Revision Notes Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy Class 10

Important Facts

Seaports: India has 12 major, 181 medium and minor seaports.
Major Ports on the West Coast: Kandla, Mumbai, Jawaharlal Nehru (Nhava Sheva), Marmagao, New Mangalore and Cochin.
Major Ports on the East Coast: Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin.
Biggest Port: Mumbai.

Important Terms to Remember

  • International Airports: An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Bengaluru, Amritsar, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Panaji, Guwahati and Cochin.
  • Domestic Airports: There are 134 airports. The government owned Airports Authority of India (AAI) operates 122 airports and civil enclaves out of a total of 449 airports and airstrips located throughout India. Airports are managed by the Airport Authority of India.
  • Communication: The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium, e.g., phones, letters, television, etc.
  • Personal Communication: It includes postcards, letters, telegrams, telephones and internet.
  • Mass Communication: It includes handbooks, journals, magazines, newspapers, radio, television and films.
    • They are of two types:
      1. print media,
      2. electronic media.
  • Personal Written Communication: Indian postal network — 1.5 lakh post offices in India.
  • First-Class Mail: Mail that is air lifted between stations.
  • Second-Class Mail: Mail that is carried by surface covering land and water transport
  • International Trade: Trade between two countries is called international trade.
  • Trade: Exchange of goods between two parties such as people, states and countries is called trade.
  • Economic Barometer: Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.
  • Balance of Trade: The difference between exports and imports.
  • Favourable Balance of Trade: If the value of exports is more than the value of imports.
    Unfavourable Balance of Trade: If the value of imports is more than the value of exports.
    Tourism as a Trade: Tourism promotes national integration and develops an international understanding. It supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.

