Revision Notes Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Class 10

Important Terms to Remember

  • Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after converting raw materials, components or parts into finished goods.
  • NMCC : The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council.
  • Agglomeration Economies : The industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres.
  • Entrepreneur : An innovator of new ideas who sets up a business taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.
  • Large Scale Industries : Industries which employ a large number of labour in each unit. Example: Cotton textile industry.
  • Public Sector Industries : Industries which are owned and operated by government agencies. Example: BHEL.
  • Agro-Based Industries : Industries which obtain raw materials from agricultural products. Example: Sugar industry.
  • Mineral-Based Industries: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials. Example: Iron and Steel industry.
  • Basic Industries : Industries on which depend many other industries for their manufacturing processes. Example: Iron and Steel Industry.
  • Textile Industries : Textile is a fabric that is knitted or woven and made from yarn. It is the industry responsible for taking a raw material like cotton or wool and spinning it into yarn that is later used to create the fabric.
  • Ginning : The process of separating the seeds from the cotton fibers is known as ginning.
  • Spinning : It is the twisting together of drawn-out strands of fibers to form yarn, and is a major part of the textile industry.
  • Dyeing : It is the process of adding colour to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.
  • Khandsari : It is a type of unrefined raw white sugar made from thickened sugar cane syrup. It is neither bleached nor contains harmful chemicals and additives.
  • Organic Chemicals: These include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibre, plastics, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
  • Inorganic Chemicals: These include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalis, soda ash and caustic soda.
  • Air Pollution : It is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Water Pollution : It is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.
  • Thermal Pollution : The pollution caused by the discharge of hot water from factories and thermal plants into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Noise Pollution : It is caused by industrial and construction activities, machinery, generators, electric drills and loud-speakers.

