Revision Notes History Class 10 Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
- Broken chains – Liberty (being freed)
- Breastplate with eagle – Strength (Symbol of the German empire)
- Crown of oak leaves – Heroism
- Sword – Readiness to fight
- Olive branch around the sword – Willingness to make peace
- Black, red and gold tri-colour – Flag of the liberal nationalists in 1848 banned by the Dukes of the German States.
- Rays of the rising sun – Beginning of a new era
Important Artists and their Paintings
- Frederick Sorrieu : The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics — The pact between nations.
- Andreas Rebmann : The cover of German almanac.
- Karl Kasper Fritz : The planting of Tree of Liberty in Zweibrücken, Germany.
- Giacomo Mantegazza : Giuseppe Mazzini and the founding of Young Europe in Berne.
- Eugene Delacroix : The Massacre at Chios.
- Anton von Werner : The proclamation of the German empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.
- Selwyn Brinton: Garibaldi helping King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont to pull on the Boot named ‘Italy’. An English caricature.
- Philip Veit : Germania.
- Julius Hübner : The fallen Germania.
- Lorenz Clasen : Germania guarding the Rhine.
Important Thinkers, Writers and Professors and their contributions
- Professor Ernest Renan : Delivered lecture on ‘What is nation?’ at the University of Sorbonne.
- Professor Frederick List : Delivered lecture on Zollverein at the University of Tubingen.
- Philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder : Claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among das volk (common people).
- Pedagogue Karol Kurpinski : Popularised folk dances, polonaise and Mazurka and turned them into national symbols.
- Writers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm : Contributed towards folk-tales and nation-building.
- Liberal political thinker Carl Welcker : Defined liberty and equality for women.
- Political activist, Louis Otto-Peters : Founded a women’s journal and feminist political association.
- English poet, Lord Byron : He supported the Greek war of independence as Greece was held to be the cradle of European civilisation and it saw the cascade of ancient literature.
Important Leading Figures and their contributions
- Napoleon Bonaparte : He was a French military and political pioneer who rose to eminence during the French Revolution.
- Klemens Von Metternich : Metternich was the Austrian Chancellor who hosted the Vienna Congress, in 1815.
- Giuseppe Mazzini : He was an Italian revolutionary who launched Young Italy in 1824 and Young Europe in Berne in 1834.
- Louis Philippe : The liberal revolutionaries installed constitutional monarchy by toppling the Bourbon dynasty. Louise Philippe became the head of the constitutional monarchy.
- Friedrich Wilhelm IV : He was the King of Prussia.
- Kaiser William I : He was the Prussian King, and was proclaimed the German emperor at the Palace of Versailles.
- Otto von Bismarck : He was the chief minister of Prussia and the architect of German unification.
- Victor Emmanuel II : He was king of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861 and then the first king of Italy until 1878. He worked to free Italy from foreign control and became a central figure of the movement for Italian unification.
- Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour : He was the chief minister who led the movement to unify Italy.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi : He was an important figure of Italian Unification Movement and he led the armed revolutionaries. He also led the famous expedition of thousands to South Italy.
Important Historians and their Books
- Georges Lefebvre : French Revolution, 1789-1799
- Albert Soboul : A short history of French Revolution, 1789-1799
- E. J. Hobsbawm : The Age of Revolution : Europe : 1789-1848
- E. J. Hobsbawm : The Age of Empire : 1875-1914
- Jacob Gold Schumann : The Balkan Wars, 1912-13
Important Dates to Remember
- 1797 : Napoleon invades Italy; Napoleonic wars begin.
- 1804 : Napoleonic Code was introduced, did away with all privileges based on birth. Upheld equality before the law.
- 1814-15 : Fall of Napoleon; the Vienna Peace Settlement.
- 1821 : Greek struggle for independence begins.
- 1830 : The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
- 1830 : Period of Economic Crisis in Europe.
- 1832 : Greece gained independence.
- 1834 : Zollverein or the Customs Union was formed in Prussia to abolish tariff barriers.
