the case of Poland which had been partitioned by the great powers — Russia, Prussia & Austria.
  3. Karol Kurpinski of Poland celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the Polonaise, Mazurka into nationalist symbols.
  4. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
  5. Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
  6. Polish was used for church gatherings and all religious instructions.
  7. As a result a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities.
  8. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

Assertion Reason

The following questions consist of two statements — Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Answer these questions selecting the appropriate option given below:

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 1: Assertion (A) : During the years following 1818, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground.
Reason (R) : Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.

(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 2: Assertion (A) : The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion.
Reason (R) : Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 3: Assertion (A) : Language, too, played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
Reason (R) : After Russian occupation, the Polish language was welcomed in schools and the Russian language was forced out.

(c) A is false but R is true.

Question 4: Assertion (A) : The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
Reason (R) : National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work.

(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Question 5: Assertion (A) : During the 1830s, Giuseppe Garibaldi had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.
Reason (R) : The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war.

(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 6: Assertion (A) : Giuseppe Mazzini worked with the conservatives for the monarchy.
Reason (R) : Italy had to continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.

(d) Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations/ It could not be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
Thus both assertion and reason are false.

Question 7: Assertion (A) : Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one was ruled by an Italian princely house.
Reason (R) : The north was under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain.

(c) Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs and the southern regions were under the domination of The Bourbon kings of Spain.
Therefore assertion is true but reason is false.

Question 8: Assertion (A) : Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
Reason (R) : They were closely bound to each other in spite of their autonomous rule.

(c) Germany, Italy land Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Diverse people lived within the territories. They did not share a collective identity or a common culture. They spoke different languages belonged to different ethnic groups, were were no close ties binding them.

Question 9: Assertion (A) : Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
Reason (R) : Weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.

(b) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. The year 1848 was a year when rise in food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. Earlier in 1845, a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages and led a revolt.
Therefore, both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Question 10: Assertion (A) : On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives revolted in the Frankfurt parliament.
Reason (R) : The elected representatives revolted against the issue of extending political rights to women.

(d) On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Therefore, both assertion and reason are false.

Question 11: Assertion (A) : The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
Reason (R) : The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.

(b) This situation refers to the unification of Britain, Assertion refers to Scotland and how they suffered because of the long-drawn-out process. Their culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. However, the reason refers to how the Irishmen suffered in the hands of Englishmen as it was a country deeply divided between the Catholics and Protestants. It was largely a Catholic country but the Protestants got support from the English to suppress the Catholic revolts. It does not explain the assertion.

Question 12: Assertion (A) : From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices like the idea of la patrie and le citoyen.
Reason (R) : This was done to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

(a) The French Revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. From the very beginning, the French Revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that would create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The centralized administrative system was one of the measures taken for making uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.

Case Study Questions

Case Study Question 01

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad. Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: Which one of the following was not the feature of Napoleonic Code?
(a) Equality before the law
(b) Universal Adult Franchise
(c) Right to Property
(d) Privileges based on birth

(b) Universal Adult Franchise

Question 2: Match the following:

1. Civil code(a) Napoleon
2. Jacobins(b) carried the idea of nationalism abroad
3. Destroyed democracy(c) Napoleonic code in France
4. French armies(d) political club

Choose the correct option:
(a) 1-(c), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(b)
(b) 1-(b), 2-(c), 3-(a), 4-(d)
(c) 1-(a), 2-(c), 3-(d), 4-(b)
(d) 1-(b), 2-(a), 3-(d), 4-(c)

(a) 1-(c), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(b)

Question 3: The Napoleonic Code was exported to which of the following regions?
(a) England
(b) Spain
(c) Regions under French control
(d) Poland

(c) Regions under French control

Question 4: The Civil Code of 1804 in France is usually known as:
(a) The French Revolutionary Code
(b) Napoleonic Code
(c) European Imperial Code
(d) The French Civil Code

(b) Napoleonic Code

Case Study Question 02

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation? Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation. You will recall that during the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. These ideals were represented through specific objects or symbols. As you would remember, the attributes of Liberty are the red cap, or the broken chain, while Justice is generally a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales. Similar female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: What did Germania symbolise?
(a) French nation
(b) German nation
(c) British nation
(d) None of the above

(b) German nation

Question 2: The allegory of the German nation who wears a crown of oak leaves was a:
(a) Marianne
(b) Union Jack
(c) Britannia
(d) Germania

(d) Germania

Question 3: What does a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales symbolise?
(a) Peace
(b) Equality
(c) Justice
(d) Liberty

(c) Justice

Question 4: Which of the given aspects signifies the image of ‘Germania’?
(a) Fold and Cultural Tradition
(b) Auterity and Asceticism
(c) Revenge and Vengeance
(d) Heroism and Justice

