A powerful artery runs in the root of the tongue, in the lower part, and by biting it, in case of failure to provide some assistance, you can die of blood loss. True, death would not be quick. To do this, one must know the place of biting the tongue and master the technique of powerful strokes (bites).


As for the technical performance of this procedure, obviously, it will not work without special psychological and physical training. Japanese warriors were famous for such special training.


The Japanese, who were captured, would bite off their tongues and die without waiting for torture. When capturing Japanese warriors, they sometimes used a special device that was put over their mouths to prevent the captive from biting off his tongue.

Wild cats, forced to find their own food, had to constantly worry about camouflage. Their prey, small rodents, wields a good sense of smell, thanks to which they can detect the approach of the hunter.


Rolling on the ground, the cat tries to blunt the vigilance of its potential prey by minimizing its own scent and masking it with the smell of plant pollen and mineral particles contained in dust. Although a domesticated cat no longer needs a disguise, instinct makes the animal behave as its ancestors did when they hunted game in ancient Egypt or Africa.


But we cannot rule out the possibility that whenever your pet defiantly rolls down on its back, showing its adorable tummy, it does it solely to attract attention. It is a peculiar request of your pet to give her a few minutes, to caress her, to play with her.

According to one version, love first became associated with the color red after the appearance of a popular 13th-century French poem called The Romance of the Rose. It tells of the hero's allegorical search for a red rose, which symbolized his beloved.


And later, in the 19th century, French and English writers created the language of flowers, according to which the red rose means love. Subsequently, it was no longer only the red rose that was associated with love, but also the color itself.

The most useful is considered to be brown rice. This kind of rice differs from our habitual white one as during the processing the grains are cleaned only from the inedible husk, leaving the bran shell. But this husk contains most of the vitamins and minerals.


Still, in order to get all these vitamins, we have to be patient: brown rice takes twice as long to boil as white rice (40-45 minutes), but it is still pretty hard. Another disadvantage of brown rice is its relatively short shelf life. Brown rice contains essential oils, so it spoils rather quickly. You can extend the "life" of brown rice by storing it in the refrigerator.

They spread throughout the body


Flea drops contain an insecticide (usually fipronil) and a mixture of organic solvents. When applied to the back of the head, these substances spread throughout the pet's body in a couple of days.


In order to kill parasites on any area of the skin, the initial concentration of insecticide must be quite high - up to 10%.


For this reason, the drug is applied in a place inaccessible for licking. Fipronil is non-toxic for mammals, but in high concentrations it may cause abundant salivation and probably unpleasant taste.

Debris does not pose a danger to those on the surface of the Earth. After all, the probability of debris falling is 1:3200.


However, it can put the space industry at risk of destruction. The January 28, 2013 disaster with the Russian 7.5-kilogram scientific satellite BLITS demonstrates this. After working in orbit for four years, it collided with a fragment weighing only 0.017-0.019 g, which was moving at 8 km/h. And it fell apart.


So about 3-4 satellites per year are killed in this way, which is not a very big number at the moment. But the theory is that the fragments of one debris-cracked satellite will at some point shatter another satellite. That, in turn, will shatter a third, and so on.


And one day a piece of debris could also hit human-piloted ships. As an example, in May 2016, a piece of metal a thousandth of a millimeter in size crashed into an ISS porthole, leaving a 7-millimeter-diameter dent.

A lake covered with a crust of salt can change color throughout the year. Thanks to the halophilic cyanobacteria microorganisms that live in Natron, the water takes on juicy reddish and pinkish hues several times a year. When the temperature rises, the bacteria release a pigment red, staining the lake.


The concentrations of salt and alkali in Lake Natron are so strong that animals and birds that accidentally enter the water are killed and mummified. The exception is the lesser flamingos: these birds have ideal breeding conditions here. High water temperature, reaching 50°C in the wetlands, allows flamingos to incubate their eggs at any time of the year.

All meat should "rest" after cooking: at least 10 minutes for small pieces and 15-20 minutes for large pieces, such as chicken baked whole. Why is this so important?

As the juice of just cooked meat is too liquid. If you cut the meat, it will leak out, leaving the piece too dry. The "resting" time allows the juice to spread evenly over the meat fibers and thicken, making the meat tender, juicy and flavorful.

Roughly every 4 hours, there is a change in the "lead" nostril.

This phenomenon has a name: the nasal cycle. Namely, the two parts of the nose are able to change the resistance of the mucosa in response to the air flow passing through them. That's possible due to the special structure of the blood vessels in the nose. The cavernous body swells, blocking the passage of air, or, conversely, shrinks in size.

When Theodore Roosevelt was running for president in 1912, he was shot during one of his meetings with voters. The bullet hit him in the chest, penetrating his eyeglass case and the thick 50-page manuscript of the speech he wanted to give.


But Roosevelt stayed in place - he drew the audience's attention to the fact that he had just been shot and then spoke for an hour and a half. His hunting experience helped him to realize that the wound was not life-threatening - since he wasn't coughing up blood, the bullet hadn't pierced a lung.


It was later confirmed that the bullet had entered his chest at 76 mm, but it was even riskier to remove it than to leave it as it was, and Roosevelt wore it all his life.

BBC cameramen equipped the animals with miniature video cameras, allowing them to learn their secrets.


The crew leader separately noted that their experiment gave them the opportunity to see the baby meerkats that had just been born.


Even scientists, who study these animals, had never seen this in the wild. Another interesting discovery was the penguins' behavior: they swam indifferently past fish, shrimp and other food objects. Perhaps, in addition to availability, the birds are guided by some other criteria.

It was found out that over-working is bad for your health. It is even more harmful than alcohol and nicotine. Calculations have shown that a person, who works 11 hours a day, has up to a 70 percent higher chance of getting a heart attack.


Apart from heart disease, about 60 percent of those, who work overtime, are more likely to fall ill with acute respiratory infections and suffer various injuries. And the illnesses have nothing to do with the nature of the work at all.

