Answer : Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist, who prepared a series of four prints, visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics.
Answer : Artist Frederic Sorrieu belonged to France.
Answer : To depict his Utopian vision where the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through flag and national costumes offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.
Answer : Precisely, a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.
Answer : A centralised power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory.
Answer : A nation state was the one in which the majority of its citizens and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
Answer : The ideas of ‘la Patrie’ and ‘le Citoyen’ emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
Answer : ‘National Assembly’.
Answer : Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the 18th century, but in France and parts of German states, it occurred only during the 19th century.
Answer : A working class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.
Answer : The term ‘Liberalism’ is derived from the latin root ‘liber’, meaning free.
Answer : For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.
Answer : The strong demand of emerging middle class in Europe was freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Answer : In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state–imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Answer : In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and was joined by most of the German states.
Answer : To harness economic interests which lead to national unification of Germany.
Answer : In 1815, representatives of the European powers—Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria—who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
Answer : Austrian chancellor, Duke Metternich hosted this congress at Vienna in 1815.
Answer : The aim was to reverse most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic war. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.
Answer : Aim of revolutionaries of Europe: To oppose monarchial forms of government.
Answer : Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Genoa in 1807. He became a member of the secret society of Carbonari.
(i) Young Italy in Marseilles.
(ii)Young Europe in Berne.
Answer : Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
Answer : The liberal nationalists belonged to the educated middle class elite, among whom were the professors, school teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle classes.
Answer : The Bourbon kings, who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
Answer : Treaty of 1832: Constantinople Treaty.
Answer : Event that mobilized nationalist feelings: The Greek War of Independence.
Answer : Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many west Europeans, who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.
Answer : Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
Answer : Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science. Instead it focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of a nation.
Answer : The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Answer : Weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.
Answer : Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.
Answer : Bismarck was the Chief Minister of Prussia and was the architect of the unification of Germany. He carried out this process of unification with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
Answer : Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at V ersailles.
Answer : Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian Princely house.
Answer : The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope, and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
Answer : Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had formed a secret society, called ‘Y oung Italy’ for achieving his goal.
Answer : Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fight. In 1860, Italy marched into south Italy and the Kingdom of two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.
Answer : Victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed King of United Italy in 1861.
Answer : There was no British nation prior to 18th century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.
Answer : All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
Answer : After the Act of Union between England and Scotland, England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The growth of British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. The Catholics in Scotland suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence.
Answer : Catholic revolts in Ireland against British dominance were suppressed. After a failed revolt led by Wolfe T one and his United Irishmen, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
Answer : French artists represented ideas of Liberty, Justice and Republic through symbols, female allegory and specific objects like Liberty as red cap or broken chains, while Justice is generally blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
Answer : Allegory: When an abstract idea for instance; greed, envy, freedom, liberty is expressed through a person or a thing. It is symbolic.
Examples: Statue of Liberty, Marianne, Germania, etc.
Answer : In France, the nation’s allegory was named ‘Marianne’, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.
Answer : Germania became the Allegory of the German Nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German Oak stands for heroism.
Answer : The Balkan Nations comprise of Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, which were inhabited mostly by Slavs.
Answer : A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
Answer : The anti-imperialist movements that developed everywhere were nationalist, in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation states and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism.
Answer : Metternich remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.”
Answer : Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.
Answer : LIBERALISM-stood for freedom for individual and equality for all before the laws