Revision Notes Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development Class 10

Important Terms to Remember

  • Resources : All the useful elements of environment that satisfy our basic needs are called resources.
  • Biotic resources : These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock, etc.
  • Abiotic resources : Resources that comprise of non-living things, such as rocks, minerals, etc.
  • Renewable resources : The resources which can be reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example: solar and wind energy.
  • Non-renewable resources : These are the resources that once used, can’t be reproduced or replenished. For example: fossil fuels, minerals like copper and iron ore.
  • Natural resources : A natural resource is something that is found in nature and can be used by people for economic gain. Earth's natural resources include light, air, water, plants, animals, soil, stone, minerals, Fossil fuels, etc.
  • Man-made resources : Man-made resources are resources that are created by humans to transform and use the gifts of nature, for example buildings; roads; vehicles; machinery, equipment, etc.
  • Individual resources : The resources owned privately by individuals.
  • Community-owned resources : Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
  • National resources : All the resources, which are present in the political boundary of a nation up to 12 nautical miles in the ocean from the coast.
  • International resources : The resources that do not belong to any individual country.
  • Potential resources : Resources, which are available in a region, but have not been utilized.
  • Developed resources : Resources which are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been determined for utilization.
  • Stock : Materials present in the environment, which have the potential to satisfy human needs, but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these materials.
  • Reserves : They are the subsets of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technology but their use has not been started yet.
  • Sustainable development : It means development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with needs of the future generations.
  • Resource planning : It is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.
  • Resource conservation : Conservation of natural resources refers to the sustainable utilisation of natural resources, like soils, water, plants, animals, minerals, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests-forestry, watershed areas, etc.
  • Gross cropped area : Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.
  • Fallow land : A land, which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year for increasing its fertility is known as the fallow land.
  • Waste land : Land, which is not suitable for cultivation is known as waste land.
  • Net sown area : Area sown once in a year is known as the net sown area.
  • Pasture : Grassland, which is used for providing food for animals.
  • Soil erosion : The removal of top fertile soil cover due to various reasons such as wind, glacier and water is called soil erosion.
  • Gullies : The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels known as gullies.
  • Sheet erosion : When the top soil is washed away due to heavy flow of water down the slopes, it is known as sheet erosion.
  • Wind erosion : When the top fertile soil blows off due to wind, it is known as wind erosion.
  • Strip cropping : Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grasses are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
  • Contour ploughing : Ploughing along the contour lines can slow down the flow of water down the slopes. This is called contour ploughing.
  • Shelter belts : Planting lines of trees to create shelter breaks up the force of the wind. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts.