Lifelines of National Economy

Summary

  • Goods are transported from supply to demand locations by people called traders. Transport is a key factor that influences India’s rapid economic development. Based on the medium it uses, the means of transport can be divided into land transport, water transport and air transport.
  • Land transport includes roadways, railways and pipelines. Pipelines are used to transport liquid and gaseous material over long distances.
  • Water transport can be classified as inland transport and overseas transport. Inland transport happens along coastline between two domestic ports or through inland waterways. Overseas transport involves sending goods from one country to another. Air transport can be classified as domestic and international.
    Private and government-run domestic airways connect different cities of India. International airways connect India with destinations in all parts of the world.
  • Modern advances in science and technology have not left any part of the world inaccessible. Thus, the world appears a much smaller place today.
  • Trade requires some means of exchanging ideas and connecting with people. This is where communication comes in. While transport physically transfers people and goods from one place to another, means of communication allow people in different locations to connect with each other without actually travelling.
  • Some common means of communication are radio, television, cinema, newspapers, Internet, fax and phone services. A dense, efficient network of transport, and extensive, reliable means of communication are the true lifelines of trade and economic development for India and the rest of the world.
  • There are five types of transport systems in India — roadways, railways, pipelines, waterways and airways.
    • Roadways: A number of roads were built during the Mughal rule. Sher Shah Suri built the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong (now in Bangladesh) in the east to Peshawar (now in Pakistan) in the west.
    • Railways: The railways are now more than 150 years old in India. The total track length of railways is about 121,407 km. While the total route length of the network in 68,525 km. India has the second largest railway network in Asia and the sixth largest railway network after USA, Russia, Canada, Germany and China. The Indian Railways carry 40,000 lakh passengers and 4,000 lakh tonnes of goods a year. It had a fleet of 9,213 locomotives, 53,220 passenger service vehicles, 6,493 other coach vehicles and 2,29,381 wagons as on 31st March 2011.
    • Pipelines were earlier used for the transportation of water and now they are being used for the transportation of crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas.
    • Inland Waterways have a length of 14,500 km. There are 111 officially notified Inland National Waterways (NWs) in India identified for the purposes of inland water transport, as per The National Waterways Act, 2016. Out of the 111 NWs, 106 were created in 2016. The NW network covers around 20,275.5 km. NW-1, 2, & 3 are already operational.
      • The Ganga River between Allahabad and Haldia (1,620 km). — National Waterway No. 1.
      • The Brahmaputra River between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km). — National Waterway No. 2.
      • Kollam-Kozhikode stretch of West Coast Canal and Champakara canal and Udyogmandal canal in Kerala – National Waterway No. 3.
    • Airways are the fastest mode of transport but they are the costliest ones. In 1953, air transport was nationalised. 486 existing airports declared as potential airport for UDAN-RCS. There are 24 international airports.
  • Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. From the earliest times, human beings have felt the need to communicate with each other. The latest advances in communication are about enabling communication over long distances without the need for change in location of the sender or receiver.
  • Communication is of two types: personal communication and mass communication.
    1. Personal communication is where just two or a small group of people communicate with each other. Personal letters, e-mails and phone calls are examples of inter-personal communication.
    2. Mass communication is communication referred to an indefinite number of people spread over a large geographical area. Radio, television, cinema, newspapers, magazines and internet, are examples of mass communication.
  • India’s postal service is the largest of its kind in the world where the services are provided by the Department of Posts of the Government of India. The Indian postal service handles both letters and parcels. Post cards and envelopes are classified as first-class mail and are delivered on priority using both air and land transport.
  • Packets of books, and registered newspapers and periodicals are classified as second-class mail, and are delivered using surface transport like roadways, railways and ships.
  • The Indian postal service has introduced six channels for quicker delivery of letters in large town and cities, called the Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.
  • The telecom network in India is the largest in Asia, with about 37,565 telephone exchanges spread all over the country. All the urban centres and over two-thirds of Indian villages are now connected with subscriber trunk dialling, or STD facility.
  • The Government of India has made provisions for 24-hour STD facility in every village of India. A uniform rate of STD calls from anywhere in India is possible due to the integration of our space and communication technology development programmes.
  • Radio, television, cinema, books, newspapers, magazines and the Internet serve the dual purpose of providing entertainment and information to the masses.
  • All India Radio Akashwani broadcasts a variety of programmes in regional languages all over India. Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. Doordarshan broadcasts a variety of Programmes from entertainment, news and information to sports and educational programmes, etc., for all age groups.
  • Periodicals are publications like newspapers and magazines published at regular intervals, from daily to weekly to monthly to yearly. Daily newspapers in India are published in more than 100 languages and dialects. Hindi has the largest share of newspaper publication, followed by English and Urdu.
  • The Indian film industry is the largest producers of feature films in the world and also produces short films and video films.
  • The Central Board of Film Certification, more commonly known as the Censor Board, certifies all Indian and foreign films before they can be released in India.
  • The exchange of goods between people, companies, states and countries is called trade. The trade within a locality or between towns or villages of a state is called local trade. The trade between two states is called state level trade.
  • The trade between two countries is called international trade.
  • Advancement of International trade is index of the health of a country’s economy and has two components.
  • The goods purchased from other countries are called imports while the goods sold to other countries are called exports. The difference between the exports and imports of a country is called its balance of trade.
  • When the value of the exports of a country is more than the value of its imports, the country is said to have a favourable balance of trade. When the value of the imports of a country is more than the value of its exports, the country is said to have an unfavourable balance of trade.
  • The major products showing a rising trend in exports from India are agriculture and allied products, ores and minerals, gems and jewellery, chemicals and allied products, engineering goods and petroleum products.
  • The main categories of products imported into India are petroleum and petroleum products, pearls and gemstones, inorganic chemicals, coal, coke and briquettes and machinery. The bulk imports as a group registered a growth accounting for 39.09 percent of total imports. This group includes fertilizers, cereals, edible oils and newsprint.
  • India is a leading software producing country and generates large amounts of foreign exchange through the export of information technology.
  • Tourism is an important form of international trade. The Indian tourism industry employs around 15 million people to take care of around 2.6 million foreign tourists who visit India every year. Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.
  • Tourism not only promotes national integration, it also gives tremendous boost to local handicraft industries and helps foreign tourists to understand and appreciate our cultural heritage.
  • Foreign tourist‘s arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8% during the year 2010 as against the year 2009, thus contributing Rs. 64,889 crore of foreign exchange.

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