Revision Notes Class 10th History: Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Important Symbols

  • Broken chains – Liberty (being freed)
  • Breastplate with eagle – Strength (Symbol of the German empire)
  • Crown of oak leaves – Heroism
  • Sword – Readiness to fight
  • Olive branch around the sword – Willingness to make peace
  • Black, red and gold tri-colour – Flag of the liberal nationalists in 1848 banned by the Dukes of the German States.
  • Rays of the rising sun – Beginning of a new era

Important Personalities

  • Frederic Sorrieu : He was a French artist famous for a series of four prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of ‘Democratic and Social Republics’.
  • Napoleon (1769-1821) : A French military and political leaders who gained prominence during the French Revolution. Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini : Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
  • Duke Metternich : The chief architect and host of the Treaty of Vienna was the Austrian Chancellor, Duke Metternich.
  • Louise Otto-Peters : He was a German suffragist and women's rights movement activist who wrote novels, poetry, essays, and libretti.
  • Carl Welcker : Carl Welcker, a member of the Frankfurt Parliament, had tremendous reservation against equal rights for women, and he ridiculed their demands as being against nature.
  • Otto Von Bismarck : Otto von Bismarck was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.
  • Kaiser William : Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. In newly formed Germany a lot of emphasis was placed on modernising the currency, and the banking, legal and judicial systems.
  • Count Camillo di Cavour : The Chief Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, helped the king in forming an alliance with France, and they defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi : He was an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy. He has been hailed as one of the 'Fathers of the Fatherland' for his contribution to the Italian Risorgimento, which unified the fractured nation under one rule. He joined the war along with his armed volunteers called the ‘Red Shirts’. In 1860, Garibaldi and his troops marched into Southern Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
  • Marianne and Germania : Marianne and Germania were the female allegories of France and German nations respectively. These were allegory of nation the same way as Bharat Mata, a female figure is imagined in India. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic the red cap, the tri-colour and the cockade. The Statues of Marianne were made and erected at public places and picture of Marianne printed on postage stamps. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves because that tree stands for heroism. She holds a sword in her hand.

Important Dates

  • 1797 : Napoleon invades Italy; Napoleonic wars begin.
  • 1804 : Napoleonic Code was introduced, did away with all privileges based on birth. Upheld equality before the law.
  • 1814-15 : Fall of Napoleon; the Vienna Peace Settlement.
  • 1821 : Greek struggle for independence begins.
  • 1830 : The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
  • 1830 : Period of Economic Crisis in Europe.
  • 1832 : Greece gained independence.
  • 1834 : Zollverein or the Customs Union was formed in Prussia to abolish tariff barriers.
  • 1848 : Revolutions in Europe; Artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolt against economic hardships; middle classes demand Constitutions and representative governments; Italians, Germans, Magyars, Poles, Czechs, etc., demanded for nation-states.
  • 1848 : Germans voted for National Assembly in Frankfurt.
  • 1855 : The Kingdom of Sardinia participated from the sides of British and French in the Crimean War.
  • 1858 : Cavour formed an alliance with France.
  • 1859-1870 : Unification of Italy.
  • 1859 : Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces. Large number of people under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the movement.
  • 1860 : Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
  • 1861 : Victor Emmanuel II was declared as the King of United Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
  • 1866-1871 : Unification of Germany.
  • 1871 : The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
  • 1905 : Slav nationalism gathers their force in the Habsburg and Ottoman empire.
  • 1914 : Beginning of the First World War.