(d) Heroism and Justice

Case Study Question 03

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation. The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other peoples of Europe to become nations. When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: The first clear expression of nationalism came with:
(a) The American Revolution
(b) The French Revolution
(c) The Russian Revolution
(d) The Industrial Revolution

(b) The French Revolution

Question 2: The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and it was renamed as:
(a) National Assembly
(b) Body of Executives
(c) Rule of Directory
(d) None of these

(a) National Assembly

Question 3: The political and constitutional changes brought about by the French Revolution were:
(a) it ended the absolute monarchy.
(b) it transferred power to a body of the French citizens.
(c) it proclaimed that henceforth people would constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(d) all the above.

(a) it ended the absolute monarchy.

Question 4: The ideas of a United Community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution were expressed by the French as:
(a) La Patrie
(b) Le Citoyen
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above

(c) Both (a) and (b)

Case Study Question 04

Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of prerevolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: Who among the following was associated with the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
(a) Bismarck
(b) Duke Metternich
(c) Louis Philippe
(d) Victor Emmaunel II

(b) Duke Metternich

Question 2: After the Napoleon which dynasty was restored in France?
(a) Bourbon
(b) Mazzini
(c) Bouborn
(d) none of the above

(a) Bourbon

Question 3: Why was the treaty of Vienna (1815) drawn up?
(a) To establish tariff barriers
(b) To restore the monarchies
(c) To divide the German Confederation of 39 states
(d) To establish democracies

(b) To restore the monarchies

Question 4: Which of the following countries did not attend the Congress of Vienna?
(a) Britain
(b) Russia
(c) Prussia
(d) Switzerland

(d) Switzerland

Case Study Question 05

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance. Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. However, much of the Italian population, among whom rates of illiteracy were very high, remained blissfully unaware of liberal nationalist ideology.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: Cavour’s contribution to Italian unification was:
(a) Diplomatic alliance with the enemies of Austria
(b) War with Austrian and Bourbons3/20
(c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont
(d) Defeated the Bourbon Kings

(c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont

Question 2: Who amongst the following the Italian leaders was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat?
(a) Mazzini
(b) Cavour
(c) Garibaldi
(d) Victor Emmanuel II

(b) Cavour

Question 3: Who was proclaimed King of united Italy in 1861?
(a) Victor Emmanuel II
(b) Louis Philippe
(c) Mazzini
(d) Cavour

(a) Victor Emmanuel II

Question 4: Which one of the following is true regarding the ideas promoted by Mazzini?
(a) opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic
(b) to establish liberty and freedom under a monarchy
(c) disintegration of the German confederation under 39 states
(d) censorship of newspapers, books, plays and songs

(a) opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic

Case Study Question 06

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, BosniaHerzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area of _____________.
(a) Ottoman Empire
(b) Balkans
(c) Greece
(d) Albania

(b) Balkans

Question 2: The Ottoman Empire sought to strengthen itself through:
(a) Modernisation
(b) internal reforms
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of the above

(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 3: The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism was responsible for:
(a) disintegration of Greece
(b) Balkans disintegration from the Ottoman Empire
(c) integration of Macedonia
(d) none of the above

(b) Balkans disintegration from the Ottoman Empire

Question 4: The Balkan people based their claims for __________ or __________on nationality.
(a) independence, political rights
(b) power sharing, federalism
(c) secularism, political rights
(d) modernisation, strength

(a) independence, political rights

Case Study Question 07

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy. Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code -did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was eIported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in taly and Germany, Napoleon simplifed administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

Question 1: What was the Napoleonic Code2
(a) The Civil Code of 1401 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.
(b) The Civic Code of 1410 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under British control
(c) The Civic Code of 1910 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under German control
(d) The Civil Code of 1901 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established inequality before the law and did not secure the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control

(a) The Civil Code of 1401 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

Question 2: Where were this code exported?
(a) This Code was exported to the regions under Australian control.
(b) This Code was exported to the regions under Indian control.
(c) This Code was exported to the regions under German control.
(d) This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

(d) This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

Question 3: What did Napoleon destroy in France?
(a) Napoleon destroyed monarchy in France.
(b) Napoleon destroyed farmers in France.
(c) Napoleon destroyed secularism in France.
(d) Napoleon destroyed democracy in France.

(d) Napoleon destroyed democracy in France.

Question 4: Which system was abolished by Napoleon?
(a) Napoleon abolished the marriage system.
(b) Napoleon abolished the national employment system.
(c) Napoleon abolished the feudal system.
(d) Napoleon abolished the secular system.

(c) Napoleon abolished the feudal system.

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