The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
- Revision Notes
- Important Symbols
- Important Personalities
- Important Dates
- Important Terms
- Intext Questions
- NCERT Solution
- Broken chains – Liberty (being freed)
- Breastplate with eagle – Strength (Symbol of the German empire)
- Crown of oak leaves – Heroism
- Sword – Readiness to fight
- Olive branch around the sword – Willingness to make peace
- Black, red and gold tri-colour – Flag of the liberal nationalists in 1848 banned by the Dukes of the German States.
- Rays of the rising sun – Beginning of a new era
- Frederic Sorrieu : He was a French artist famous for a series of four prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of ‘Democratic and Social Republics’.
- Napoleon (1769-1821) : A French military and political leaders who gained prominence during the French Revolution. Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
- Giuseppe Mazzini : Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
- Duke Metternich : The chief architect and host of the Treaty of Vienna was the Austrian Chancellor, Duke Metternich.
- Louise Otto-Peters : He was a German suffragist and women’s rights movement activist who wrote novels, poetry, essays, and libretti.
- Carl Welcker : Carl Welcker, a member of the Frankfurt Parliament, had tremendous reservation against equal rights for women, and he ridiculed their demands as being against nature.
- Otto Von Bismarck : Otto von Bismarck was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.
- Kaiser William : Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. In newly formed Germany a lot of emphasis was placed on modernising the currency, and the banking, legal and judicial systems.
- Count Camillo di Cavour : The Chief Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, helped the king in forming an alliance with France, and they defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi : He was an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy. He has been hailed as one of the ‘Fathers of the Fatherland’ for his contribution to the Italian Risorgimento, which unified the fractured nation under one rule. He joined the war along with his armed volunteers called the ‘Red Shirts’. In 1860, Garibaldi and his troops marched into Southern Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
- Marianne and Germania : Marianne and Germania were the female allegories of France and German nations respectively. These were allegory of nation the same way as Bharat Mata, a female figure is imagined in India. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic the red cap, the tri-colour and the cockade. The Statues of Marianne were made and erected at public places and picture of Marianne printed on postage stamps. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves because that tree stands for heroism. She holds a sword in her hand.
- 1797 : Napoleon invades Italy; Napoleonic wars begin.
- 1804 : Napoleonic Code was introduced, did away with all privileges based on birth. Upheld equality before the law.
- 1814-15 : Fall of Napoleon; the Vienna Peace Settlement.
- 1821 : Greek struggle for independence begins.
- 1830 : The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
- 1830 : Period of Economic Crisis in Europe.
- 1832 : Greece gained independence.
- 1834 : Zollverein or the Customs Union was formed in Prussia to abolish tariff barriers.
- 1848 : Revolutions in Europe; Artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolt against economic hardships; middle classes demand Constitutions and representative governments; Italians, Germans, Magyars, Poles, Czechs, etc., demanded for nation-states.
- 1848 : Germans voted for National Assembly in Frankfurt.
- 1855 : The Kingdom of Sardinia participated from the sides of British and French in the Crimean War.
- 1858 : Cavour formed an alliance with France.
- 1859-1870 : Unification of Italy.
- 1859 : Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces. Large number of people under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the movement.
- 1860 : Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
- 1861 : Victor Emmanuel II was declared as the King of United Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
- 1866-1871 : Unification of Germany.
- 1871 : The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
- 1905 : Slav nationalism gathers their force in the Habsburg and Ottoman empire.
- 1914 : Beginning of the First World War.
- Utopian vision : Utopian vision refers to a vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
- Absolutism : Absolutism refers to a system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised.
- Plebiscite : The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
- French Revolution : The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
- Nationalism : A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
- Nation-state : A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19th century Europe as a result of the growth of nationalism.
- Modern State : A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and population.
- Liberal Nationalism Means :
- Individual freedom
- Equality before law
- Government by consent
- Freedom of markets
- Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- Napoleonic Code : The Civil Code of 1804 introduced by Napoleon, was known as the Napoleonic Code. This code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- Zollverein : A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
- Habsburg Empire : The empire that ruled Austria, Hungary including the Alpine regions of Tyrol, Austria, the Sudetenland and Bohemia.
- Ottoman Empire : A former Turkish empire ruled by the Caliph-the spiritual and temporal head of the Muslims.
