NCERT Folder 9th Civics Chapter 4 : Working of Institutions

Political Science

Class 9

Chapter 4

Working of Institutions

Revision Notes

Important Terms

  • Legislature : The legislature makes the laws. It consists of an assembly of the people’s representatives with the power to enact laws for a country.
  • Executive : An executive is a group of people with the authority to initiate major policies, make decisions and implement them on the basis of constitutional laws.
  • Political institutions : A set of procedures for regulating the conduct of government and political life in the country.
  • Office memorandum : A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government.
  • Reservations: A policy that declares some positions in government employment and educational institutions ‘reserved’ for people and communities who have been discriminated against, are disadvantaged and backward.
  • Judiciary : The judiciary is an institution that administers justice and resolves legal disputes.
  • President : The President is the head of the State.
  • Supreme Court : The Supreme Court is the highest judicial court in our country. It resolves the disputes between the citizens and the government.
  • Parliament : The Parliament is a national assembly of elected representatives of the people.
  • Lok Sabha : It is the Lower House of the Parliament. The Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people of India. The Lok Sabha can have a maximum of 552 members, including 20 members from the Union Territories and 2 from the Anglo Indian community.
  • Rajya Sabha : The Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament of India. It consists of 250 members of which 12 are nominated by the President of India.
  • Speaker : He is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha and is responsible for the efficient conduct of business in the Lok Sabha.
  • Question Hour : During a parliamentary session, a time is fixed for asking questions and answering them only.
  • Prorogue : To discontinue a meeting of Parliament for a time without dissolving it.
  • Adjourn : To terminate the sitting of the House which meets again at the time appointed for the next sitting.
  • Ordinance : Temporary law promulgated by the President of India on the recommendations of the Union Cabinet. It can only be issued when the Parliament is not in session. It has to be approved by the Parliament within six weeks of its first sitting otherwise the ordinance would be considered null and void.
  • Money Bills : Bills dealing with money matters like taxes, income, expenditure and grants.
  • Political executive : The political executive consists of political leaders who are elected by the people for a specific term.
  • Permanent executive : The permanent executive includes members who are appointed on a long-term basis. The permanent executive is also called the civil services.
  • Council of ministers : A body of ministers who are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
  • Cabinet : A body of senior ministers who controls important ministers.
  • Collective responsibility : For any decision or action of the Cabinet, the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible. If any cabinet decisions is not approved by the Parliament, the entire Council of Ministers has to resign.
  • Emergency : Extraordinary or abnormal situation in a country.
  • Cabinet Secretariat : The Cabinet as a team is assisted by the Cabinet Secretariat. This includes many senior civil servants who try to coordinate the working of different ministries.
  • Judiciary : The judiciary is an institution that administers justice and resolves legal disputes.
  • Supreme Court : The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country and resolves disputes between citizens, and the government, between two or more states, and between states and the union governments.
  • Public Interest Litigation : Anyone can approach the court if public interest and human rights are affected by the actions of the government. This is called a Public Interest Litigation.
  • Impeachment : A special parliamentary procedure to prosecute or to remove the President and other judges for the violation of the constitution.

Summary

The Decision Makers and Need for Political Institutions

  • In a democratic government, the decision making power is divided in three separate organs – the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
  • The legislature makes the laws, the executive implements them, and the judiciary resolves disputes that arise out of major policy decisions. It consists of an assembly of the people’s representatives which has the power to enact laws for a country.
  • The executive is a group of persons with the authority to initiate major policies, make decisions and implement them on the basis of constitutional laws. The judiciary is an institution that administers justice and resolves legal disputes. All the courts in the country are collectively called the judiciary. Any major policy decision is conveyed through a government order. A government order is also called an office memorandum.
  • The Second Backward Classes Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party Government under the then Prime Minister Morarji Desai. It was popularly known as the Mandal Commission.
  • As per the Mandal Commission recommendations, a government order announced that 27% of vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India would be reserved for Socially and Economically Backward Classes (SEBC). The reservations issue was strongly protested by the people stating that this largely affected everyone’s job opportunities.
  • Some people felt that reservations were necessary to balance the inequality among people of different castes in India. Others felt that reservations were unfair and would deny equal opportunities to those who did not belong to backward communities. These cases were grouped together and called the Indira ‘Sawhney and others versus the Union of India’ case.
  • The Supreme Court ordered that the well-to-do persons from backward classes be excluded from receiving the benefits of reservation. Thus, the issue was resolved and a modified office memorandum was issued.
  • A democracy works well when political institutions perform functions assigned to them.
    The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are institutions that make all the important policy decisions. The civil servants are responsible for taking steps to implement the policy decisions effectively. The Supreme Court, as an institution, resolves the disputes between the citizens and the government.