Resources and Development


  • Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it’s technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
  • Natural endowments in the form of land, water, vegetation and minerals are called natural resources. Resources are materials which can be transformed in such a way that they become more valuable and useful for fulfilling human needs.
  • Resources can be classified in the following ways:
    • On the basis of origin :
      1. Biotic
      2. Abiotic
    • On the basis of exhaustibility :
      1. Renewable
      2. Non-renewable
    • On the basis of ownership :
      1. Individual
      2. Community
      3. National
      4. International
    • On the basis of status of development :
      1. Potential
      2. Developed
      3. Stock
      4. Reserves
  • Resources are compulsory for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life.
  • Human beings use resources indiscriminately and this has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
  • Development of Resources : Resources are vital for human survival. It was believed that resources are free gifts of nature. As a result, man used them indiscriminately which led to the following problems:
    1. Depletion of resources.
    2. Accumulation of resources in a few hands.
    3. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources.
  • For a sustained quality of life and global peace, it is essential that resources should be distributed equally.
  • Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.
  • Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992
    • In June 1992, for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century, more than 100 heads of states participated in the First International Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. The main focus of this summit was to protect environment and socio economic development at the global level. The leaders of the states signed the Declaration on Global Climate Change and Biological Diversity.
  • Agenda 21 : It has been signed by world leaders at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The aim of this agenda is to achieve global sustainable development by combating environmental damage, poverty and disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities. The major objective of this agenda is that every local government has the power to draw its own local Agenda 21.
  • Resource-Planning is a technique of proper utilization of resources.
  • Resource planning involves the following steps :
    1. Identification and inventory of resources, which involves surveying, mapping and quantitative as well as qualitative estimation and measurement of resources.
    2. For implementing resource development plans, evolve a planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up.
    3. Match resource development plan with overall national development plans.
    4. Resource development and planning reduces wastage, keeps the environment pollution free and takes care of future needs.
    5. The management of resources by the humans is known as conservation. It is the judicious and planned use of the natural resources.
    6. Conservation of resources includes a judicious and planned use of resources. Proper exploitation is must, but over exploitation should be checked.
  • India has a variety of relief features like mountains, plateaus and plains. 43% of the country is covered by plains and they provide cultivable land for growing crops. 30% of the country is covered by mountains and they provide natural resources like forests and wildlife. 27% of the country is covered by plateaus, which contain mineral resources, forests and some arable land.
  • Land resources are used for the following purposes:
    1. Forests
    2. Land not available for cultivation.
    3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
    4. Fallow land
    5. Net sown area
  • The total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km. Land use data, however, is available only for 93% of the total geographical area.
  • At present there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India of which 28% belong to the forest degraded area, 56% of it is water eroded and the rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.
  • The land use pattern in India is determined by both physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types, human factors such as population density, technological capability, and culture and traditions, etc.
  • Factors Causing Land Degradation
    1. Deforestation
    2. Overgrazing
    3. Mining and quarrying
    4. Over irrigation making land saline and alkaline
    5. Dust generated from cement ceramic industry
    6. Industrial effluents
  • Suggestions for Conservation of land
    1. Afforestation
    2. Proper management of grazing
    3. Shelter belts of plants
    4. Stabilization of sand dunes by planting thorny bushes
    5. Proper management of wasteland
    6. Control on mining
    7. Discharge of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment
  • Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
  • Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
  • Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
  • On the basis of the factors responsible for soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical properties, the soils of India can be classified into different types.
  • India has varied relief features, landforms, climatic realms and vegetation types. These features contributed in the development of various types of soils. They are:
    • Alluvial soils :
      1. Widely spread in north Indian plains, alluvial Soils as a whole are very fertile.
      2. Classified as Khadar (new alluvial) and Bangar (old alluvial).
      3. Contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
      4. Ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
    • Black soil :
      1. Also called regur soils. These soils are black in colour.
      2. Ideal for growing cotton.
      3. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
      4. Rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime, but poor in phosphorus contents.
      5. The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e., clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
    • Red and yellow soils :
      1. Developed in areas of low rainfall or crystalline igneous rocks.
      2. Found in Odisha, Chhattisgarh and the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
      3. Due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks, its colour becomes reddish.
    • Laterite soil :
      1. Develops in areas of high temperature and heavy rainfall.
      2. Humus content is low.
      3. Mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and hilly areas of Assam and Odisha.
      4. Good for tea, coffee, cashew nuts, etc.
    • Arid soils :
      1. Sandy in texture and saline in nature.
      2. Lacks in humus and moisture.
      3. Found in Western Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
      4. The lower horizons are occupied by Kankar.
    • Forest soils :
      1. Found in hilly and mountainous regions.
      2. Loamy and silty in valley sides, while coarse grained in the upper slopes.
  • Soil Erosion :
    1. The denudation of top soil cover by agents of nature e.g. wind, water and air is called soil erosion.
    2. Removal of soil due to heavy rainfall and strong wind from one place to another.
    3. A narrow, steep-sided channels formed in loose earth by running water are called gullies.
    4. Land unfit for cultivation is known as bad land.
    5. Human activities that are responsible for soil erosion are deforestation, overgrazing, construction and mining, etc.
  • Measures for soil conservation :
    1. Contour ploughing
    2. Terrace farming
    3. Strip cropping
    4. Shelter belts of trees
    5. Plugging of gullies
    6. Afforestation
    7. Control of mining activities

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