Scientists from the University of Otago in New Zealand discovered another plague. They found that even a 10-hour working day can provoke a tendency to alcoholism. After all, the more a person works, the stronger the desire to relax. And the easiest way to do this is with alcohol.

Seasonal temperature fluctuations reach tens of degrees, and the climate warming over a century has been less than 1 °C, invisible against the short-term vagaries of the weather. However, warming is constant and covers the whole Earth, so, while it cannot prevent weather anomalies, its impact is significant.


Glaciers and permafrost are melting, storms and droughts are increasing, ranges of animals and plants are shifting, and sea levels are rising.


The climate is not changing in the same way everywhere. High latitudes are warming more than the tropics. But in the interior of the continents, the climate is becoming more continental: the difference between summer and winter temperatures is growing. So in some places, warming can lead to somewhat harsher winters.

A domestic cat's claws are bent so that they give it support when it moves up the tree trunk, but they can't hold it down when it goes down. And cats don't like to climb down backwards, as they can't see the way they're going. However, if a human doesn't come to their aid, cats will eventually get down from the tree with their tails forward.


Some of them manage to overcome this psychological barrier and become skilled tree climbers.

Discovered at the end of the 19th century, double fertilization is common to most flowering plants. Its essence is that during plant reproduction, two male cells (sperm cells) fertilize both the egg cell and the germ sac.


In the first case, fertilization leads to the formation of a zygote, from which the seed subsequently develops, and in the second case - to the appearance of the secondary endosperm, which is a nutrient shell for the seed. Such a shell accelerates the development of the embryo.

Some features of British geography do influence the fact that the climate on the island conforms to stereotypes about it: mild, changeable and too unpredictable.

This means that British residents never know what to expect, and so they often bring up the subject of weather in conversation.

The daily chatter of Britons, however, tends to be more prosaic. The comment "It's cold, isn't it?" requires no elaborate response, generally just a snicker in agreement with the person you are talking to. It is a kind of code to overcome the awkwardness at the beginning of a conversation. Sometimes it is a way to start a dialogue, other times - to fill an awkward pause or avoid an awkward theme. And sometimes it's just an excuse to grumble together.

B-B-Q stands for the method of cooking meat and other foods over charcoal and open fire, a word that has long existed in many languages of the world in different variations.


It is thought that, in Europe, it first appeared in Spanish: in the form "barbacoa", it is mentioned in a dictionary published in 1526. The word came into Spanish from the New World - the natives of the Caribbean called "barabicu" a carcass of sticks, which was placed over a fire on supports. Meat was then roasted on it.

Multiple Olympic swimming champion Mark Spitz of the United States was famous, among other things, for his unchanging mustache.


According to Spitz's own story, one day the coach of the Soviet team asked if the mustache slowed him down in the water. The athlete jokingly replied that, on the contrary, the mustache drains water from his mouth, helping the body to be more streamlined, and in the end, it only increases speed.


The next year, all Soviet swimmers arrived at the next international competition with mustaches.

We only know that this reaction to rhythmic music is innate, for it is inherent even in young children who have never seen a dance. Apparently, beating out the rhythm with his hand or foot, a person feels it more clearly, more accurately, captures the changes.


This agrees with the famous hypothesis of the Austrian musicologist Richard Wallaschek, according to which the music itself was born as a means of coordinating the rhythmic movements, especially the movements of a group of people.


Moreover, a number of studies have shown that music stimulates pleasure centers in the brain, as do coordinated movements. Dance, therefore, can bring people double pleasure.

The sunset on the Red Planet is blue. That's the conclusion reached by U.S. experts from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.


This rare sight was recorded by the Mars rover "Opportunity". The pictures, dated November 3 and 9, the sun, surrounded by a blue glow, descends beyond the Martian horizon. The rover also transmitted other images, capturing for the first time the Martian solar eclipse. In these, one of the moons of Mars (Phobos) passes over the disk of the Sun.


The sunset on Mars is indeed bluish due to the peculiarities of the atmosphere. For example, our Earth's atmosphere only transmits long red wavelengths, while the Martian atmosphere transmits almost the entire spectrum of the sun's rays.


However, it appears bluish to us because of the predominance of ice particles in the atmosphere.

Only in February can you see Horsetail Falls turn into an amber-colored pillar of fire. In this month, the setting sun reflects off the falling water of Horsetail, making it appear as if fire lava is pouring down the eastern slope of El Capitan Peak.


However, it is far from every year to admire this spectacle. First, Horsetail is unstable: it is formed when streams of rain or meltwater run off the top of El Cap - and sometimes it can dry up altogether.


Second, the Sun is in the right sector of the sky only a few evenings a year, in the two-week period starting with Valentine's Day.


Third, the sky should be clear - at least without fog or clouds in the west

Dutch urban architect Daan Rusegaard draws inspiration from bioluminescent plankton in his work. Inspired by nature itself, he aims to make cities more practical and beautiful without harming the planet.


Mimicking the luminous plankton, Rusegard and his colleagues built a bicycle path out of solar-powered slabs. The path, reminiscent of van Gogh's "Starry Night," is set up in Nuenen, where the artist lived when he returned to his parents in 1883-1885.


Powered by solar panels, the bicycle path sparkles at night thanks to the energy stored during the day.

Gardeners find different uses for sawdust. You can use it for mulching, for example, to protect the soil around your crops and prevent weeds. Sawdust can also be added to compost.


Some gardeners use sawdust when making beds - a layer of sawdust mixed with ash is placed under the soil to raise the level of the bed and as a fertilizer. Finally, sawdust can be sprinkled on garden paths.

Many people are wary of this white coating that resembles mold. But it's not mold and it won't harm your health.

If not stored properly, the oil in the cocoa bean protrudes onto the surface of the chocolate product and turns a whitish color.