Parliament And Its Two Houses

  • The Parliament is a national assembly of elected representatives of the people. The assembly of elected representatives of the people at the state level is called the Legislature or the Legislative Assembly. The Parliament has the authority of enacting laws. It can add new laws, and change or abolish existing laws. National policy and important public issues are discussed and debated in the Parliament.
  • The Parliament consists of the office of the President of India and two houses—the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States, and the Lok Sabha or the House of the People.
  • The Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament of India. It consists of 250 members of which 12 are nominated by the President of India. The remainder of the Rajya Sabha is elected by state and territorial legislatures. The term of office is 6 years, and 1/3rd of the members retire every two years. The Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
  • The Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people of India. The Lok Sabha can have a maximum of 552 members, including 20 members from the Union Territories and 2 from the Anglo Indian community. The Speaker presides over the sessions.
  • Though the Rajya Sabha has some special powers, the Lok Sabha has supreme powers.
  • The Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the President. Due to a large number of members, the view of the Lok Sabha matters a lot. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget or a law related to money, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it.

Political And Permanent Executive - Powers Of Prime Minister And His Council Of Ministers And The President

  • A group of functionaries is called the executive. The executive has two categories: political and permanent. The political executive consists of political leaders who are elected by the people for a specific term.
  • The permanent executive includes members who are appointed on a long-term basis. The permanent executive is also called the civil services. The political executive has more powers and the final say in all important decisions, as they are the representatives of the people.
  • The political executive includes the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The President appoints the leader of the majority, or the coalition party that has a majority in the Lok Sabha, as the Prime Minister.
  • The remaining ministers are appointed by the President based on the Prime Minister’s advice. These ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has a majority in the Lok Sabha. The group of minister is called the Council of Ministers. It includes about 70 members of different ranks. The Council of Ministers includes Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State with independent charge and other Ministers of State.
  • A Union Cabinet Minister is a senior minister, from the ruling party, in charge of a ministry. A Cabinet Minister may also hold additional charges of other ministries. The cabinet is the inner ring of the Council of Ministers. It consists of around 20 members.
  • A Minister of State is a junior minister with an overseeing the cabinet minister, usually having specific responsibility in that ministry. Most important decisions are taken in the cabinet meetings. Due to this reason, parliamentary democracy in most countries is also known as the cabinet form of government.
  • The Prime Minister has several powers as the head of the government. He chairs cabinet meetings, and assigns work to the other ministers. He also has the power to dismiss ministers. If the Prime Minister resigns, the entire ministry is supposed to resign.
  • The Prime Minister is the most powerful member in the Cabinet. The powers of the Prime Minister in all parliamentary democracies of the world has increased so much in the recent decades that parliamentary democracies are sometimes seen as the Prime Ministerial form of Government.
  • The President is the head of the State, and has nominal powers. The President supervises the overall functioning of all political institutions in the country to achieve the objectives of the state. The President is not directly elected by the people. All the Members of Parliament (MPs) and the members of the state legislative assemblies elect the President.
  • All major government activities, policy decisions and laws are issued in the name of the President. The President takes all major decisions based on the advice of the council of ministers.
  • One major decision that the President makes on his or her own is to appoint the Prime Minister. The President appoints the leader of the majority party or coalition that enjoys a majority support in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister.