- Ideology : System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
- Conservatism : It is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
- Suffrage : The right to vote in political elections.
- Romanticism : A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past for arousing nationalism.
- Revolutionaries : Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19th century.
- Feminism : Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on political economic and social equality of genders is also known as Feminism.
- Frankfurt Parliament : A large number of political associations comprising of professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt decided to vote for all German National Assembly. On 18th May-1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened at St. Paul’s Church. They drafted a Constitution based on the system of Constitution monarchy.
- Nationalistic Feeling (1830s) : The sense of recognizing the society and nation as “we” and the sharing of many traits by its members. Culture with art and poetry, stories and music played a major role in the shaping and expression of nationalistic feelings and nation.
- Ethnic : Relates to a common racial, tribal or cultural origin or background that a community identifies with or claims.
- Symbol : A symbol is a visual image that represents something other than itself. It may be a representation using an object, picture, written word, sound or a particular mark.
- Imperialism : A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
- Allegory : When an abstract idea (for instance greed, envy, freedom, liberty, etc.) is expressed through a person or a thing. An allegorical story has two meanings, one literal and one symbolic.
- Nineteenth Century was associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states.
- Nationalism in Europe can be traced back to the decline of Feudalism and the beginning of Renaissance. The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
- Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics.
- Nationalism is a feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
- Nationalism is a sense of identity with the nation. Many European nations experienced heightened periods of nationalism in the 19th century.
- Nationalism in Europe can be traced back to the decline of feudalism and the beginning of the Renaissance. The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
- The concepts of liberty, equality, fraternity and nationalism dominated the social and political scene of Europe in the 19th century.
- French Revolution :
- The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
- It paved the way for the achievement of bigger goals of national identity and national pride, which can be aptly called Nationalism.
- After the French Revolution, emerged a famous historical personality and warrior, Napoleon Bonaparte. He introduced several effective administrative changes like the Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic code.
- Salient features of the French Revolution were:
- France was under absolute monarchy in 1789.
- The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people.
- Ideas of La patrie (the fatherland) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted.
- Estates General elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
- French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers.
- Advent of Liberalism in Europe :
- During the mid-18th century, Europe was divided into several small kingdoms and principalities. The concept of nation-states did not exist at all. People from diverse ethnic groups lived in Eastern and Central Europe.
- The prominent empires in Europe were the autocratic Ottoman Empire that ruled over Eastern and Central Europe, and Greece and the Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary.
- Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries :
- The middle class believed in freedom and equality of all individuals before law. Liberalism was used to end aristocracy and clerical privileges. After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815, the European government adopted the idea of conservatism.
- Napoleon (1769-1821) ruled France from 1799 to 1815.
- Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
- Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804).
- Established equality before law and abolished all privileges based on birth.
- Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.
- Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made mandatory.
- Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
- After 1815, several liberals began working in secret societies all over Europe to propagate their views and train revolutionaries.
- Revolutionaries were seen as a threat to the restored monarchies, and hence, were repressed.
- Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne.
- In 1831, Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy. These societies were joined by like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy, and the German states.
- Liberalism and nationalism became associated with revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
- The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
- The Greek War of Independence was another event which mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite in Europe.
- Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories, music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
- Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
- Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
- The 1830s saw a rise in prices, bad harvest, poverty in Europe. Besides the poor, unemployed and starving peasants, even educated middle classes, revolted.
- In 1848, a large number of political associations came together in Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
- The issue of extending political rights to women became a controversial one.
- Conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, but could not restore the old order.
- After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
- After 1848, the conservatives began to use nationalist ideas to strengthen the monarchy. The unification of Italy and Germany came about through this process.
- Unification of Germany (1866-1871)
- In 1848, middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation state under an elected parliament.
- In Prussia, nation building acts were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military and were supported by the landowners (Junkers).
- Prussia took over the leadership of the movement.
Otto von Bismarck, chief minister of Prussia, was the architect of the leading role of Prussia in the process of nation-building.
- Prussia emerged victorious after fighting three wars over seven years against the combined forces of Austria, Denmark and France and the process of unification of Germany was completed.
- 18th January 1871: The new German empire headed by the German Emperor Kaiser William I was declared in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
- The unification of Germany established Prussian dominance in Europe.
- The New German Empire focused on modernizing the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems.