This could be proof that the chocolate really does contain cocoa beans and not their substitutes.

If you consider the purpose of these strips, it appears that they prevent snow drifts on the roads in places where their location coincides with the direction of the highways. But in fact, the benefits of these small strips of trees are tremendous and go beyond saving highways or increasing snow cover on the fields.


Trees retain snow in the fields, adding moisture to the soil at the beginning of the growing season, and reducing overall evaporation of moisture from the surface of the fields. Also, they reduce the destructive effects of southerly winds that lead to soil erosion and dust storms. The process of gully development poses a serious threat to fields, and forest plantations also help to deal with it.


But forest belts are not only planted between fields and along roads, they are commonly placed near canals and small river channels. In this case, they perform a similar function, protecting waterways from excessive evaporation and bank erosion.

Cold showers are useful for coping with moodiness and decreasing the level of irritability. The thing is that cold water affects the "blue spot" area in the brain, which produces the hormone noradrenaline, responsible for fighting depression.


Since cold water improves the transport of nutrients to the body and oxygenates the cells, you become more alert. You get less tired and can concentrate on a specific task for longer.


A cold shower in the morning is just what you need to wake up more quickly. It activates the cells and circulation. You feel stronger and more energetic to take on important tasks.

Onion routing is a method of transferring data in computer networks in which information passes through several network nodes (routers) to ensure anonymity.


In this process, the data is encrypted several times and the routers gradually remove "layers" of encryption to determine the next point of transmission. This multi-layered encryption is why this type of routing gets its name.

Only those wounded in the stomach or head.


From a punctured stomach or intestine, water with half-digested food can leak into the abdomen, increasing the chance of peritonitis. And with head injuries, a person can choke if he or she loses consciousness while drinking.


Even in case of a large blood loss, drinking is necessary.

In 2002, after analyzing the light from 200,000 galaxies collected by Australian scientists as part of the project "Mapping the Galaxy Color-Redshift Relation," American scientists from Johns Hopkins University concluded that the color of the universe is pale green.

If you take the Dulux color palette as a basis, this color would be somewhere between "Mexican mint", "Cornflower bunch" and "Shangri-La silk".

Indeed, a few weeks after the report of the American Astronomical Society, scientists had to admit that an unfortunate error had crept into their calculations, and in fact, the color of the universe is rather closer to the dull shades of gray-brown.

In science, this puzzle is known as the "Olbers photometric paradox," in honor of the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers, who described (but was not the first in history) this mysterious phenomenon in 1826.

Well, because these constellations are called Dippers rather than Bears in both Latin and Greek.
European constellation names are normally derived from Greek (and Roman stolen from them) myths.


However, several conflicting myths exist explaining the origins of the two Dippers. Among the most common is that the Big Dipper is the nymph Callisto, and the Little Dipper is her son Arcadus. Yet, Arcadus would really have to be more of a Bear.


An interesting fact: if we meet a bear in the forest, we say bear (no matter what sex it is). And the Greeks, when they meet a Bear or Dipper, say so.

Peppermint leaves have a unique flavor thanks to the menthol they contain. It is the menthol that gives the mint drink its refreshing taste. Essential oils of menthol relieves breathing and nasal congestion during colds.


Peppermint oil is useful for nasal congestion - it relieves swelling and nasal congestion, restores the patency of the sinuses.

Despite the seeming paradox of this statement, the pineapple does get sweeter if you salt it.

As everyone knows, it is rich in various vitamins and minerals, a special enzyme called bromelain (which breaks down proteins), as well as fiber.


The pineapple is a real treasure trove of health benefits for our body, but its spicy taste is not to everyone's liking. Actually, pineapple contains plenty of fruit acids, namely malic and citric acids. But the salt, reacting with the acid, neutralizes it.


Thus, pineapple truly appears sweeter to our taste buds. Simply because after the acid is neutralized, it will be less acidic.

The human hand boasts a highly complex anatomical structure. The extensor muscle (extensor) extends or straightens the finger when it contracts and the flexor muscle (flexor) bends it.

With the thumb, index finger, and pinky finger, this process is fairly straightforward because each has its own extensor muscle. However, the middle and ring fingers share a common extensor muscle. When you try to extend the ring finger, the middle finger flexor contracts, as it should, and securely nails the middle finger in place, which then unsuccessfully tries to move the common extensor.

The truth is that Swiss people really don't flush after 10 p.m.! But it only applies to private housing. In this peculiar way, the parliament of this small country is fighting against the noise in the evening. Couldn't you do something else, such as changing the pipes in the sewage system? Evidently not.


Incidentally, as of late in Switzerland, you can buy toilets with improved noise isolation. Well, those people who cannot afford to equip their latrines, have to either endure or go out on the street.

The stomach digests food thanks to a caustic hydrochloric acid with a high pH (hydrogen concentration) ranging from 2 to 3.


A famous phenomenon was the French entertainer Michel Lotito, who was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records in 2007 for his outstanding ability to eat inorganic objects. This man could easily devour rubber, glass and metal.


At his performances, Michel Lotito amazed the audience by swallowing bicycles, supermarket carts, TVs, computers, beds, candelabras, skis, glasses, and his most outstanding "achievement" was eating a Cessna-150, for which he spent two years of his life. Although his main advantage is his thick stomach walls, it would be impossible without the acidity of his gastric juice.

Previously, natural sourdough was used to make bread lush. But these days, when artificial yeast is added, people experience adverse effects after eating fresh and hot bread.

The human stomach has difficulty digesting it, and this may lead to the aggravation of gastritis. Besides, freshly baked bread causes fermentation in the intestines, resulting in the formation of excessive gas, colic and intestinal pain.

In order to explain why crows caw, we need to realize that the crow is a remarkably social bird. It is an extraordinarily intelligent creature, on a par with dolphins and monkeys. And thus, it has established a greater contact with its tribesmen.


