Complete NCERT Textbook Solution along with Discuss and Project work.
Write in Brief
Q.1. Write a note on
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini :
- He was a young revolutionary of Italy.
- He was highly influenced by the ideal of liberals nationalist nation state.
- He wished to build Italy according to this ideal. Hence, in order to overthrown different monarchies that ruled over Italy during the 19th century, he got associated with secret revolutionary organisations.
- Later, he himself established two revolutionary organisations namely. Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne.
- He also befriended the like- minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
- Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. Therefore, he led a revolution to unify Italy in 1831 at Liguria.
- But the revolution failed and he was sent into exile. But his ideas later inspired Cavour who ultimately unified ltaly in the second half of the 19th Century.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour :
- He was the chief minister of the kingdom of Sadinia- Piedmont of Italy.
- He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
- He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
- Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian.
- He had powerful diplomatic relations with France, with whose aid he defeated Austria in 1859.
- He also mended Garibaldi’s mind to cede the southern kingdom of the Two scilies, with Sadinia-Piedmont, in order to unify Italy.
- Thus, in 1861, Italy was unified and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the king of united Italy.
(c) The Greek War of independence
(c) The Greek War Independence :
- Greece was ruled by Ottoman empire in the 19th The empire was in its declining phase.
- At the same time, Greek nationals got influenced by the idea of liberal nationalism. Therefore, the struggle of Greek independence in 1821.
- The Greeks got support from western European countries as well as from the Greeks living in other countries of Europe.
- The poets and artists, who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, also participated in its war with the Ottoman Empire.
- One such famous poet was Lord Byron, who organised funds and later went to fight in war, where he died of fever in 1824.
- Finally, the Treaty of Constant inople of 1832, recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt parliament
(d) Frankfurt Parliament :
- The German middle class decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly in 1848, and hence came to Frankfurt.
- Around 831 persons were elected. They comprised the National Assembly.
- The assembly decided to organize Frankfurt parliament in the church of St. Paul. Thus on 18 may , 1848 the famous Frankfurt parliament was convened.
- The assembly decided that the German nation would be a monarchy controlled by parliament, and offered this term to the Prussian king, the latter rejected the terms and proposal of the assembly.
- Also, the middle classes were restored to the suppression of working-class and artisans. This led to the division among the liberal-minded persons.
- The parliament got disrupted and people came to blows.
- In order to control the situation, military was called in the assembly hall.
- Thus, the monarchy and military combined together with autocracy, won over the liberal nationalist middle class.
Therefore, the Frankfurt parliament is famous in history as failure of liberalism and victory of monarchy.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(e) The role of Women in Nationalist Struggles :
- Women played a very significant role in the nationalist struggles all over the world.
- They led the movements, bore the blows of police and military men, stood by their male counterparts, spread the ideas of liberal – nationalism in the urban and countryside areas of Europe.
- But women were dissatisfied a lot. They, in spite of their very active participation in nationalist struggles, did not get their share of cake i.e., they could not secure the right to vote, or the political rights for themselves till the end of 19th century
Q.2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Answer: The French revolutionaries took following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
- They introduced the ideas of la Patrie (the fatherland) and lec-citogen (the citizens).
- These ideas emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- They chose a new French flag, the tricolor, to replace the former royal standard.
- They elected the Estates-General by active citizens and it was renamed as national assembly.
- They composed new hymns, took oaths and commemorated martyrs, all in the name of nation.
- They established a centralized administrative system, which formulated uniform laws for all citizens.
- They adopted a uniform system of weights and measures and abolished internal customs duties and dues.
- They promoted French over the regional dialects.
- They further declared that it was the mission and destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism, in other words, to help other people of Europe to become nations.
Q.3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
- Marianne was the allegory or symbol of French nation.
- Similarly, Germania was the allegory or symbol of German nation.
- They were portrayed in a way to reflect the idea of nation-state.
- They represented their respective country as if it were a person. It sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a concrete form.
Q.4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
- The liberal minded middle class of German confederacy met in the Franckfurt parliament in 1848, with an objective of establishing Germany as a nation. But they failed miserably.
- The parliament ended with monarchical, military and aristocratic triumph.
- Later on, the chief minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismark led the movement of unity of the German confederacy.
- He organised the military wars and mobilized boureaucracy against the countries which had occupied the German states.
- He fought three wars for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, which he won. This completed the process of German
- In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Q.5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Answer: Napoleon introduced following administrative reforms in the areas ruled by him:
- He made administrative system more rational and effective.
