NCERT Folder 9th Geography Chapter 1 : India Size and Location

Geography

Class 9

Chapter 1

India Size and Location

Revision Notes

Important Terms

  • Indira Point : Southern-most point of India’s territory.
  • Equator : An imaginary line drawn around the middle of the earth that divides it into two equal halves.
  • Latitude : The angular distance from the equator of a point (north or south) on the earth’s surface, measured on the meridian of the point. It ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the Poles.
  • Longitude : The angular distance on the earth’s surface, measured east or west from the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, England, to the meridian passing through a position, expressed in degrees (or hours), minutes, and seconds.
  • Indian Standard Time : The time which is applicable all over India is called Indian Standard Time. The Standard Meridian of India is 82°30’ E longitude, passing through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh. It is five and half hours ahead of GMT.
  • Tropic of Cancer : This is the parallel of latitude that runs approximately 23°30’N of the Equator.
  • Peninsular Plateau : It is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • Provinces : States ruled directly by British officials who were appointed by the Viceroy.
  • Princely States : States ruled by local, hereditary rulers, who acknowledged sovereignty in return for local autonomy.

Summary

Location

  • India is considered as one of the ancient civilizations in the world.
  • India has achieved multifaceted socioeconomic progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic development.
  • Location
    • India is a country lying in the Northern Hemisphere.
    • The mainland extends between latitudes 8°4’N and 37°6’N and longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E.
    • The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30’N) passes through the centre of India and divides the country into almost two equal halves.
    • The north-south extent of India is approximately 3,200 km.
    • The east-west extent of the country is 2,933 km approximately.
    • Indira Point is the southernmost point of the Indian Union.

Size

  • Size
    • The total area of Indian landmass is 3.28 million square km.
    • India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world.
    • India is the seventh largest country of the world.
    • India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and the total length of the coast line of the mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.
    • The northwest, north and northeast boundaries of India are characterized by the young fold mountains.
    • The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland is about 30°.
    • Time along the Standard Meridian of India (82°30’E) passing through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh is taken as the standard time for the whole country.

India And The World

  • India and the World
    • Location of India in the world plays an important role because of the following reasons :
      • The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and West Asia.
      • India is a southward extension of the Asian continent.
      • The Trans-Indian Ocean routes connecting the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India.
      • The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean which helps it to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the west coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the east coast.
      • No other country has such a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has, and indeed, it is India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an ocean after it.
    • Distance between India and Europe has been reduced by 7, 000 km after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
    • India is connected with Europe, North America and South America with the Suez Canal and the Cape of Good Hope through the sea routes.

India's Neighbours

  • India’s neighbours
    • India has 29 states and 7 Union Territories.
    • India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
    • Our southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely, Sri Lanka and Maldives.
    • India has had strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours.

Intext Questions

Find Out

(Page No. 2)

Question.1. Why 82°30′E has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India?
Answer. A globe has 24 time zones, each of 15 longitudes. Local time in each zone at the middle longitude (divided by 7°30′) is taken as Standard Time. As 82°30’E is divisible by 7°30′, a standard by all countries, India selected this odd value.

Question.2. Why is the difference between the durations of day and night hardly felt at Kanyakumari but not so in Kashmir?
Answer. (i) Places near the Equator experience almost equal duration of day and night as the Sun shines overhead throughout the year.
(ii) Going away from Equator towards the Poles, the durations of day and night go on differing.

Find Out

(Page No. 4)

Question.1. Find out the number of Union Territories along the western and eastern coasts.
Answer. Union Territories on the western coast of India are four in number — Diu and Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Mahe (Pondicherry) and Lakshadweep. Union Territories on the eastern coast of India are two — Pondicherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Question.2. Areawise which is the smallest and which is the largest state?
Answer. Smallest State in India (areawise) — Goa
Largest State in India (areawise) — Rajasthan

Question.3. Find out the States which do not have an international border or lie on the coast.
Answer. Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand.

Question.4. Classify the states into four groups each having common frontiers with
(i) Pakistan
(ii) China
(iii) Myanmar and
(iv) Bangladesh.
Answer. (i) States having common frontiers with Pakistan are Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
(ii) States having common frontiers with China are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
(iii)States having common frontiers with Myanmar are Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.
(iv) States having common frontiers with Bangladesh are West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam and Tripura.

NCERT Solution

(Page No. 6)

Question.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through:

(a) Rajasthan
(b) Chhattisgarh
(c) Orissa
(d) Tripura

Answer. (c) Orissa.

(ii) The eastern-most longitude of India is:

(a) 97° 25’E
(b) 68° 7’E
(c) 77° 6’E
(d) 82° 32’E

Answer. (a) The eastern-most longitude is 97° 25′

(iii) Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with :

(a) China
(b) Bhutan
(c) Nepal
(d) Myanmar

Answer. (c) Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common borders with Nepal.

(iv) If you intend to visit the island Kavaratti during your summer vacations, which one of the following Union Territory of India you will be going to?

(a) Pondicherry
(b) Andaman and Nicobar
(c) Lakshadweep
(d) Diu and Daman?

Answer. (c) Lakshadweep.

(v) My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundary with India. Identify the country.

(a) Bhutan
(b) Tajikistan
(c) Myanmar
(d) Nepal

Answer. (b) Tajikistan.

Question.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian Sea.
Answer. Lakshadweep.
(ii) Name the countries which are larger than India?
Answer. The countries larger than India are Russia, China, Canada, USA, Brazil and Australia.
(iii) Which island group of India lies to its south-east?
Answer. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
(iv) Which island countries are our southern neighbours?
Answer. Maldives and Sri Lanka.

Question.3. The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?
Answer. The local time difference arises because the sunrise is earlier in the east than in the west. However, the watches show the same time because Indian Standard Time is reckoned from a single meridian 82°30′ that passes through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh.

Question.4. The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
Answer. The location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean has helped India in establishing close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with South-east and East Asia from the eastern coast.

Map Skills

Question.1. Identify the following with the help of map reading —
(i) The island groups of India lying in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
(ii) The countries constituting Indian subcontinent.
(iii) The states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
(iv) The northernmost latitude in degrees.
(v) The southernmost latitude of the Indian mainland in degrees.
(vi) The eastern and the western most longitude in degrees.
(vii) The place situated on the three seas.
(viii) The strait separating Sri Lanka from India.
(ix) The Union Territories of India.

Answer: Map Skills page 6 Geography Chapter 1

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