- Unification of Italy
- Italy was divided into seven states.
- Only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
- The North Italy was under Austrian Habsburgs.
- The centre part was under Pope.
- The South region was under the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
- During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini formed a coherent program for uniting the Italian Republic and formed a secret society called Young Italy.
- Failure of the 1831 and 1848 revolutionary uprisings prompted King Victor Emmanuel II from Sardinia Piedmont to unify the Italian states.
- Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont, Count Cavour, led the movement for the unification of Italy.
- In the year 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces.
- In 1860 Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into south Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Scillies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
- In 1861, Victor Emanuel was declared as the king of united Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
- Britain has a different history of how it consolidated as a nation—state without uprisings and revolutions. The British Isles was inhabited by ethnic English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. The English nation grew more in power and wealth, and it began to exert influence over the other nations of the islands.
- The concept of nation states, with England as the centre, came in 1688 after the Parliament snatched power from the monarchy. In 1707, the Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
- To ensure the growth of British identity, Scotland’s cultural and political institutions were suppressed. The British imposed control over Ireland as well. Ireland was deeply divided into two groups, Catholics and Protestants. The English favoured the protestants, and helped them establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Ireland.
- In 1801, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom after a failed Irish revolt. The symbols of new Britain were the English language, the British Flag (Union Jack), and the British national anthem (God save our Nobel King).
- Visualising the Nation :
- Nation was personified in the female form by the artists of the 19th century.
- Female allegories such as that of liberty, justice and republic were invented.
- In Germany, Germania became the allegory of the nation.
- In France, the idea of a people’s nation was the christened Marianne. She was characterized by the ideas of liberty and republic.
- These symbols were usually popular images from everyday life that uneducated masses could easily identify with.
- During revolutions, artists represented a nation as a person. This personification gave life to an abstract concept like nation.
- The way of expressing an abstract idea like freedom or liberty through a symbol that may be person or thing is known as Allegory. An allegory has a literal and a symbolic meaning. In the nineteenth century, French artists used the female allegory to represent France. She was Christened Marianne. She symbolises reason, liberty and the ideals of the republic.
- Marianne’s fasces or a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle was used to symbolise strength in unity.
- The red Phrygian cap signified freedom of a slave. It was also known as the liberty cap. French people wore these caps a few days before the storming of the Bastille.
- Nationalism and Imperialism :
- Through the 18th and the mid 19th century, Europe was marked by a lot of chaos and turmoil. After 1871, there was a significant change in the concept of nationalism in Europe.
- Nationalist groups in Europe had become increasingly incompatible with each other and were constantly in conflict. The major European powers, namely Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary began taking advantage of nationalism in Europe, to materialise their aims for imperialism.
- The European powers sighted the much-disturbed Balkan region to fulfil their imperialist goals. The Balkan region consisted of the following countries of our times – Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
Question.1. In what way do you think this print (Fig. 1) depicts a utopian vision?Answer. The print was a utopian vision because:-
- All countries were together.
- The countries were supposed to be nation which didn’t existed till then.
- Men, women and children were given equal status.
Question.2. Summarize the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important?
Answer. Ernst Renan was a French philosopher who delivered a speech at the University of Sorbonne in 1882. In his speech he outlined the idea of what makes a nation. According to Renan, nations are formed by a common language, race, religion or territory. It is the culmination of a long past of endeavor, sacrifices and devotion. A nation does not take any interest in annexing or holding onto another Nation against its will.
Nations are important because their existence guarantee Liberty. The liberty of individuals would be lost if they are no nations.
Question.3. Describe the political ends that List hopes to achieve through economic measures.
Answer. A customs union known as Wolverine was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. This union removed internal impediments and summed up 32 currencies into two. Besides this, it the aim of the union is to bind the Germans economically into a nation by strengthening the nation materially through its protection of interests externally and stimulating its internal production.
Question.4. Plot on a map of Europe the changes drawn up by the Vienna Congress.
Answer. The Vienna Congress in 1815 changed the boundaries of Europe after the Napoleonic era. The boundaries were changed to make a strong France. Many countries opposed this, but it was remapped with Russia taking most parts of the Napoleonic under its control. The new states with new border were created although Europe with Switzerland being neutral territory. Although Napoleon escaped while in exile but was defeated in Waterloo.