Manufacturing Industries


  • Manufacturing is production of goods in large quantities after processing raw materials to more valuable products. Industries that manufacture finished products from primary material are called manufacturing industries in the secondary sector.
  • Importance of Manufacturing:
    1. Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture; which forms the backbone of our economy.
    2. Manufacturing industries also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income because of creation of new jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
    3. Industrial development helps in eradication of unemployment and poverty.
    4. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
    5. A country with high level of manufacturing activities becomes prosperous.
  • Contribution of Industry to National Economy
    1. The share of manufacturing sector in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has been stagnant at 17% over the last two decades.
    2. The total contribution of industry to the GDP is 27% out of which 10% comes from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
    3. The growth of the manufacturing sector had been 7% in the last decade. Since 2003, the growth rate has been 9 to 10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%.
    4. The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set with the objectives of improving productivity through proper policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry.
  • Location and Classification
    • Some of the factors which affect the industrial location are as follows :
      1. Availability of raw materials
      2. Availability of labour
      3. Availability of capital
      4. Availability of power
      5. Availability of market
      6. Infrastructure
  • A manufacturing industry promotes the urbanisation of its neighbourhood. Already urbanised areas also attract industries, since they provide ready facilities for transport, banking, labour, consultancy, etc. If an urban centre offers sufficient facilities and advantages, several industries come up there together to form an industrial agglomeration. These industries together form an agglomeration economy.
  • Before independence, most industries in India were located in port cities to enable easy overseas trade.
  • Classification of Industries on the basis of raw materials:
    1. Agro Based Industries : Cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee, etc.
    2. Mineral Based Industries : Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, petrochemicals, etc.
  • Classification of Industries According to their main role :
    1. Basic or Key Industries : These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods, e.g., iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
    2. Consumer Industries : These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, e.g., sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc.
  • Classification of Industries on the basis of capital investment :
    1. Small Scale Industry : If the invested capital is upto Rs. one crore, then the industry is called a small scale industry.
    2. Large Scale Industry : If the invested capital is more than Rs. one crore, then the industry is called a large scale industry.
  • Classification of Industries on the basis of ownership :
    1. Public Sector: These industries are owned and operated by government agencies, e.g., SAIL, BHEL, ONGC, etc.
    2. Private Sector : These industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, e.g., TISCO, Reliance, Mahindra, etc.
    3. Joint Sector : These industries are jointly owned by the government and individuals or a group of individuals, e.g., Oil India Limited.
    4. Cooperative Sector : These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The resources are pooled by each stakeholder and profits or losses are shared proportionately. AMUL which is milk cooperative is a good example. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is another example.
  • Classification of Industries on the basis of bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods :
    1. Heavy Industries: Iron and steel.
    2. Light Industries: Electronics
  • Agro-based industries: Industries based on agricultural raw materials. For example, cotton textiles, jute textiles, woollen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry.
    1. Cotton textiles : It occupies a unique position in Indian economy, contributes 14% of industrial production. Provides employment to 35 million persons directly. Earlier the cotton textile industries were located in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Today, they are spread over 80 towns and cities of India. Scarcity of good-quality cotton, obsolete machinery, erratic power supply, low productivity of labour and stiff competition are some of the problems faced by the cotton textiles industry.
    2. Jute textiles : There are about 70 jute mills in India and most of the jute is produced in West Bengal. Mainly in the Hugli basin produced in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam and Tripura.
    3. Sugar : There are 460 sugar mills in the country. 50% of them are found in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat are also important producers of sugar in the country.
  • Manufacturing industries that use minerals as raw material are called mineral-based industries. The iron and steel industry is the basic industry on which all other industries depend. The production and per capita consumption of steel is a measure of a country’s economic development.
  • The main raw materials used in the iron and steel industry are iron ore, coal and limestone. The raw materials and finished products of iron and steel industries are quite bulky; these industries must be located near the mining areas of the required minerals and must be connected by a good transport network.
  • India is the ninth largest producer of crude steel and the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. India is also a leading exporter of steel in the world.
  • The per capita consumption of steel in India is only 32 kilograms. There are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. These integrated plants handle all stages of steel production, from procurement of basic raw material to producing finished rolled and shaped steel. India has many mini steel plants that produce customised alloy steel using scrap iron or sponge iron as raw material.
  • China has become the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel, leaving India far behind. Most steel manufacturing industries are located in the Chhota Nagpur Plateau region because of the availability of inexpensive, high-grade raw material and abundant cheap labour. The main challenges faced by the industry in realising its full potential are limited supply of expensive coking coal, erratic power supply, low output of labour and poor infrastructure. The future of India’s iron and steel industry is bright due to India’s liberalisation policy and foreign direct investment in the industry.
  • Industries have caused severe pollution of our natural resources. Industries cause environmental degradation through four main types of pollution, i.e., air pollution, water pollution, land pollution or soil degradation, and noise pollution.
    Smoke contains undesirable gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide, besides solid and liquid particulate matter, in the form of dust and spray mist, which cause air pollution. Air pollution affects the health of humans, animals and plants alike and also causes damage to buildings.
  • Water pollution is caused by the discharge of untreated chemical waste like dyes, detergents, acids, heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilisers, and plastics from industries, into fresh water bodies like rivers and lakes. Solid wastes like fly ash, phospo-gypsum, and iron and steel slags also cause water pollution.
  • The industries that cause major amount of water pollution are paper and pulp industries, oil refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries. The discharge of hot water from thermal power plants into rivers before cooling is called thermal pollution of water. Radioactive waste, hazardous chemicals, glass, plastic, industrial effluents and non-biodegradable garbage are the main agents of land pollution. Rain water falling on polluted land dissolves and carries many of the pollutants further into the ground and pollutes groundwater.
  • Loud noise can lead to irritation, loss of hearing, and an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Industrial machinery, construction activities, generators, and equipment like saws and pneumatic drills are mainly responsible for noise pollution. One of the most important steps for the control of environmental degradation is treating hot and polluted wastewater from industries before releasing it into our rivers and lakes.
  • Wastewater treatment involves :
    1. Primary treatment through screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
    2. Secondary treatment through bacterial action to digest harmful chemicals.
    3. Tertiary stage of stirring with chemicals to neutralise remaining harmful waste.
  • Treated waste water can be recycled for reuse in industrial processes. Rainwater harvesting can be used to meet the requirements of water for industrial processes.
  • Legal provisions must be made to regulate the use of groundwater for industrial use. Smoke stacks, filters, scrubbers, and electrostatic and inertial separators remove a large amount of harmful particles from industrial smoke. The emission of smoke itself from industries can be reduced by using more efficient fuels like oil and natural gas in place of coal.
  • Industrial and generator silencers, and sound-absorbing material are available to reduce the noise level in industries. Industrial workers can use earphones and earplugs for individual protection of health and hearing.
  • National Thermal Power Corporation or NTPC is a major electricity generation and distribution company in India. NTPC has demonstrated how conservation of environment and natural resources can happen simultaneously with industrial growth by :
    1. Adopting latest technical know how
    2. Minimising waste
    3. Providing green cover
    4. Reducing environmental pollution
    5. Continuous monitoring

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