Specifically, the morning of these birds begins with the convocation of congeners. Specialists assert that several crows can caw in unison for this purpose, so that the summoning would be better heard by others.
Those, who have flown in, generally greet the gathering as well. Then the crows hold a sort of gathering.


The flock, nestled in a tree, decides where to fly, where danger awaits, and other such things. Considering that crows have a rather rich vocabulary, their coddling can be long, noisy, and full of various interesting intonations.

As observations show, many animals feel frustrated when there is a prolonged lack of new information and access to things to play with. Their behavior resembles that of a bored human.


The ability of animals to be homesick is also evidenced by the fact that even adults spend a lot of time playing and suffer when deprived of this opportunity.


Such behavior is most noticeable in monkeys, raptors, as well as in a number of birds, such as cranes and parrots.

A mature hen's egg leaves the oviduct to be fertilized. There it develops into an egg, whether or not fertilization occurs.


In the wild, a hen's egg maturation is triggered only under certain conditions, one of which is regular visual contact with the rooster. As a result, the hen usually lays fertilized eggs. After laying a sufficient number of them, the maturation of eggs is blocked, and the bird proceeds to incubation.


Domestic hens have been selected for continuous egg laying, and their reproductive system has undergone changes. Egg maturation is no longer dependent on the presence of the rooster.

Recently, the thought of a koala pet has been visiting animal lovers more and more often. After all, looking at this charming fluffy animal, similar to a plush toy, you just uncontrollably want to cuddle and pet it.


However, keeping a koala in captivity is not easy. Mainly because of nutrition. After all, the koala eats only eucalyptus leaves of certain species. And nothing else can replace this "delicacy". Also, koalas prefer to eat at night and drink no water at all, except when they are sick.

Traditionally, oil paintings are exhibited without glass. The painting is normally coated with a transparent varnish, which makes it resistant to exposure and allows for wet cleaning. Graphics are usually displayed under glass, as pencil, watercolor, ink and pastel are easily damaged and almost impossible to clean.


In some cases, oil paintings are also protected by glass. For example, against fading due to ultraviolet light or when cracks in the paint prevent wet cleaning, as well as in cases of special value and threats of vandalism.

The smell of rain has a term: petrichor.


When rain falls on the ground, water enters microcracks and pores. The air in them forms bubbles on the wet surface, which, when they burst, release many microdroplets into the air.


These tiny particles, containing oils of plant origin, are picked up by air currents and are spread around, creating that unique and beloved by many fragrance.


For the same reason, by the way, when it rains, a huge number of soil bacteria end up in the air. So when you say you smell wet soil, it is actually a molecule produced by a certain type of bacteria. This molecule, geosmin, is created by Streptomyces bacteria.

Slow and calm - laminar, as physicists say - the jet from a circular faucet first has a cross-section equal to the inner diameter of the pipe. Under the action of gravity, the flow accelerates, and since the flow of water doesn't change, the jet should narrow.


One can take a different look at it. Among two drops, that came out of the pipe with a small time gap, the first one starts accelerating earlier, and its detachment from the second one is constantly growing. Thus, gravity stretches the jet vertically. Since the volume of water between the drops remains the same, the jet is thinning.


At that, it is compressed by surface tension forces, and when the jet becomes quite thin - 2-3 mm - they also crush it into separate drops.

Many cats and dogs, especially ornamental breeds, are almost incapable of making their own food in the wild. Even urban stray dogs and cats live mostly off people - intentional feeding and food scraps.


Furthermore, even completely feral dogs tend to lose competition to wild dogs like wolves, coyotes, etc. Living in the same territory as them, without human support, willing or unwilling, they quickly become extinct. However, in the absence of wild competitors, some dogs and cats are quite capable of mastering an independent life.


The most famous example is the Australian dingo, the feral descendant of domestic dogs, now the largest predator in the Australian fauna. In Australia, as well as in a number of other places, there are stable populations of feral domestic cats.

The tradition of maple sap harvesting, borrowed by Canadians from the Indians, took shape in their favorite and annually held in March, the national holiday of the inhabitants of Southern Quebec and Ontario. It is possible to get 20-25 liters of the most valuable sap from one tree only from sugar maple (Acer saccharinum).


These trees, which reach 30 m in height, grow in the south-east of Canada. To collect the sap, an incision is made on the trunk, approximately 20-30 cm above the ground, into which tubes are inserted leading to vessels where the sap, called passoka, flows. To obtain a sweet maple syrup or sugar, which instead of sucrose contains more useful dektrose and trace elements, the juice is thickened by evaporation. It takes 40 liters of juice to make 1 liter of syrup.


Maple syrup is an essential ingredient in many Canadian dishes. It is used in ice cream, soufflés, porridges and even some meat dishes.

Studies tell us that the average person blinks once every 2 to 10 seconds. We do this automatically as our eyelids protect our eyes from damage. Sometimes we blink intentionally, using what is called "sign language". As an example, we may blink to get attention, inviting another person to flirt. Sometimes we blink to express surprise, as if to say, "I can't believe my eyes!"


In humans, the inner surface of the upper and lower eyelids, as well as the eyes themselves, are lined with a thin, almost transparent membrane, the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva serves to moisten the surface of the eyes, because they need moisture to move properly. During blinking, the eyelid spreads moisture through the conjunctiva and also directs it to the corners of the eye.

For it has many divisors


A dozen is the smallest number that has six different divisors, four of which are in a row: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12. It is convenient in use, so counting in dozens was used in some monetary systems and in cattle breeding, where derivatives were also used.


Inch dozens are grosses (144) and dozen grosses are masses (1728). We are left with the division of the dial into 12 hours and the word "dozen" from duodecimal counting.

In 1963, the Austrian entomologist Herbert Heran and the German behavioral scientist Martin Lindauer noticed something strange about the way honeybees fly through the air. When a group of bees was trained to fly over a lake, they could only fly safely to the other shore if there were waves and ripples on the surface of the water.