Question 5. What is the caricaturist trying to depict?Answer. The caricaturist is depicting the club of liberal nationalists which dates back 1820. Conservative regimes were set up in 1815. These regimes were autocratic they were not ready to tolerate criticism and dissent. They curbed all the actions which put a question mark on the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of the regimes had imposed censorship law to have control over freedom of the press and over songs motivating the ideas of liberty.
Question.6. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
Answer. A person is identified as belonging to a particular nation by his cultural traditions and the language that he speaks. The language as well as the traditional practices usually develop and get established over a long period of many hundreds of years.
They give an identity to an individual wherever he is. For instance, a Frenchman will normally speak the French language fluently. He will also follow French traditions and customs wherever he is in the world, as he would have imbibed them in his family from his childhood days. Thus, he will be identified as a French national.
Question.7. Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
Answer. The cause of the Silesian weaver’s uprising was the cheating of the weavers by the contractors. In 1845, the weavers raised a revolt against the contractors who used to supply them raw material to weave textiles in finished form. The contractors drastically reduced their payments. The viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wolft for this uprising was as fellows- Weaver’s crowd reached the house of the contractor and demanded higher wages.
They were not treated well, so a group of the crowd entered the contractors house forcibly and destroyed the furniture, window panes, plundered it. This shows that the viewpoint of the journalist was biased against the weavers and in favour of the contractor. On the other hand, the journalist did not understand the root cause of the uprising. He did not understand the poverty of weavers.
Question.8. Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded. Write a report on what you saw.
- I have worked very hard to supply the woven cloth in time, but received very little payment than what was agreed to by the contractor. Since, other weavers had also got less payment, on the afternoon of 4th June, I went along with my partner and other weavers to the contractor’s house for asking for better wages for our weaving.
- Our demands were scornfully refused and we were even threatened that no more work would be given to us if we did not work at the same rate as what was paid to us. Some of my fellow weavers got angry at this and broke the windowpanes of the contractor’s house, barged inside and damaged his furniture and crockery.
- Some weavers also broke open his store of woven cloth and tore it all up. Seeing this, the contractor ran away from the house with his family to a nearby village, but there also he did not get shelter. Next day, the contractor returned with soldiers from the army, who fired at our group of weavers, killing eleven of us. I was injured in the leg by a bullet and now, I am nursing my wounds as I write this.
Question.9. Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?
Answer. The liberal politician Carl Welcker, an elected member of the Frank furt Parliament, says that
- Woman is weaker than man and her sphere is the home where she keeps children and does household duties such as cooking, washing and cleaning, etc.
- Equality between the sexes or woman and man would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.
- According to Louise Otto-Peters, a political activist and founder of a woman’s journal and a feminist political association, Men who try to gain freedom and liberty for all do not obey this but their untiring efforts are intended for the welfare of only men. She advocated that liberty cannot be divided among the men and women.
An Anonymous writer says that-
- It is injustice to discriminate against women on the basis of gender.
- The women should not be deprived of the right to vote while an illiterate man has given the right to vote.
- The above discussion shows that Louise Otto-Peters and the Anonymous writer favor woman on the basis of rights of liberty and equality.
- The first writer does not favor woman’s rights of liberty and equality.
Question.10. Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?
Answer. The caricature depicts Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany as holding a whip (signifying that he is a ruthless man ruling with an iron hand) while leading the Parliament. The deputies who were elected are afraid of him and so are hiding under their tables. The caricature depicts the dominance of Bismarck over the deputies and how he despised liberalism and parliamentary assemblies. The artist is trying to convey that the democratic process in Germany was very shallow and the roots of constitutionalism were poor.
Question.11. Look at Fig. 14(a). Do you think that the people living in any of these regions thought of themselves as Italians?Answer. In 1858, Italy was divided into seven states, with the North being under the Austrian Habsburgs, the centre being ruled by the Pope and the Southern regions being under Spain’s domination. Only one state, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The Italian language also had not acquired a common form and had many regional and local variations. So people living in these regions, except Sardinia -Piedmont, would not have thought of themselves as Italians.
Question.12. Examine Fig. 14(b). Which was the first region to become a part of unified Italy? Which was the last region to join? In which year did the largest number of states join?Answer.
- The first regions to become a part of unified Italy in 1858 were Savoy Sardinia followed by the Northern states.
