Including Activities and Discussions
Activity (page – 3)
Q.1. In what way do you think this print (figure 1) depicts a Utopian vision?
Answer: Figure-1 depicts a dream of world wise democratic and social republics. It shows many nations which will touch the milestone to become democratic and social republics. It would of course, be an ideal situation. Hence, this figure depicts an utopian vision as it was unlikely to actually exist.
Discuss (Page 4)
Q.2. Summarise the attributes of a nation as Renan understands them. Why, in his view are nations important?
Answer: Ernest Renan was a French philosopher. According to him, following are the attributes of a nation:
- A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavors, scarifies and devotion.
- The idea of a nation is based upon the social capita which is the heroic past, great men and glory.
- Nation is formed of people who have performed great deeds in past and wish to perform more of them.
- Nation is a large – scale solidarity among its people.
- In a nation only its inhabitants have the right to be consulted.
- A nation does not annex or hold onto a control against its will.
According to Renan, nations are important as they guarantee liberty to one and all.
Intext Question (Page 8)
Q.3. How did nationalism and the idea of the national. State emerge?
- The nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerged among the culturally diverse and regional social groups of the European continuum.
- With the transformation of Europen society, due to industrialisation, the new middle class emerged.
- It comprised of labour, working – class population, industrialists, business – men, professionals etc.
- The educated and liberal population among the middle class, through of uniting the culturally compatible sections of European society.
- Hence, they thought of nationalism this led to the emergence of the idea of nation – state.
Discuss (Page 10)
Q.4. Describe the political ends that fried rich list hopes to achieve through economic measures.
Answer: Professor Friendrich List hopes that economic liberalism and reforms would help in generating national sentiments. These sentiments would be as under :
- Freedom for individual
- Equality of all before law
- Inviolability of private property
- Concept of government by consent
- End of aristocracy and clerical privileges
- A constitution and representative government through parliament.
The economic reform , according to List would beget liberalism.
Discuss (Page 11)
Q.6. What is the caricaturist trying to depict?
Answer: The caricaturists is trying to depict the true nature of conservative monarchies of the 19th century Europe, which did not allow the ideas of liberalism and individual freedom to flourish. In the picture the club has thinkers but they do not have power to express their thought. This is the right way to depict that the people did not have the freedom of speech or freedom of press.
Discuss (Page 15)
Q.7. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
- The language and popular traditions of a particular region or country give the feeling of shared past, collective and united living to the people.
- They bind all the people by the thread of togetherness and pride.
- They give them the feeling of being culturally one hence they perceive the sentiment of being nationally one and united.
Therefore, language and traditions create national identity.
Discuss (Page 16)
Q.8. Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
- The cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising was lower payments for the job done.
- Contractors, who gave raw materials and took away finished textiles from the weavers paid very less money for the latter’s services.
- When the weavers asked for their dues, the contractors beat them to the hell. This led to the logical agitation and uprising by weavers against contractors.
- The view point of the journalist that the misery of the workers is extreme and contractors take their unauthorized advantage is totally logical and acceptable.
Activity (Page 16)
Q.9. Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded. Write a report on what you saw.
- The weavers, who work very hard to supply the order on time, did not get their due favour in terms of money returns.
- When they asked for their logical returns, from the contractors, the latter scolded and beat the weavers.
- This led to a high voltage reaction from weaving society. They united themselves and illegally entered the contractor’s house.
- There they rampaged the house and the contractor, frightened due to unexpected attack, flew away.
- Next day he returned along with military force and the weavers were shot deal.
Discuss (Page 18)
Q.10. Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?
- The three writers cited above present three different views about the women’s rights.
- One of these writers is opposed any political right to women.
- The second writer is criticizing the mean who had political right. At the same time, the second writer advocates that women should be given political rights.
- The third writers is in favour of question of women’s rights. He cited a comparative study between position of men and women is so far as political rights were concerned.
- First, second, and third writers tell us that there were big divisions in the liberal ideology.
- The liberal thinkers and writers, were divided on the question of the women’s rights.
Activity (Page 20)
Q.11. Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismark and the elected deputies of Parliament? What inter-pretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?
- In the caricature, Bismark is holding and weaving a hunter in the air. Rest of the deputies are fearful of him.
- All of them, in order to save themselves and to show him due respect, have bowed down under the benches of the parliament.
- The caricature shows that Bismark ruled over the brains of the German parliamentarians. He enjoyed commen –dable power over his men.
- Artist is trying to interpret the democratic system in a funny way in which democracy exists only for the sake of name. In reality it is one man’s autocracy (Bismark’s) that exists in the parliament.
Activity (Page 22)
Q.12. The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the king of Sardinia Piedmont can enter if from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?
Answer: According to picture, the boots symbolize the kingdom of the two Sicilies that lied in the southern Italy. Garibaldi had won them, and later, handed over them to the king of Saridinia- Piedmont, who was proclaimed the king of United Italy. The picture signifies the unification of Italy and role played by Garibaldi in it.
Activity (Page 24)
Q.13. With the help of the chart in box 3 (T.B. Page 24), identify the attributes of Veits Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broke chain. Explain the significance of this change.
- The painting of Germania , by Philip Veit, symbolizes that German nation has emerged.
- It is the beginning of new era in which the liberalnationalist attitude would prevail.
- The new nation has enormous strength and is ready to make war or establish peace with its neighbours.
- The nation of Germany is also free from the clutches of autocratic or monarchical dominance.
- Germania is wearing an oak leaves crown which symbolizes heroism.
- The change in Veit’s earlier portrait of Germania where crown was placed at the place of broken chains symbolizes that the nation is free from the autocratic monarchical rule.
Q.14. Describe what you see figure. What historical events could Huber be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation?
- In the figure by Julius Hubner, Germania had fallen down in the front of Kaiser’s crown and stick. This symbolizes that national assembly of all Germans, that began at the Church of St. Paul as Frankfurt Parliament had failed.
- The crown and stick symbolize that the Frankfurt parliament was disbanded by the monarch and military.
Activity (Page 25)
Q.15. Look once more at figure 10. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you
(a) as a man seated in the hall of deputies, and
(b) as a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling?
(a) As a man seated in the hall of deputies, I would consider the banner of Germania, to have come true.
(b) As a woman observing from the galleries, I would consider the banner of Germania to be a partial representation of liberal- nationalist ideas.