# NCERT Folder 9th Geography Chapter 6 : Population

## Important Terms

• Population : The total number of inhabitants of a specific area, like city, country or any other location is termed as population.
• Census : A census is an official enumeration of the population of a country that is recorded periodically
• Population Density : Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area.
• Population growth : The change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time.
• Annual growth rate : The rate or pace of population increase. It is studied in per cent per annum.
• Birth rate : Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
• Death rate : It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
• Migration : Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
• Immigration : When people come to a country, it is called emigration.
• Emigration : When people of a country leave that country, it is called emigration.
• Million plus cities : Cities with a population of more than one million or 10 lakh.
• Sex ratio : Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males in the population.
• Dependency ratio : Dependency ratio is the ratio of the dependent population to the working-age population of the country.
• Composition of population : The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.
• Occupational structure : The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure.
• Primary activities : Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying etc.
• Secondary activities : Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc.
• Tertiary activities : Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.
• Literate : A person of seven years of age or above who is able to read and write with a certain understanding is called a literate.

## Summary

### Size, Distribution And Age-Sex

• Population Size and Distribution :
• People are producers and consumers of resources. It is the people who form a nation and help to develop its economy. Population is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed.
• A census is an official enumeration of the population of a country that is recorded periodically. The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data of India. The first census in India was held in 1872. Census has been held regularly after every ten years.
• The census provides answers to three primary questions about the population:
• Population size and distribution
• Population growth and processes of population change
• Characteristics or qualities of the population
• As per the census of March 2011, India’s population stood at 1210 million and accounted for 17.5% of the world’s population.
• Almost half of India’s population lives in five states – Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state of India with 166 million people. Population density is the number of persons that live in one square kilometre of an area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world.
• Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are the main reasons for the sparse population in some areas. Moderate to low rainfall and less fertile soils also influence the population density.

### Population Growth And Change

• Different patterns of population growth
• In a population, some people are born, some die, some migrate internally or internationally. These three processes are known as birth rate, death rate and migration respectively.
(i) Birth rate : It is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
(ii) Death rate : It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
(iii) Migration : Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It can be internal as well as international.
• Factors affecting the size of a population :
• (i) Population grows through births and immigration and declines through deaths and emigration.
• (ii) Internal migration influences the distribution of population within the nation.
• (iii) In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the “push” factor in rural areas.
• (iv) These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the “pull” of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.
• (v) The urban population has increased from 17.29% of the total population in 1951 to 31.80% in 2011.
• (vi) There has been a significant increase in the number of ‘million plus cities’ from 35 to 53 in just one decade i.e., 2001 to 2011.
• Age Composition of Population
• (1) Age composition indicates the number of people that belong to different age groups.
• (2) The population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories :
• Children
• Aged
• (3) Dependency ratio is the ratio of the dependent population to the working-age population of the country. The percentage of children and the aged affect the dependency ratio.
• (4) Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. It is calculated as the number of females per 1000 males of the population. The sex ratio in India has always remained unfavourable to females.

### Occupational Structure, Health, Literacy And National Population Policy (NPP)

• Literacy is a very important indicator of the quality of a population. Literacy rates are a crucial measure of a country’s human resources.
• As per the Census of 2001, a literate person :
• aged 7 years and above, and
• Can read and write with understanding in any language.
• Literate people generally have a higher socioeconomic status, and enjoy better health and employment prospects. Low levels of literacy can hamper the economic development of the country.
• Occupational structure refers to the distribution of the workforce in different occupations. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
• Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, collecting wood or other forest products, fishing, and mining activities for raw material.
• Secondary activities include the manufacturing industry, building and construction work, and other similar activities that create finished products.
• Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.
• About 64% of the people in India are associated with farming and allied occupations. 13-20% of people are involved in secondary and tertiary occupations.
• The health of the population affects the overall development process of the country. Due to sustained efforts of the government, India’s death rate has declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 8.1 per 1000 in 2001 and the life expectancy at birth has increased to 64.6 check in 2001.
• The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels and malnutrition affects a large percentage of our population.
• To control and stabilize the growth of population, the Government of India initiated the National Family Planning Programme in 1952. The programme was to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis.
• The National Population Policy (NPP) was adopted in the year 2000 and provides a policy framework to address the issues of child survival, maternal health and contraception. NPP 2000 aims at imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age, reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births, immunizing children against preventable diseases, promoting delayed marriage for girls, and making family welfare a people centred programme.
• The adolescent population constitutes one-fifth of the India’s total population. Adolescents have higher nutrition requirements than children or adults.
• NPP 2000 identified adolescents as a section of the population that needs greater attention. Besides nutritional requirements, the NPP laid emphasis on protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).
• The NPP also initiated programmes aimed at encouraging delayed marriage and child-bearing, educating adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable, providing food supplements and nutritional services, and adopting legal measures to prevent child marriage.