At the same time, when the lake was mirror-smooth, the insects suddenly lost their orientation - and even fell into the water. The results of that study confirmed the idea that bees use visual cues to navigate during flight.


In other words, when the surface below the bees is mirrored, the insects assume that the ground below them is much farther away than it really is, and they lower their altitude to the limit.

Scientists may have just discovered a major key to the search for immortality by discovering that our lifespan is inextricably linked to the rate by which our cells undergo genetic mutations.


Although it is logical to assume that our probability of death increases as these mutations accumulate over time, such a hypothesis fails to account for an inconsistency known as the Peto paradox. If death depends on the accumulation of somatic mutations, then larger species with more cells should receive more mutations and therefore have shorter lifespans.


For example, the authors found that human cells undergo an average of 47 replacement mutations per year, giving us an average lifespan of 83.7 years.

We occasionally have to clean the yellowish mass out of our ears. Where does it come from? The fact is that our external auditory canal has four thousand wax glands. These glands just produce a substance called earwax.


Since wax is so sticky, dust and dirt clings to it. Thus, it protects the ears from contamination, not allowing dirt to penetrate far inside. It is strictly forbidden to clean your ears with thin objects, such as matches. You could damage your eardrums. Some people produce more earwax than others.


If too much wax is produced, it can block the ear canals and cause hearing loss. In such cases, you should definitely see a doctor.

The thin metal wire in an incandescent bulb gets so hot when an electric current flows through it that it heats up and begins to glow.


Incandescent bulbs can burn for years, but the wire doesn't burn out. The fact is that the bulb has no oxygen inside, and without oxygen, no flame can arise. The bulb is filled with a gas mixture that quenches the flame. Small and weak bulbs, below 25 watts, have a vacuum inside them. When such bulbs break, air rushes into them at such great velocity that a quiet popping sound is heard.


And without the glass housing that insulates the filament from the oxygen, the metal wire would flash only for a moment and immediately burn up like a meteor.

One of the reasons is that applications and the operating system are updated. With each update, applications tend to have more functionality, and consequently the RAM and CPU load increases - the phone has to perform more and more calculations.


When the RAM fails, slower flash memory helps, which also affects performance.


Another reason is the large amount of cache. Few people clean the app cache, but it can take up a serious amount of RAM, especially if you frequently use a browser or social networking apps where you often save music to listen to it offline.


Some apps can clear the cache on their own, but others don't, so do it yourself.

The first thing that affects taste is temperature. Most of the time, people fill themselves with cool water, and when it gets to room temperature, it doesn't taste as "fresh". However, it is an indirect cause, the main factor in the unpleasant aftertaste of water from the glass is the gases that dissolve in the water overnight. That's why if you pour water in a bottle, it will taste less unpleasant. Interestingly, the higher the temperature, the better the solubility.


Mostly carbon dioxide enters the water, and when it dissolves it forms carbonic acid, which can lower the pH of the water. In addition, acetone gases and aldehydes can dissolve in water.


Scientists say that even in 30 minutes the water can get an unpleasant taste. But if you forget a glass of water for a few days... you'll get all sorts of germs in it.

Unlike some birds, humans do not have an organ to orient themselves according to the geomagnetic field. Nor do we have an analog of the gyroscope that maintains direction on ships and airplanes.


Our vestibular apparatus senses body turns, but to maintain direction they must be summed up, making sure that right and left turns together give zero.


With the many small turns that accompany walking, errors inevitably accumulate. Each subsequent step deviates by a small random amount from the previous one, and without external reference points, the movement deviates more and more from the original direction.

Your brain has these hard-working cells that clean up unnecessary memories. These cells produce a hormone that makes sure you successfully forget everything "useless".


The greatest bursts of this hormone occur during sleep. Thus, it is rare that you can recall a dream.

One interesting fact is that memories are better preserved if they are triggered by active signals from the pleasure center in your brain. So, when you put your keys somewhere, don't forget to enjoy something in that place, so that you won't have to look for them for two hours.

Just like man-made antibiotics, onions and garlic have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties. Most importantly, the latter property is effective against all types of pathogens. That's why antibiotics sold in pharmacy chains can't compete with them in terms of therapeutic effect.


These properties are inherent in their high content of substances such as phytoncides (volatile essential compounds), flavonoids and allicin. Also their bulbs contain a wide range of vitamins and trace elements.

The reason is that the hippo secretes sweat along with its milk. In fact, the milk of a female hippo is of a normal milky color, but it mixes with the sweat, and hippos perspire a lot.

While sweating, hippos secrete an oily substance with a reddish color. When mixed with white milk, it just creates a pink color.

A delicacy, so to speak.

In most cases, they have no specific organs for this; the buzzing, heard only during flight, comes simply from the fact that, while flying, insects flap their wings several hundred times per second. A wingbeat is an oscillating plate, and we know that any oscillating plate, sufficiently often, produces a tone of a certain pitch.


Scientists have determined that a housefly, for example, makes 352 wing strokes per second, a bumblebee 220, a bee 440, and a mosquito 550. For comparison, the propeller of an airplane makes on average about 25 revolutions per second.

The fox is indeed quite a sly animal - when it comes to saving its life or getting its food, it can outsmart many predators. Foxes have a keen sense of smell and great eyesight, and they're smart and inquisitive. They know how to avoid poorly hidden traps, understand when a yard dog is leashed and when not. Foxes can tell hunters from unarmed humans and can go through yard scraps in broad daylight.


But the fox is not as cunning as it seems. Curiosity often serves her up, and she won't be lazy to make a detour to get a closer look at an unfamiliar object or scent. It is the way you can lure a weasel into a trap - it is noticed that the fox is not indifferent to the smell of brine from herring and ... lipstick.