- The last region to join was the Papal State in 1870.
- The largest number of states joined in 1860.
Question.13. The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the King of Sardinia-Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?Answer. The base of the boot symbolizes the Kingdom of the Two Sicilians, which lay in the southernmost part of the Italian peninsula. Garibaldi had won this kingdom and handed it over to King Victor Emmanuel II. This cartoon signifies the unification of Italy and Garibaldi’s role in it.
Question.14. With the help of the chart in Box 3, identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broken chain. Explain the significance of this change.Answer. The symbolic meaning of the painting is that the German nation has emerged. The female figure of Germania is an allegory of the German nation. All the attributes of the German nation out be seen in the painting as given in the chart. The replacement of the Kaiser’s crown with the broken chain signifies that the German nation is now free from autocratic monarchical rule.
Question.15. Describe what you see in Fig. 17. What historical events could Hübner be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation?Answer. Julius Hübner painted this picture of Germania, allegory of the German -nation, in 1850, 2 years after the national assembly at Frankfurt was rejected by the monarchs. In the foreground of the picture, there are symbols of absolutism and Germania lies before it. This shows that the united hope if German becoming a nation is now shriveled. And the entire nation falls down before the monarchy.
Thus, the Frankfurt parliament being forced to disband, by the monarchs, was the event Hübner is referring to in his painting.
Question.16. Look once more at Fig. 10. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you
- As a man seated in the hall of deputies, and
- As a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling?
- As a man seated in the hall of deputies, I would relate positively to the banner of Germania, as I would feel all that it symbolized was coming true.
- As a woman observing from the galleries, I would consider the banner to depict the truth only partially Women had participated with men equally in the struggle for constitutionalism with national unification, but they were denied suffrage rights during elections to the National Assembly, Women were only admitted to the assembly as passive citizens and observers.
Write in brief
Question.1. Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence
(d) Frankfurt parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
Ans. (a) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States.
(b). The failure of revolutionary uprisings, both in 1831 and 1848, meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler, King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. Chief minister Cavour, who led this movement to unify the regions of Italy, was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
(c). The Greek War of Independence mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated class in Europe. Since the 15th century the Ottoman Empire had made Greece its territory. In 1821 the Greeks struggled against this and a nationalist movement began. Exiled Greeks and many West Europeans who admired ancient Greek culture supported the Greek nationalists. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. After the war, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed in 1832. It recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(d). Middle-class professionals, businessmen, wealthy artists and artisans came together to vote for an all-German National Assembly. They met at Frankfurt on 18 May, 1848, and 831 elected representatives walked to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. A Constitution was drafted for a German nation which was to be headed by a monarchy, subject to a Parliament. However, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, rejected the offer to head such a monarchy and opposed the elected assembly. The opposition grew stronger eroding the Parliament. As the middle-class members in the Parliament dominated, they gave no credence to the demands of artisans and workers and so lost their support. The troops were called and the Assembly was also disbanded.
(e). The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
Question.2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people? OR
State any three measures and practices introduced by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among French People.
Ans. The steps taken to create a sense of collective identity amongst French people by the French revolutionaries included
- Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasising the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag, a tricolour.
- A new National Assembly elected by active citizens.
- New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
- Centralised administrative system.
- Uniform system of weights, measures and abolition of internal customs.
- Discouraging regional dialects and promoting French as a common language of the nation.
Question.3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
- Female allegories were invented in the 19th century.
- In France, she was christened Marianne, underlining the idea of a people’s nation.
- Marianne’s characteristics resembled that of Liberty and Republic, i.e. the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade.
- Marianne’s statues were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
- Marianne’s images were marked on coins and stamps.
- Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
- In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Question.4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Ans. In the 1800s, nationalist feelings were strong in the hearts of the middle-class Germans. They united in 1848 to create a nation-state out of the numerous German States. But the monarchy and the military got together to repress them and they gained support from the landowners of Prussia (the Junkers) too. Prussia soon became the leader of German unification movement. Its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with support from Prussian army and Prussian bureaucracy. The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark and France over seven years time. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Question.5. What changes were brought due to Napoleon’s reforms and code? What were the reactions to these changes? OR
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him? OR
Explain any three changes which Napoleon introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in Europe.