Important Terms to Remember

  • Utopian vision : Utopian vision refers to a vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
  • Absolutism : Absolutism refers to a system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised.
  • Plebiscite : The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
  • French Revolution : The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
  • Nationalism : A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
  • Nation-state : A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19th century Europe as a result of the growth of nationalism.
  • Modern State : A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and population.
  • Liberal Nationalism Means :
    1. Individual freedom
    2. Equality before law
    3. Government by consent
    4. Freedom of markets
    5. Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
  • Napoleonic Code : The Civil Code of 1804 introduced by Napoleon, was known as the Napoleonic Code. This code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
  • Zollverein : A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
  • Habsburg Empire : The empire that ruled Austria, Hungary including the Alpine regions of Tyrol, Austria, the Sudetenland and Bohemia.
  • Ottoman Empire : A former Turkish empire ruled by the Caliph-the spiritual and temporal head of the Muslims.
  • Ideology : System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
  • Conservatism : It is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
  • Suffrage : The right to vote in political elections.
  • Romanticism : A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past for arousing nationalism.
  • Revolutionaries : Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19th century.
  • Feminism : Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on political economic and social equality of genders is also known as Feminism.
  • Frankfurt Parliament : A large number of political associations comprising of professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt decided to vote for all German National Assembly. On 18th May-1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened at St. Paul’s Church. They drafted a Constitution based on the system of Constitution monarchy.
  • Nationalistic Feeling (1830s) : The sense of recognizing the society and nation as “we” and the sharing of many traits by its members. Culture with art and poetry, stories and music played a major role in the shaping and expression of nationalistic feelings and nation.
  • Ethnic : Relates to a common racial, tribal or cultural origin or background that a community identifies with or claims.
  • Symbol : A symbol is a visual image that represents something other than itself. It may be a representation using an object, picture, written word, sound or a particular mark.
  • Imperialism : A policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
  • Allegory : When an abstract idea (for instance greed, envy, freedom, liberty, etc.) is expressed through a person or a thing. An allegorical story has two meanings, one literal and one symbolic.