Otherwise it is ready to surprise us with its habits. For example, her way of getting mice from under the snow is very interesting. When the fox hears where a mouse is scratching, she speeds up and throws herself upside down into the white blanket, like a diver.

Some tree species have what is known as crown shyness. It manifests itself in the fact that their crowns in a dense forest do not touch, forming zigzag gaps. No single explanation for the cause of this phenomenon exists, but there are several versions, among them the prevention of the spread of insect pests or the avoidance of collision damage from wind exposure.


Trees with revealed crown shyness include Dryobalanops aromaticus, twisted pine, and several species of eucalyptus.

Lake McKenzie is a unique and wonderful piece of nature located on Fraser Island in Australia. The amazing thing about it is that it is considered one of the cleanest bodies of water on the planet.


It lies 100 meters above sea level, rendering it inaccessible to groundwater. And the only source of water in the lake is precipitation. The sand around the lake is also wonderful - clean and naturally white. The crystal clear water and high level of acidity make the lake uninhabitable for any freshwater macro- and microorganisms.

One theory is that every Wikipedia article in the chain leads to the Philosophy article. For this, you have to click on the first link in each article in the chain. Note: the link must not be in parentheses or italics. If a link is repeated, you must click the next one after it, otherwise you will go around in circles.


There is even a Wikipedia article devoted to this theory: Wikipedia: Getting to Philosophy. It says that 97% of all articles are getting to philosophy, the rest simply contain unworkable links. The explanation for this phenomenon is quite simple: Wikipedia tends to move up the classification chain, which becomes wider and wider and eventually leads to philosophy.

One of the world's most popular resources is owned by the nonprofit organization Wikimedia Foundation, which has 19 regional offices around the world. The site's name was not chosen by chance: it is based on the Hawaiian word Wiki (the technology of the site, translated as "quickly") and Encyclopedia.


The distinctive feature of Wikipedia is that the technology, on which the site is based, allows any user to create and edit articles - it is enough to register on the site, although in some cases it is possible without registration. Any change to the text immediately becomes available to readers.

The term "laconism" was derived from the name of the ancient Greek region of Laconia, whose inhabitants were noted for their brevity and brevity. Laconia was also the location of the city of Sparta.


A classic example of Spartan brevity relates to the legend of a letter written by Philip II, king of Macedonia, who conquered many Greek cities. In this letter Philip urged the Spartans to surrender immediately, since "if I take Sparta by force, I will mercilessly destroy the entire population and flatten the city to the ground!"

The thumb is opposed to the others; such a position allows us to make varied and precise movements. Only humans are capable of grasping, holding, and masterfully manipulating both large and tiny implements, from a punching machine to a pin. Such diverse functions might be impossible if the thumb were longer or shorter than its actual size.


Despite the thumb's seemingly small size - it appears to consist of only two phalanges - it fully lives up to its name, both in importance and size.


The muscle responsible for the thumb is the most massive in the palm of the hand. Besides, a special part of the brain, unrelated to the one that controls the actions of the other fingers, coordinates its movements.

For every popcorn eater, the owner of the buffet earns about 400 to 700% profit. Also, keep in mind that popcorn makes people thirsty and makes them buy more drinks. And another significant fact is that it can be stored for a really long time.

Therefore, buffet owners decided long ago that this product would be the most profitable.

Mars lacks a complete planetary magnetic field. There are only small magnetic anomalies, where the field is about 500 times weaker than on Earth. They are generated by magnetized rocks in the crust of Mars, not by the magnetic dynamo in the planet's core, as in the case of Earth.


Zones of magnetic anomalies are located irregularly, so that even a very sensitive compass capable of picking up their weak fields will not indicate a certain geographic direction.

Numerous species of wild cucumbers are covered with impressive spines. They prevent animals from eating the fruit before the seeds ripen in them; then the spines dry out and break off.


Still in the ancestors of the cultivated cucumber, which grew in humid tropical climates, the spines were transformed into organs through which excess water drips off. Thus, only tubercles remained of the spikes.

By leaving a mark, a dog communicates its presence to its kin and gets an indication of what sex, size and physiological condition dogs have been here. In neutral territory, it is a message that the individual is also using it.


On the borders of the pack territory, the mark means that the area is occupied; the tag of a dog from another pack on the same object is a sort of "boundary post." On someone else's territory, it is a challenge to its owners, a claim on it. Marks are sometimes associated with the assertion of social status and with the search for a sexual partner.

You have probably seen many factual pictures comparing the human eye to a camera. In fact, scientifically speaking, the eye cannot be equated with a camera. It has about 120 million visual cells, but they don't capture the picture pixel by pixel.


The eye perceives an object with all cells at once, with some cells being responsible for colors and others for lightness. However, according to the latest data, the human visual acuity factor is 1.7. Accordingly, the radius at which the eye distinguishes pixels is -0.39 arcminutes.


If we take the angle of view as 90 degrees horizontally and vertically, it turns out that the resolution of the eye is 324 megapixels. And if you add peripheral vision, you get 576 megapixels.

Quite simply: because it is their country of origin. Espresso is a method of coffee making invented in Italy at the end of the 19th century, gaining enormous popularity all over the world, especially in the United States.

Drinks such as lattes and cappuccinos also originated in Italy as different ways to add milk to espresso.

For most birds, a flight of many hours is extremely difficult. And flying across the ocean would require them to stay in the air for several days at a time. Therefore, even relatively small seas birds prefer to fly around the coastline or cross in the narrowest places, such as the Mediterranean between Sicily and Tunisia. Among other things, away from the coast, birds cannot check their course against landmarks. Nevertheless, oceans are not an absolute barrier for birds.

The Little Ruff is a record-breaking species, whose breeding population in Alaska crosses most of the Pacific Ocean to reach its wintering grounds in New Zealand.

Unlike the other planets of the solar system, Uranus "lies on its side" relative to the plane of orbit around the Sun. If the Earth is commonly compared to a spinning, slightly inclined wolf, which moves around the Sun, the movement of Uranus resembles that of a rolling orbital ball.