- 1848 : Revolutions in Europe; Artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolt against economic hardships; middle classes demand Constitutions and representative governments; Italians, Germans, Magyars, Poles, Czechs, etc., demanded for nation-states.
- 1848 : Germans voted for National Assembly in Frankfurt.
- 1855 : The Kingdom of Sardinia participated from the sides of British and French in the Crimean War.
- 1858 : Cavour formed an alliance with France.
- 1859-1870 : Unification of Italy.
- 1859 : Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces. Large number of people under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the movement.
- 1860 : Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
- 1861 : Victor Emmanuel II was declared as the King of United Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
- 1866-1871 : Unification of Germany.
- 1871 : The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
- 1905 : Slav nationalism gathers their force in the Habsburg and Ottoman empire.
- 1914 : Beginning of the First World War.
- Frederic Sorrieu : He was a French artist famous for a series of four prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of ‘Democratic and Social Republics’.
- Napoleon (1769-1821) : A French military and political leaders who gained prominence during the French Revolution. Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
- Giuseppe Mazzini : Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
- Duke Metternich : The chief architect and host of the Treaty of Vienna was the Austrian Chancellor, Duke Metternich.
- Louise Otto-Peters : He was a German suffragist and women’s rights movement activist who wrote novels, poetry, essays, and libretti.
- Carl Welcker : Carl Welcker, a member of the Frankfurt Parliament, had tremendous reservation against equal rights for women, and he ridiculed their demands as being against nature.
- Otto Von Bismarck : Otto von Bismarck was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.
- Kaiser William : Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. In newly formed Germany a lot of emphasis was placed on modernising the currency, and the banking, legal and judicial systems.
- Count Camillo di Cavour : The Chief Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, helped the king in forming an alliance with France, and they defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi : He was an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy. He has been hailed as one of the ‘Fathers of the Fatherland’ for his contribution to the Italian Risorgimento, which unified the fractured nation under one rule. He joined the war along with his armed volunteers called the ‘Red Shirts’. In 1860, Garibaldi and his troops marched into Southern Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
- Marianne and Germania : Marianne and Germania were the female allegories of France and German nations respectively. These were allegory of nation the same way as Bharat Mata, a female figure is imagined in India. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic the red cap, the tri-colour and the cockade. The Statues of Marianne were made and erected at public places and picture of Marianne printed on postage stamps. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves because that tree stands for heroism. She holds a sword in her hand.
- Utopian vision : Utopian vision refers to a vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
- Absolutism : Absolutism refers to a system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised.
- Plebiscite : The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
- French Revolution : The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
- Nationalism : A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
- Nation-state : A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19th century Europe as a result of the growth of nationalism.
- Modern State : A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and population.
- Liberal Nationalism Means :
- Individual freedom
- Equality before law
- Government by consent
- Freedom of markets
- Abolition of state- imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- Napoleonic Code : The Civil Code of 1804 introduced by Napoleon, was known as the Napoleonic Code. This code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- Zollverein : A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
- Habsburg Empire : The empire that ruled Austria, Hungary including the Alpine regions of Tyrol, Austria, the Sudetenland and Bohemia.
- Ottoman Empire : A former Turkish empire ruled by the Caliph-the spiritual and temporal head of the Muslims.
- Ideology : System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
- Conservatism : It is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
- Suffrage : The right to vote in political elections.
- Romanticism : A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past for arousing nationalism.
- Revolutionaries : Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19th century.
- Feminism : Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on political economic and social equality of genders is also known as Feminism.
- Frankfurt Parliament : A large number of political associations comprising of professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt decided to vote for all German National Assembly. On 18th May-1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened at St. Paul’s Church. They drafted a Constitution based on the system of Constitution monarchy.
- Nationalistic Feeling (1830s) : The sense of recognizing the society and nation as “we” and the sharing of many traits by its members. Culture with art and poetry, stories and music played a major role in the shaping and expression of nationalistic feelings and nation.