- He established the civil code in 1804. It did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law, and secured the right to property.
- He simplified administrative system, ended feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and monarchical dues.
- In towns too, guid system were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
- Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the new found freedom.
Q.1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Answer: The 1848 revolution of the liberals meant that they wanted to establish independent nation–states which recognized an individual’s freedom, equal law for all men and liberty. The political social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were as under –
1. Political Ideas :
(i) Liberals emphasized on the concept of government by consent.
(ii) End of autocracy and clerical privileges.
(iii) A constitutional and representative government through parliament.
(iv) Inviolable right of property.
2. Social Ideas :
(i) Social equality among all the citizens of a state was the most sought after social idea of liberals.
(ii) They wanted right to vote and get elected in the representative government.
(iii) In the 19th century, in Europe, the right to vote and get elected was not granted to those who did not have private property and women in the society who were reduced to the status of minor.
3. Economic Ideas:
(i) Liberals demanded freedom of markets.
(ii) Abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of good and capital.
Q.2. How was the history of the development of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
- Nationalism developed in the Europe after the powerful revolutions, wars, military campaigns. For example, German and Italian unification.
- But Britain was an exception to this. There never happened a war for nationalism.
- Britain comprised ethnic, group such as – English, Scottish, Wales, etc.
- Among them English became powerful with time and began to dominate the other ethnic groups.
- First, they united with Scottish people and dominated them.
- Then they began to control Irish people and thus, United Kingdom of Great emerged without the bloodshed.
Q.3. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Answer: The cultural involvement in the growth of nationalism is referred to as Romanticism. The examples of Romanticism are as under :
- Folk Culture: German philosopher, Herder emphasized that rue German culture was to be discovered among the German people- das volk. He popularized the spirit of German nation through folk songs folk poetry and folk dances.
- Language: Language played an important role in growth of nationalism in Poland in the Russian occupied parts of Poland, Polish language was disbanded. When the clergy refused to speak Russian and underwent punishment, they sent nationalist messages to the Polish people and stood by polish language which symbolized polish culture.
- Music: Karol Kurpinski, a polish man, celebrated national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the Polonaise and Mazurak into nationalist symbols.
Q.4. Through focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Answer: In the nineteenth century, nations developed in many ways. For example.
- Italy emerged after the long-drawn wars between the forces of Sadinia- Piedmont and those who ruled in different parts of Italy such as Austria, etc. But it was only through successful diplomatic engineering that military could attain end results.
- Britain on the other hand, does not have any history of bloodshed. There the one ethnic group – English, exerted its power over the other ethnic groups of land by abolishing their national symbols, national dresses, national anthems and by propagating its own national flag, national symbol and national anthem. They even adopted the policy of divide and rule as in the case of Ireland.
Q.5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
- Balkans was the region where many ethnic groups resided.
- The whole region was controlled by Ottoman Empire, which was in its declining phase.
- At the same time the Slaves, as the ethnic groups of Balkans were known, could not remain uninfluenced by the liberal and nationalist ideas. Therefore, all of these ethnic groups began to starve for their individual nation-state.
- At the same time, they did not have cordial relations among themselves. They always had an intense conflict among themselves.
- They even began to occupy as much land as possible at each cost.
- These incidents coincided with the effort of major European powers- Russia, France, Austria- Hungary to dominate the Balkan region for their individual trade, political, social, and military concerns.
- They also thought of naval dominance in Europe, after controlling Balkan waters.
Due to all these reasons, nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans.
Q.1. Find out more about nationalist symbols in countries outside Europe. For one or two countries, collect examples of pictures, posters, or music that are symbols of nationalism. How are these different from European examples?
Answer: Some of the nationalist symbols of the countries other than European countries are as under:
|Flag||50 stars on blue colour backgroung surrounded by red and white strips||3 horizontal strips of white, blue and red colour||Red flag with one big and five small yellow colour stars||3 strips of orange, white and green colour with chakra in the middle (white) strip|
|Bird Eagle||Bald Eagle||Double head (Bice phallic) Eagle||Chinese Dragon||Peacock|
|Flower||Rose||Camomile (sun flower variety)||Peony||Lotus|
|Anthem||The star spangled banner by Francis Scott Key||Hymn of Russian Federation by Sergey Mikhalkov||The March of Volunteers||Jana Gana Mana by Rabindra Nath Tagore|
|Music Patriotic||God Bless America by Irvinq Berlin||Grom pobedy, raz davaysay! by Gatril Derzhavin||(i) The Plum Blossom|
(ii) The East in Red
|Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatto-padhyay|