- In the territories conquered by Napoleon, he introduced a number of reforms as he had done in France. Return to monarchy had damaged democracy in France but Napoleon had introduced revolutionary principles in administration that had changed it for the better. In 1804 the Civil Code, also called Napoleonic Code, was introduced and it did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- Soon the Code spread to all territories under French control. Administration was simplified, feudal system was abolished and serfs were freed in the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany. In the towns, guild restrictions no longer remained. Transport and communication systems improved. Artisans, peasants, workers and new businessmen enjoyed the new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers learnt that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would help in trading goods and capital from one region to another.
- In the French territories, there were mixed reactions. In Holland and Switzerland, Brussels, Mainz, Miland and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as messengers of liberty. But this feeling soon became negative because the people realised that the new administrative method did not go along with political freedom. Soon people detested increased taxes, censorship and forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe.
Question.1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals? OR
What were the political, social and economic ideals supported by the liberals in Europe?
- The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber meaning free. The middle-class believed in the individual’s freedom and that the law must view everyone with equality. On the political front, liberalism denoted government by consent. Liberalism had also symbolised the autocracy’s end and no more clerical privileges. This was followed by a constitution and representative government through Parliament, especially after the French Revolution. 19th century liberals focused on the inviolability of private property.
- Equality before law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. We may recall that in revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to the property-owning men.
- The Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
- In the economic sphere, freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital was liberalism. During the nineteenth century, this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes.
- Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes, who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital. In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German States. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
Question.2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
- The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation : art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
- Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally became strong critics of reason and science in their glorified forms. The Romanticists dwelt more on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. They were aiming at creating a sense of shared collective heritage and common cultural part to serve as the basis of a nation.
- German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744 – 1803), a Romantic, claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people — das volk. He claimed that folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances held the true spirit of the nation (Volksgeist). He encouraged collecting and recording these forms of folk culture as essential to the nation building process.
- The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore, as the Grimm brothers (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in 1812) did, was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive there through music and language.
- Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place but was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.
Question.3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
- The dedication, contribution and effort of the three great leaders: Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi helped in the unification of Italy. Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.
- The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the pope and the southern regions were under the domination of Bourbon Kings of Spain. During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to put together a program for a unitary Italian Republic. He also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that unification of Italy could be possible through war under the king Victor Emmanuel II. Victor Emmanuel’s chief minister Cavour supported him wholeheartedly in this task. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat but he led the movement to unify the Italian regions.
- He made a tactical diplomatic alliance with France and succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Siciles, and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasantry in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. Finally, in 1861king Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
- The Frankfurt Parliament tried its best for the unification of Germany under the leadership of King Wilhelm IV of Prussia but it failed and made it clear that German unification had to come through combined effort of monarchy and military supported by large landowners of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Otto von Bismarck, the Chief Minister of Prussia, was the architect of this process.
- He wanted to achieve his aim by expanding Prussia into Germany. He reached his goal with the help of Prussian army and the bureaucracy. Bismarck fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
- On January 18, 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Verailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaisar William I of Prussia.
Question.4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
- In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
- There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
- All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
- In 1688, the English parliament seized power from the monarchy and became the instrument through which a nation state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
- The Act of Union [1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
- Though the Irish Catholics were against a union with England as the English helped the protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
- Thus, the emergence of United Kingdom as a strong and democratic state was the result of a parliamentary action and not of a revolution or war.
Question.5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
- The Balkan region comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, and its inhabitants were broadly called Slavs.
- With a large area of Balkan region under Ottoman Empire, the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the breaking up of the Ottoman Empire made the situation even more serious.
- Ottoman Empire had not been able to become strong even after reforms and modern methods after an effort of nearly 91 years. Gradually most of the European subject nationalities broke away from the Ottoman Empire’s control to declare themselves independent.
- The claim for independence and political rights by the Balkan people was based on nationality. They gave examples of history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
- Thus the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long lost independence.
- Soon various Slavic nationalities were struggling to define their identity and independence making Balkan region one having intense conflict.
- The internal rivalries and jealousies made the Balkan states distrust and fear each other.
- As the Balkans had become site for big power fights, the situation became even more serious. The fights were among the European powers who fought for trade and colonies and for naval and military powers.
- Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary wanted to gain control of the Balkan region causing many wars which culminated in the First World War.