## Intext Questions

#### Find Out

(Page No. 54)

Question.1. Find out what could be the reasons of uneven distribution of population in India.
Answer. Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in some areas. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils influence population in hilly areas. Flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall have led a large number of people to settle in the densely populated Northern Plains.

#### Find Out

(Page No. 56)

Question.1. Study the Figure 6.3 and compare it with Figure 2.4 and Figure 4.7. Do you find any correlation between these maps?

• Areas receiving highest rainfall are the mountainous regions.
• Areas having an average height of 0-300 metres are densely populated and have an average rainfall of 100-200cm.

#### Find Out

(Page No. 56)

Question.1. Table 6.1 reveals that despite the decline growth rates, the numbers of people being added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?
Answer. Increased facilities provided to live a comfortable life and better medical facilities that have brought down the death rate is the cause for increase in people being added every decade despite the decline in growth rate.

#### Find Out

(Page No. 59)

Question.1. Find out what could be the reasons for such (sex ratio) variations.
Answer. The reasons for sex ratio variations in the states of India is the social makeup of India. The people here have remained in favour of male child leading to female foeticide and dowry problems which makes people think of female children as a burden. In states like Kerala there are well educated people who also follow matriarchal society rules and sex ratio in Kerala is 1058 females per 1000 males. In Haryana female child is looked down upon and most female foeticide cases occur here. Thus it has sex ratio of 861 females per 1000 males.

#### Find Out

(Page No. 59)

Question. The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavourable to females. Find out why this is so?
Answer. Some of the important factors affecting sex ratio in India are:

• Higher mortality of females (young girls, maternal mortality, female infanticide).
• To a certain extent differential undercount.

## NCERT Solution

Question.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in:
(a) the area of departure
(b) both the area of departure and arrival
(c) the area of arrival
(d) none of the above
Answer. (b) Both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death
(d) more married couples

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to :
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
Answer. (a) the total population of an area

(iv) According to the Census 2001, a literate person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 year old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows 3 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Answer. (c) Is seven year old and can read and write any language with understanding.

Question.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Answer. The rate of population growth has been declining as a result of greater use of birth control measures.

(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

• The major components of population growth are Birth Rate, Death Rate and Migration.
• The difference between birth rate and death rate accounts for natural increase in population.
• Adoption of family planning measures leads to decline in birth rate. Better availability of medical facilities leads to decrease in death rate.
• Internal migration only changes the pattern of population over different parts of the country.
• International migration affects both the magnitude and the quality of population.

(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
Answer. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Age structure refers to the number of people in different age groups. The commonly adopted age groups are Children (0-14 years), Adults (15-59 years) and Aged (60 years and above).

(iv) How is migration a determinant of population change?
Answer. Internal migration determines population change across regions and territories within the country. In India there has been a significant migration from the rural areas to the cities. Apart from magnitude, migration also brings about change in terms of sex ratio and age composition. The migration from rural areas comprises only men. As such, the sex ratio in village registers a decline and so does the age composition. The number of able-bodied men in villages is reduced as a result of the rural-urban migration.

Question.3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Answer. Population growth is different from population change. Population growth is determined by the birth and death rates. Population change, on the other hand, is determined by the birth and death rates and also by migration.

Question.4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

• Development is related to occupational structure of the population. Countries are less developed where a higher percentage of population is engaged in primary occupations like agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing.
• As development takes place more people move into secondary occupations like manufacturing.
• In highly developed societies, there are a high percentage of people involved in tertiary occupations like banking, commerce, transport and administration.

Question.5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Answer. A healthy population ensures higher productive efficiency. Absenteeism is low where the workers are healthy.

Question.6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000? OR
Write any three goals of National Population Policy 2000.