The reasons for this position of the axis of Uranus remain unknown, but the main hypothesis suggests that during the formation of the solar system (3-4 billion years ago) Uranus collided with a protoplanet the size of the Earth, which led to a change in the tilt of the axis of Uranus.

The "@" sign, so common in email addresses nowadays, wasn't invented especially for the Internet, as it may seem. The "@" sign has been around since the Renaissance, in the 15th and 16th centuries. In Spanish, Portuguese and French the symbol traditionally meant an arroba, a weight measure of 12-13 kilograms.

The @ symbol then became a variant of the preposition "at" in cursive letters, as it helped to condense notes. Since it was used in accounting documents, it naturally appeared on the keyboards of the first typewriters.

That's where Ray Tomlinson, a researcher at the American company BBN Technology, saw it when he was developing an email program that allowed messages to be sent to a remote computer. That's how the sign became a symbol of e-mail.

Animals with good instincts have little sensitivity to their own scent because their bodies smell much stronger than even a fresh trail. Also, during a walk the dog trotts around, crossing the trail he's done, which makes it difficult for him to follow it back. Finally, not only do you need to smell well, but you also need to realize that if you follow your own tracks in the opposite direction, you will get home.

Such an intellectual operation is beyond the capabilities of many dogs. Lost on the walk with their owners, they start looking for their owners first of all. And, rushing from side to side, they confuse their trail even more.

As we know, if you stay in an airtight room for a long time, you can suffocate, since during breathing the amount of oxygen in the air decreases and the amount of carbon dioxide increases.

However, contrary to popular belief, a person does not exhale pure carbon dioxide but a mixture of gases that contains 16-17% oxygen and about 4% carbon dioxide. (For comparison: atmospheric air, which is 21% oxygen, contains a negligible amount of carbon dioxide - 0.04%.)

This oxygen is enough to bring a person back to life by artificial respiration - from mouth to mouth or from mouth to nose. Such stimulation sometimes takes a long time, up to an hour and a half.

Hunger is mainly triggered by receptors in the hypothalamus that are triggered when blood glucose concentrations drop.


They are triggered regardless of the amount of fat in the body. The feeling of hunger is also triggered by special mechanoreceptors that "follow" the stretching and squeezing of the stomach walls.

Since their paint has come off.

Several factors influenced the modern look of the statues. First, the natural, non-persistent paint was being erased by weather conditions.


Second, there was no technology in the Classical era that could show the true color of the sculptures, so the architecture and sculpture of the Classical era, as a follower and imitator of antiquity, deprived their works of art of fun patterns and drawings.

Empathy is an amazing mechanism. Two neural zones in the sympathetic person's head are activated at once. The first one transfers into the other person's thinking. The second creates a neural map of that state. We end up imagining ourselves in someone else's body.

When a speaker forgets the words of a speech in front of a hundred eyes, we experience discomfort along with him. That's how empathy works. The brain automatically turns on the emotion that a person in an awkward situation is supposed to feel. But sometimes we don't even have to witness someone else's gaffe firsthand. And we experience what is popularly called "Spanish shame": someone else does something stupid, but we feel ashamed.

Most cats, like many adult mammals, are lactose intolerant.


Kittens, contrary to popular belief, should not be fed cow's milk either. They are able to digest lactose, but the amount of lactose in cow's milk is almost three times the amount of lactose in the mother cat's milk.


If young kittens are growing up without their mother, it's a bad idea to feed them cow's milk. "Orphans" will not get enough nutrients, and may even die from exhaustion.


It is better to buy special "milk formula for kittens" at a pet store. Substitutes contain the necessary amount of proteins, fats and vitamins that contribute to the normal growth of small pets.

Owing to the transfer of information stored in the nuclei of cells. The existence of discrete carriers of hereditary properties was discovered by the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel in 1865. He called them "hereditary germs". Yet his findings were ignored.

They were rediscovered only in the 1900s. Their material nature remained unclear until 1944, when it was discovered that the carrier of hereditary information is a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

In 1953, a model of its structure was proposed, and soon the genetic code was deciphered. Now the genomes of many species, including humans, have been fully read. But how exactly this or that sequence of genetic "letters" determines the characteristics of organisms will be studied for a long time to come.

The Moon creates tidal waves on Earth, not only in the ocean, but also in the Earth's crust. As a result of the Earth's rotation, tidal waves are not located strictly on the planet-satellite line, but somewhat ahead of it. The tidal wave near the moon is attracted by it a little stronger than the one on the other side of the Earth.

Therefore, a torque acts on the Earth from the side of the Moon, which gradually slows down the planet's rotation. But as action equals counteraction, the moon receives an equal and opposite effect and accelerates its motion. And this corresponds to moving to a higher orbit, that is, moving away from the Earth.

So the Moon is moving away from us due to the energy of the Earth's rotation at a rate of 4 cm per year.

The words you say on the phone are played back by the speaker on the other person's handset, from where the sound echoes back into the handset's microphone and echoes back to you.

With wired telephony, the echo normally returns after just a few milliseconds and doesn't interfere with the conversation. In cellular and Internet telephony, the signals take longer to process, and the echo can lag noticeably behind your voice, making communication difficult.

Echo cancellation algorithms are used to combat this: they memorize the sounds spoken, look for them in the response signal, and if they are found, subtract your voice from it.

In the mid-twenties, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg took a color-blindness test and realized that he was color blind. He had trouble distinguishing between shades of red and green. This is one of the reasons why Facebook is designed in blue - all variations of blue are available to Zuckerberg.

Thus, one man's peculiarity has influenced the color scheme of one of the most visited sites in the world, and probably set a whole trend in the field of social media design. Later, Twitter, LinkedIn and Telegram used shades of blue and blue in their design.