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Summary

  • Nineteenth Century was associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states.
  • Nationalism in Europe can be traced back to the decline of Feudalism and the beginning of Renaissance. The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
  • Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics.
  • Nationalism is a feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
  • Nationalism is a sense of identity with the nation. Many European nations experienced heightened periods of nationalism in the 19th century.
  • Nationalism in Europe can be traced back to the decline of feudalism and the beginning of the Renaissance. The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
  • The concepts of liberty, equality, fraternity and nationalism dominated the social and political scene of Europe in the 19th century.
  • French Revolution :
    • The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe. The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.
    • It paved the way for the achievement of bigger goals of national identity and national pride, which can be aptly called Nationalism.
    • After the French Revolution, emerged a famous historical personality and warrior, Napoleon Bonaparte. He introduced several effective administrative changes like the Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic code.
  • Salient features of the French Revolution were:
    • France was under absolute monarchy in 1789.
    • The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people.
    • Ideas of La patrie (the fatherland) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted.
    • Estates General elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
    • French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers.
  • Advent of Liberalism in Europe :
    • During the mid-18th century, Europe was divided into several small kingdoms and principalities. The concept of nation-states did not exist at all. People from diverse ethnic groups lived in Eastern and Central Europe.
    • The prominent empires in Europe were the autocratic Ottoman Empire that ruled over Eastern and Central Europe, and Greece and the Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary.
  • Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries :
    • The middle class believed in freedom and equality of all individuals before law. Liberalism was used to end aristocracy and clerical privileges. After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815, the European government adopted the idea of conservatism.
  • Napoleon (1769-1821) ruled France from 1799 to 1815.
    • Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
    • Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804).
    • Established equality before law and abolished all privileges based on birth.
    • Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.
    • Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made mandatory.
  • Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
  • After 1815, several liberals began working in secret societies all over Europe to propagate their views and train revolutionaries.
  • Revolutionaries were seen as a threat to the restored monarchies, and hence, were repressed.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne.
  • In 1831, Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy. These societies were joined by like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy, and the German states.
  • Liberalism and nationalism became associated with revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
  • The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
  • The Greek War of Independence was another event which mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite in Europe.
  • Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories, music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
  • Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
  • Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  • The 1830s saw a rise in prices, bad harvest, poverty in Europe. Besides the poor, unemployed and starving peasants, even educated middle classes, revolted.
  • In 1848, a large number of political associations came together in Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
  • The issue of extending political rights to women became a controversial one.
  • Conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, but could not restore the old order.
  • After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
  • After 1848, the conservatives began to use nationalist ideas to strengthen the monarchy. The unification of Italy and Germany came about through this process.
  • Unification of Germany (1866-1871)
    • In 1848, middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation state under an elected parliament.
    • In Prussia, nation building acts were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military and were supported by the landowners (Junkers).
    • Prussia took over the leadership of the movement.
      Otto von Bismarck, chief minister of Prussia, was the architect of the leading role of Prussia in the process of nation-building.
    • Prussia emerged victorious after fighting three wars over seven years against the combined forces of Austria, Denmark and France and the process of unification of Germany was completed.
    • 18th January 1871: The new German empire headed by the German Emperor Kaiser William I was declared in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
    • The unification of Germany established Prussian dominance in Europe.
    • The New German Empire focused on modernizing the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems.
  • Unification of Italy
    • Italy was divided into seven states.
    • Only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
    • The North Italy was under Austrian Habsburgs.
    • The centre part was under Pope.
    • The South region was under the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
    • During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini formed a coherent program for uniting the Italian Republic and formed a secret society called Young Italy.
    • Failure of the 1831 and 1848 revolutionary uprisings prompted King Victor Emmanuel II from Sardinia Piedmont to unify the Italian states.
    • Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont, Count Cavour, led the movement for the unification of Italy.
    • In the year 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces.
    • In 1860 Sardinia-Piedmont’s forces marched into south Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Scillies and drove out the Spanish rulers.
    • In 1861, Victor Emanuel was declared as the king of united Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
  • Britain has a different history of how it consolidated as a nation—state without uprisings and revolutions. The British Isles was inhabited by ethnic English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. The English nation grew more in power and wealth, and it began to exert influence over the other nations of the islands.
  • The concept of nation states, with England as the centre, came in 1688 after the Parliament snatched power from the monarchy. In 1707, the Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
  • To ensure the growth of British identity, Scotland’s cultural and political institutions were suppressed. The British imposed control over Ireland as well. Ireland was deeply divided into two groups, Catholics and Protestants. The English favoured the protestants, and helped them establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Ireland.
  • In 1801, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom after a failed Irish revolt. The symbols of new Britain were the English language, the British Flag (Union Jack), and the British national anthem (God save our Nobel King).
  • Visualising the Nation :
    • Nation was personified in the female form by the artists of the 19th century.
    • Female allegories such as that of liberty, justice and republic were invented.
    • In Germany, Germania became the allegory of the nation.
    • In France, the idea of a people’s nation was the christened Marianne. She was characterized by the ideas of liberty and republic.
    • These symbols were usually popular images from everyday life that uneducated masses could easily identify with.
    • During revolutions, artists represented a nation as a person. This personification gave life to an abstract concept like nation.
    • The way of expressing an abstract idea like freedom or liberty through a symbol that may be person or thing is known as Allegory. An allegory has a literal and a symbolic meaning. In the nineteenth century, French artists used the female allegory to represent France. She was Christened Marianne. She symbolises reason, liberty and the ideals of the republic.
    • Marianne’s fasces or a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle was used to symbolise strength in unity.
    • The red Phrygian cap signified freedom of a slave. It was also known as the liberty cap. French people wore these caps a few days before the storming of the Bastille.
  • Nationalism and Imperialism :
    • Through the 18th and the mid 19th century, Europe was marked by a lot of chaos and turmoil. After 1871, there was a significant change in the concept of nationalism in Europe.
    • Nationalist groups in Europe had become increasingly incompatible with each other and were constantly in conflict. The major European powers, namely Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary began taking advantage of nationalism in Europe, to materialise their aims for imperialism.
    • The European powers sighted the much-disturbed Balkan region to fulfil their imperialist goals. The Balkan region consisted of the following countries of our times – Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

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