The Judiciary

  • The judiciary includes all the courts at different levels in a country and consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts and District Courts. The Supreme Court is the top legal organisation.
  • The Indian courts of law are further divided into two groups : civil courts and criminal courts. The civil courts deal with general disputes regarding land, property and rights. The criminal courts deal with cases of murder, riot and looting.
  • The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country and resolves disputes between citizens and the government, between two or more states and between states and the union governments.
  • The Indian judiciary is known for being independent of the legislature and the executive and is non-partisan. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or the ruling party. The judges for the Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
  • A judge can be removed only when an impeachment motion is passed separately by a two-third majority of members of each of the two houses of the Parliament.
  • The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the constitution. If the courts feel that any law or action of the government is against the constitution, they can declare it invalid. The Supreme Court has ruled that the basic principles of the constitution which cannot be changed by the Parliament. It acts like a guardian of the fundamental rights.
  • The judiciary can review laws and government actions. The Indian judiciary is independent in the appointment and removal of judges, and in the execution of its powers.
  • Anyone can approach the court if public interest and human rights are affected by the actions of the government. This is called a Public Interest Litigation. The courts can intervene to ensure that the government and its officials are not misusing the powers.

Intext Questions

Question.1. Is every Office Memorandum a major political decision? If not, what made this one different?
Ans. No. Every Memorandum is not a major political decision. This was important because it made the announcement of 27% reservation for SEBC class, in addition to the reservations already there for SCs and STs.

Question.2. Which points, other than the ones mentioned above, do you recall about these institutions from the previous class? Discuss in class.
Ans.
The institutions mentioned are the President of India, the Prime Minister of India and the Parliament. Besides the points mentioned, they have many other functions.
The primary duty of the president is to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law of India per Article 60. The president appoints the Chief Justice of India and other judges on the advice of the chief justice.
The Prime Minister chairs the meetings of the Cabinet. He coordinates the working of different departments. In case of any disagreement between two or more departments, the decision of the Prime Minister is final. The Prime Minister supervises the functions of various ministries.
Parliament has four main functions: legislation (making laws), representation (acting on behalf of voters and citizens), scrutiny (examining the government), and formation of government.
i) It has the power to impeach the President, the Vice-President, the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court.
(ii) It can also punish its members or outsiders for the breach of privilege or its contempt.
(iii) All the members of the parliament participate in the election of the Vice-President.

Question.3. Can you think of a major decision made by your state government? How were the Governor, the Council of Ministers, the state assembly and the courts involved in that decision?
Ans. An example of a major decision is given here. There have been many others. A major decision taken by the Uttar Pradesh State Government in 2008 was not to allow the Reliance Group to open their retail shops selling vegetables and fruits in the state, as it would harm the interests of the small traders selling these items. This order was approved by the Council of Ministers and the order was promulgated by the Governor. Since it did not involve finances, it was not raised in the State Assembly. The courts were in no way involved, as it did not have any Constitutional implications.

Question.4. Now I can see clearly! That is why they talk of Mandalisation of politics. Don’t they?intext-politics-9th-chap-4-q1Ans. In the Lok Sabha elections of 1989, the Janata Dal Party in its election manifesto promised that if voted to power it would implement the Mandal Commission Report. With this announcement Mandalisation of politics took place and voting was influenced by the Mandal Commission Report.

Question.5. Reservation debate was such an important issue during 1990-91 that advertisers used this theme to sell their products. Can you spot some references to political events and debates in these Amul Butter hoardings?intext-politics-9th-chap-4-q2Ans. The upper hoarding mentions, “No reservation for this quota …. Amul the riot taste”. This refers to the riots which took place when the reservation quota was made into a law. Similarly, the lower hoarding says, “Reserved for this outstanding Butter Classic” which again refers to the reservation issue.

Question.6. Who did what in this case of reservations for backward classes?intext-politics-9th-chap-4-q3Ans.

Column AColumn B
Supreme CourtUpheld reservations as valid
CabinetTook the decision to give 27% job reservations
PresidentMade formal announcement about this decision
Government officialsImplemented the decision by issuing an order

Question.7. Which institutions are at work in the running of your school? Would it be better if one person alone took all the decisions regarding management of your school?
Answer. There are different institutions like Principal’s office, the school’s administrative office with different departments like sports department, medical room, library and teachers can be considered the institutions of the school which perform different functions. It would not be good if one person takes all the decisions regarding the management of our school because a large number of activities are going on all the time.
It is not possible for one person to take proper decisions on all issues. Even if one person does take these decisions, he or she might not be able to take a proper decision as it might be taken in haste or without understanding its implications.