- Ethnic : Relates to a common racial, tribal or cultural origin or background that a community identifies with or claims.
- Symbol : A symbol is a visual image that represents something other than itself. It may be a representation using an object, picture, written word, sound or a particular mark.
- Imperialism : A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
- Allegory : When an abstract idea (for instance greed, envy, freedom, liberty, etc.) is expressed through a person or a thing. An allegorical story has two meanings, one literal and one symbolic.
- Elle : The term ‘elle’ means the measure of cloth, which varied from one region to another.
- Republic : It signifies a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives. It has a nominated President instead of a monarch.
- Liberté, égalité, fraternité : It is the national motto of France,originated from the French Revolution of 1789.
- Estates General : The Estates General is synonymous to States General. It signifies legislative or consultative assembly body, representing three estates or regimes of the French society (clergymen, aristocrats and the bourgeoisie). It remained in action till 1789.
- Bastille : The Bastille represented a fortress in Paris, Popularly known as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played a significant role in the internal battles of France. For most part of French history, it was used as a state prison by the French monarchs.
- Despotism : It indicates wielding of absolute power, particularly in cruel and oppressive way.
- Jacobin Club: Jacobin club or Jacobins was the most popular political group which emanated from the French Revolution, it represented the ideologies of equality and radicalism.
- Feudalism : Feudalism represents the principal social system in medieval Europe. In this system, the nobility received lands from the Crown in lieu of military service. The feudal lords dominated the lower segments of the society, mainly vassals and the serfs cultivated the lands of the feudal lords and paid who gave homage to him and a part of the produce to the feudal lords in return for military protection.
- Manorialism : Manorialism was a significant component of feudal society. It was characterised by the granting of legal and economic power to the Lord of the Manor (otherwise, known as fief or an estate of land, occupied based on feudal service).
- Vassal : As far as medieval Europe is concerned, Vassal represented a person who was bounded to the feudal lord based on mutual obligation. There existed a symbiotic relationship between feudal lord and vassal.
- Serfdom : In the context of feudal system, ‘serfdom’ represented a situation of bondage of the serf to the lands of the feudal lords and paid that originated during the high Middle Age and lasted until the nineteenth century in Europe.
- Guild System : Guild signified the medieval association of craftsmen, merchants or artisans, wielding considerable power. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, restrictions were removed from the guilds.
- Liberalism : Etymologically, the term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word ‘liber’, which means ‘freedom’. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, liberalism represented freedom for all individuals irrespective of classes and established equality before the law.
Key Concepts of the Lesson:-
In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’. The first print of series shows the people of Europe and America- Men and women of all ages and social classes- marching in a long train, and offering homage to the state of liberty as they pass by it.
Nation-State – A group of people with the same culture, language, history etc., who have formed an independent country.
Note- During the 19th century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe. The result of these changes was the emergence of the nation state in place of the multinational dynastic empires of Europe. A nation state was one in which the majority of its citizens not only its rulers. They came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history and descent. This commonness did not exit from time immemorial, it was forged through struggles, through the actions of leaders and the common people.
The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation:-
- The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.
- French revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to s body of French citizens.
- The idea of ‘la patrie’ (the father land) and ‘le citoyen’ (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community, enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag- the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The Estates General converted into National Assembly and it was elected by the body of active citizens.
- A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
- Internal custom duties and dues were abolished.
- French became the common language of the nation.
- With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
- Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France.
Napoleon Code (The Civil Code of 1804):-
- Finished all the privileges based on birth.
- Established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- In the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions.
- Abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- Transport and communication system were improved.
- Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed new-found freedom.
The making of Nationalism in Europe: –
- Division of Europe in small kingdoms before the middle of 18th
- Most of these were ruled by autocratic monarchs.
- They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture.
- They used different languages.
The Aristocracy and the new middle class: –
- A landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent.
- They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy in high society.
- Peasants as a major group.
- Commercial or middle class emerges as a new group.
- Role of middle class in bringing an end to aristocratic privileged class.
What did liberal nationalism stand for: –
- Liberalism derives from the Latin root Liber, meaning free.
- It was the concept of government by consent.
- It stood for freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law.
- Universal Suffrage.
- Freedom of market.
A new conservation after 1815: –
- Defeated of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.
- Conservatives believed in monarchy, Church, Social hierarchies, property etc.
- Conservative regimes based on autocracy.
- They did not tolerate criticism and dissent and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments.
Vienna Congress of 1815: –
- In 1815 Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
- The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
- Through this treaty of Vienna they want undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
- The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French revolution, was restored to power.
- A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
- Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
- To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.
- Giuseppe Mazzini:-
- Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807.
- He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
- He founded two underground societies-
- Young Italy in Marseilles.
- Young Europe in Berne.
- Members of these societies were young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
- According to Mazzini, God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
- It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.
- Metternich described him as “the most dangerous enemy of our social order”.
The age of revolution 1830-1848: –
- The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
- The Bourbon kings were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries.
- Installed a constitutional monarchy under the leadership of Louis Philippe.
- Metternich remarked “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”.
- Greek war of independence against the Ottoman Empire was the main event, which developed nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe.
- Poets and artists lauded Greece as the Cradle of European civilization and support its struggle against a Muslim empire.
- Finally in 1832 Greece recognized as an independent nation through the Treaty of Constantinople.
The Romantic imagination and national feeling: –
- Culture, art, poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
- German Philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. The true spirit of the nation was popularized through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
- Language too play an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
- After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools in Poland and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
- The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
Hunger, Hardship and popular revolt: –
- The years of 1830s were great economic hardship in Europe.
- Enormous increase in population all over Europe.
- Food shortage and widespread unemployment was common in Paris in 1848.
- Barricades were erected and Louis Philippe was forced to flee.
- National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21 and guaranteed the right to work.
- National workshops started to provide employment.
1848: The Revolution of the Liberals:-
- After the events 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male Suffrage had been proclaimed.
- Demands for the creation of a nation state on parliamentary principles- a Constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
- The issue of political rights of women raised by liberal through Frankfurt Assembly in Germany.
- Though Conservatives forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order.
- Monarchs were beginning to realize the power of liberal nationalist revolutionaries.
- The serfdom and bonded labour were abolished in Hungry and Russia.
The making of Germany and Italy:-
Unification of Germany:-
- Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification of Germany.
- The Chief Minister of Prussia, Ottovan Bismark was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- Prussia defeat Austria, Denmark and France in three wars over seven years and completed the process of unification.
- In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Unification of Italy:-
- During the middle 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. Only one Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.
- During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini put a programme for unitary Italian Republic.
- He formed a secret society Young Italy for his goals.
- After the Failure of revolutionary uprising the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler king Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war.
- Chief Minister Cavour led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He spoke French much better than Italian.
- Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the war with a large number of armed volunteers.
- In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
The strange case of Britain: –
- There was no British nation prior to the 18th
- English, Welsh, Scot and Irish were the ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.
- English nation grew in wealth, importance and power. It was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
- England became a nation state through English parliament which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688.
- The formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain through the Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland.
- By this Act England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
- Ireland was a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants.
- The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.
- Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
- The symbols of the new Britain- The British Flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God save our noble king), the English language.
Visualizing the Nation: –
- Artists in 18th and 19th centuries found a way out by personifying a nation.
- They represented a country as a poem.
- That is the female figure became an allegory of the nation. In France she was Christened Marianne.
- Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and republic- the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
- Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
- Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
- Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Nationalism and Imperialism: –
- Balkan was region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising of Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
- Till the last part of 19th century, this was under Ottoman Empire.
- The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and emergence of romantic nationalism made this region a land of conflict.
- Balkan nations tried to capture more territories from neighbouring places.
- It also became a scene of big power rivalry like Russia, Germany, England, Austria and Hungry.
- It led to open wars and finally led it to the First World War.