Question.8. What is the point in having so much debate and discussion in the Parliament when we know that the view of the ruling party is going to prevail?
Answer. Even though, the decision of the ruling party prevails in Parliament, even then we should have debates and discussions because this helps to bring out the positive and negative points of the issue under consideration. The positive aspects might be adopted by the ruling party, and similarly negative aspects could be omitted even if the entire bill is not changed. This will help in adopting positive ideas by the ruling party which aim for welfare of the people.

Question.9. When Parliament is in session, there is a special programme everyday on Doordarshan about the proceedings in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Watch the proceedings or read about it in the newspapers and note the following:

(a) Powers of the two Houses of Parliament.
(b) Role of the Speaker.
(c) Role of the Opposition.

Answer.
(a) Powers of the Two Houses of Parliament: Details are given in the Constitution. However, we should know that the Lok Sabha members are directly elected by the voters and so are the final voices in the passing of any laws. The Rajya Sabha members are indirectly elected or nominated and they function mostly in an advisory capacity. But the consent of both Houses is required for passing any Bill, making a law, or making amendments to the Constitution.
(b) Role of the Speaker (Lok Sabha): The Speaker’s main functions —

  1. Regulate the proceedings of the House.
  2. Maintain discipline in the House.
  3. Supervise Parliamentary Committees.
  4. Perform administrative duties like receiving documents, receiving petitions, etc which are addressed to the House.
  5. Exercise powers under the anti-defection law.
  6. Exercise other powers as given in the Constitution.

(c) Role of the Opposition: The major function of the opposition is to act as a check on the ruling party so that any faults of theirs are exposed and any mistakes made by the ruling party are corrected. They can even bring a no-confidence motion against the government if it is seen to be not functioning properly.

Question.10. The race to become minister is not new. Here is a cartoon depicting ministerial aspirants waiting to get a berth in Nehru’s Cabinet after the 1962 elections. Why do you think political leaders are so keen to become ministers?intext-politics-9th-chap-4-q4Answer. Political leaders are keen to become ministers for the following reasons
(a) They want to fulfill the promises made to the electorate at the time of elections. In this way, at the time of the next election, they will be in a favorable position to win again.
(b) Becoming a minister gives them many additional powers which they would not have if they were only MPs.
(c) They can fulfill their ambitions and also help many of their family members, associates and friends by sanctioning various schemes which give benefit to them.

Question.11. This cartoon depicts a cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in early 1970s, at the peak of her popularity. Do you think similar cartoons could be drawn about other prime ministers who followed her?intext-politics-9th-chap-4-q5

Answer. No, I do not think that similar cartoons could be drawn about any other Prime Minister afterwards. She was a dominant personality and overshadowed everybody else in the Cabinet.

Question.12. Why does this book refer to the President as ‘she’? Have we ever had a woman President in our country?
Answer. The book refers to the President as ‘she’ to show that the highest office in India can also be occupied by a woman. Yes, we have had a woman President in our country. Pratibha Patil has been the only woman President of our country.

Question.13. Did you protest when the book referred to the Prime Minister as ‘he’? Have we not had a woman Prime Minister? Why should we assume that all the important positions are held by men?
Answer. No, I did not protest, when the book referred to the Prime Minister as ‘he’ because at present we have a male person as a Prime Minister. When we are referring to the post in general we can use her/him simultaneously to show that the said post can be occupied by either males or females.
Yes, we should not assume that all important positions are held by men, women too occupy high positions but that is an exception and not the rule, generally speaking in most of the cases important positions are indeed occupied by men. There is a need to increase the participation of women in politics by providing them at least 1/3rd reservation in the State Assemblies and Parliament.

Question.14. What is better for a democracy: A Prime Minister who can do whatever he wishes or a Prime Minister who needs to consult other leaders and parties?
Answer. Both the extreme cases, one in which the Prime Minister can do whatever he wishes and the second case in which the Prime Minister has to consult other leaders and parties are not totally correct. If a Prime Minister is free to do as he wishes, there is a possibility that he might develop authoritarian or dictatorial tendencies. On the other hand, if all the time he has to consult other leaders and parties, it would hamper working of the Prime Minister and the government’s functioning. Therefore, he should have freedom of taking decisions but he should also seek the consultation of other leaders and parties on important issues.

Question.15. Eliamma, Annakutti and Marymol read the section on the President. Each of them had a question. Can you help them in answering these questions ?
Eliamma: What happens if the President and the Prime Minister disagree about some policy? Does the view of the Prime Minister always prevail ?
Annakutti: I find it funny that the President is the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces. I doubt if the President can even lift a heavy gun. What is the point in making the President the Commander ?
Marymol: I would say, what is the point in having a President at all if all the real powers are with the Prime Minister ?
Answer. (a) Answer to Eliamma,- The Prime Minister’s view prevails. However, if the President does not agree to some Bill sent for approval, she is empowered to send it back for reconsideration to the Parliament, giving the reasons for doing so. Now, if the Parliament approves it once again, the President cannot stop the Bill. She will now have to approve it.
(b) Answer to Annakutti – The Supreme Commander is the one, who gives the orders to fight a war. A commander is not always required to use firearms; only she should have the wisdom (usually after consultation with the senior members of the government and armed forces) to issue the necessary orders.
(c) Answer to Marymol – The President is a symbol of the power of the country. The President is required to take decisions on appointing the Prime Minister, who must have majority support. The President has many other functions like appointing Governors of States, representing India as Head of State, etc.

Question.16. It is quite common in the US for judges to be nominated on the basis of well-known political opinions and affiliations. This fictitious advertisement appeared in the US in 2005 when President Bush was considering various candidates for nomination to the US supreme court. What does this cartoon say about the independence of the judiciary? Why do such cartoons not appear in our country? Does this demonstrate the independence of our judiciary?
Answer. (a) It shows that in the USA, the Judiciary is not considered to be independent, in the eyes of the people. It voices the feeling that justices of the Supreme Court there are appointed on their being supportive of the President. Their qualifications and experience are not so much important for their appointment to the US Supreme Court.
(b) Such cartoons do not appear in India because :
The appointment of justices to the Supreme Court is by a specified procedure which is transparent and does not favour anybody having sympathies with the government.
Indian judiciary is considered to be among one of the most the independent judiciaries in the world.
Judges normally do not speak in favour of or against any politician either of the ruling party or the opposition.
(c) Yes, this definitely demonstrates that our judiciary is independent.

Question.18. Follow the news about any major court case in a High Court or the Supreme Court. What was the original verdict? Did the High Court or the Supreme Court change it? What was the reason?
Answer.

  • The Ayodhya dispute or Ram Janmabhoomi – Babari Masjid Title Dispute is a political, historical and socio-religious debate that centered on a plot of land in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh.
  • The dispute revolves around the control of a site that is traditionally regarded by the Hindus as the birthplace of the Hindu deity Rama, the history and location of the Babari Masjid at the site and the question of whether or not there was previously a Hindu temple that may have been demolished or modified to create the mosque.
  • The Babari Masjid was destroyed during a political rally that was turned into a riot on December 6 of 1992. Following this incident, a land title case was lodged in the Allahabad High Court.
  • In the judgement on 30th September 2010, the 3 judges of the Allahabad HC ruled that the 2.77 acres of Ayodhya land be divided into 3 parts, with one-third going to the Ram Lalla or infant Rama as represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha, one-third going to Sunni Waqf Board and the remaining one-third to Nirmohi Akhara. 30th September 2010: The Allahabad HC pronounced its verdict on 4 title suits relating to the Ayodhya dispute on 30th. December 2010: SC challenged the Allahabad HC’s verdict.
  • May 2011: The SC stayed the Allahabad HC order of splitting the disputed site into three parts and said that the status quo will remain.
  • November 9, 2019, a Supreme Court Bench led by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi unanimously ruled that the disputed land be given to the Ram Janmabhoomi Nyas for the construction of a temple, and the Muslim side be compensated with five acres of land at a prominent site in Ayodhya to build a mosque.

Question.19. Why are people allowed to go to courts against the government’s decisions?
Answer. People are allowed to go against the government to courts, because of the fundamental right given to them by the Constitution — Right to Constitutional Remedies. If any of the people’s fundamental rights is violated we can challenge the decision in court and ask for justice.

Question.20. Give one reason each to argue that Indian judiciary is independent with respect to:

  • Appointment of judges: …
  • Removal of judges: …
  • Powers of the judiciary: …

Answer. (a) Appointment of Judges: The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and in Consultation with the Chief Justice of India. In actual practice, the senior judges of the Supreme Court select new judges for the Supreme Court as well as for the High Courts. Here seniority and merit are the main considerations with hardly any scope for manipulation by anybody.
(b) Removal of Judges: The procedure of removal of judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts is very difficult to actually carry out. They can be removed only on the basis of an impeachment motion passed by two-thirds majority in both Houses of Parliament separately. So removal of judges cannot be done arbitrarily.
(c) Powers of the Judiciary: The powers are clearly spelt out in the Constitution and they cannot be diluted by Parliament or by any Presidential order. So no politician can reduce or increase their powers. The Supreme Court has the power to declare illegal any law made by Parliament if it goes against the Constitution.

NCERT Solution

Question.1. If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision can you take on your own?
(a) Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
(b) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in Lok Sabha.
(c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
(d) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.
Ans. (c) Ask for reconsideration of a Bill passed by both the Houses.

Question.2. Who among the following is a part of the political executive?
(a) District Collector
(b) Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
(c) Home Minister
(d) Director General of Police
Ans. (c) Home Minister

Question.3. Which of the following statements about the judiciary is false?
(a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court.
(b) Judiciary can strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution.
(c) Judiciary is independent of the Executive.
(d) Any citizen can approach the courts if her rights are violated.
Ans. (a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court.

Question.4. Which of the following institutions can make changes to an existing law of the country?
(a) The Supreme Court
(b) The President
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) The Parliament
Ans. (d) The Parliament

Question.5. Match the ministry with the news that the ministry may have released:

Column AColumn B
(a) A new policy is being made to increase the jute exports from the country. (1) Ministry of Defence
(b) Telephone services will be made more accessible to rural areas. (2) Ministry of Health
(c) The price of rice and wheat sold under the Public Distribution System will go down.(3) Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Public Distribution
(d) A Pulse Polio campaign will be launched.(4) Ministry of Commerce and Industry
(e) The allowances of the soldiers posted on high altitudes will be increased. (5) Ministry of Communications and Information

Ans. (a) — (4); (b) — (5); (c) — (3); (d) — (2); (e) — (1)

Question.6. Of all the institutions that we have studied in this chapter, name the one that exercises the powers on each of the following matters.
(a) Decision on allocation of money for developing infrastructure like roads, irrigation, etc., and different welfare activities for the citizens
(b) Considers the recommendation of a Committee on a law to regulate the stock exchange
(c) Decides on a legal dispute between two state governments
(d) Implements the decision to provide relief for the victims of an earthquake.
Ans. (a) The Executive (political), the government
(b) The Parliament (The Lok Sabha)
(c) The Supreme Court, judiciary
(d) The Executive (Permanent), Civil Servants

Question.7. Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most appropriate answer and give reasons for your choice.
(a) In a parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.
(b) Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Minister even before the expiry of their term.
(c) Since the Prime Minister in appointed by the President, there is no need for it.
(d) Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve a lot of expenditure on election.
Ans. (a) Elections are not fought for the post of the Prime Minister. Only parties fight elections and the winning party’s leader becomes the Prime Minister.

Question.8. Three friends went to watch a film that showed the hero becoming Chief Minister for a day and making big changes in the state. Imran said this is what the country needs. Rizwan said this kind of a personal rule without institutions is dangerous. Shankar said all this is a fantasy. No minister can do anything in one day. What would be your reaction to such a film?
Ans. Do it yourself.

Question.9. A teacher was making preparations for a mock parliament. She called two students to act as leaders of two political parties. She gave them an option: Each one could choose to have a majority either in the mock Lok Sabha or in the mock Rajya Sabha. If this choice was given to you, which one would you choose and why?
Ans. Again, the choice rests with the students
Lok Sabha — Power with responsibility — can do good.
Rajya Sabha — Prestige, power without too much responsibility, longer tenure.

Question.10. After reading the example of the reservation order, three students had different reactions about the role of the judiciary. Which view, according to you, is a correct reading of the role of judiciary?
(a) Srinivas argues that since the Supreme Court agreed with the government, it is not independent.
(b) Anjaiah says that judiciary is independent because it could have given a verdict against the government order. The Supreme Court did direct the government to modify it.
(c) Vijaya thinks that the judiciary is neither independent nor conformist, but acts as a mediator between opposing parties. The court struck a good balance those who supported and those who opposed the order.
Ans. Do it yourself.

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