The laws of statics indicate that the chair is stable as long as its center of gravity with the person is above the contour described around its supports. Therefore the less the supports are, the more they have to be spread out. However, each successive support makes the structure more expensive, giving less and less contribution to stability.

Ordinary chairs are limited to four legs, for the sake of simplicity of rectangular connections and ease of storage. A swivel chair with a center post, on the other hand, gets important advantages from a fifth leg. Not only does it retain stability with smaller legs, but it's safer if one of the wheels breaks. It's also less likely to wobble on an uneven floor.

Walking outdoors activates blood flow, strengthens the heart and bones, tones muscles, improves sleep and lung function.

Moreover, it helps to relieve stress and fight stress. To get the best results, you need to practice walking for 30-60 minutes every day. Exactly exercise.

Street cats have long held an essential place in the ecosystem of Turkish port cities, where rodents have always been plentiful.

In the 8th century, tireless hunters saved Istanbul from the plague by exterminating the hordes of rats that swarmed the port docks and streets. To this day, cats still control the population of mice and rats in cities.

The word barbaros, in Greek, means a meaningless and completely untranslatable set of sounds. The ancient Greeks called barbarians those who did not know their language. Originally, the term "barbarian" did not have any negative meaning. Only much later, in the fifth century BC, during the Greco-Persian Wars, did the Greeks become aware of the spiritual inferiority of their non-speakers, and the term took on a different meaning.

The Romans considered barbaric those peoples who did not live "according to the rules," that is, who did not observe the laws of the empire.

Extroverts tend to be active, sociable. They easily establish contact with others. Also able to inspire and inspire optimism.

And introverts are calm, deep thinkers. Reflect for a long time decisions, analyze all options. They are able to avoid problems. Therefore, the calm introvert keeps from making rash decisions, and temperament extrovert rouse the other half.

Precisely owing to the fact that they have different strengths, they complement each other perfectly.

You can thank the Coanda effect for that: when we pour liquid from a vessel, it tends to follow the curve of its edge. If the liquid flow is strong, the jet comes off the edge and everything passes without incident. But if the flow is too weak, the tea will run along the side of the teapot and end up on the tablecloth.

So you should pour liquids confidently, not just a little bit at a time.

Plants can "communicate" with each other via chemical signals, but their ability to transmit signals is not limited to airborne communication.

Warnings from one plant to another, such as pest infestation, can be transmitted through mycorrhiza, symbiotic fungi whose structures braid the roots of plants and allow them to get much more nutrients and water from the soil.

When an uninfested plant receives an alert, it begins to secrete repellents against specific pests or other substances in advance that attract the enemies of those pests.

Today's electric and hybrid cars are virtually silent. This, according to a number of researchers, poses a safety risk for pedestrians, who are used to the hum of the car's engine, and especially for the blind.

Japan and the European Union have already passed laws requiring the manufacturers of such cars to install artificial noise systems.

In the USA, the compulsory installation of such systems with automatic activation of noise when driving at speeds up to 30 km/h has been introduced in 2021.

This tradition dates back to ancient Egypt, where the sundial was invented five thousand years ago. As the sun in the sky turns from east to west, the shadow of the pin in the center of the dial moves in a circle from left to right.

When mechanical clocks appeared in the Middle Ages, first tower clocks, craftsmen retained the "sundial principle". The first tower chimes had only one hour hand, which also moved from left to right. This has been the case with all clocks ever since.

Dogs were domesticated earlier, at least 15,000 years ago and spread all over the world, which was the prerequisite for local breeds. They were used for a variety of purposes, bred special breeds of hunting, shepherding, guarding...


Cats became domestic in the full sense much later, about 3.5 thousand years ago (the famous Egyptian cats were temple animals like monkeys in modern India), and were used for a single role: to exterminate domestic rodents.


Cat breeding was much less strict: people, of course, selected kittens they liked, but hardly engaged in purposeful crossbreeding.

It's all about their immune system, in this respect bats are, one might say, unique. Their organism is a powerful machine for fighting the most dangerous viruses, although the immunity works just enough to keep the mouse from getting sick, but the virus itself in their organism never dies, rather adapts, mutating into more infectious forms. And so it turns out that a naive mouse lives and has no idea that inside it, as if in an incubator, there is an embittered virus, just waiting for an opportunity to take revenge.

As an example, 55 different viruses have been detected in the body of one large individual. And if one person gets sick, then everyone gets sick. After all, bats infect each other instantly, and all because such a popular nowadays phenomenon as "social distance" is unknown to them.

The abrasive part is always a tougher material that is used to remove limescale or burnt product residue.

The glued layer has different colors, indicating the properties of the abrasive.


It is assigned to the toughest materials. Therefore, the green color says that this sponge will help to cope with any dirt. But you should be more careful to clean dishes with it with enamel, so as not to damage it.


The red color scotch-brite is less stiff. It freely removes dirt and dried-on food residue, but is still inferior in "strength" to green. Your dishes are not in danger of scratches and marks from intensive friction.


This color is almost like a neutral color. That's why it was chosen as the lightest abrasive color, which has a neutral effect on the surface to be cleaned. It can be safely used for washing glasses and glassware.

The comb not only shows the attractiveness of the male to the female, but also its state of health. Scientists have found that in healthy roosters the comb is large and has a bright color. In sick birds the comb is smaller and paler.

Perhaps the same property is characteristic of other birds. If this is true, then the decorations on the body of animals are not just for beauty, but show the state of health of the male.

First, it visually lengthens the legs. Yeah, still, there is a place for aesthetics here. So it's not a myth.


Secondly, the tights hide the damage on the skates. Shoes are the skater's workhorses, so they get badly scratched and battered over the season. To hide the shabby look, some people touch them up, and others pull tights over them.


Many skaters wear socks, sometimes even terry socks, to create some sort of comfort inside the shoe. The tights inside the shoe will slip, and if you put them on top, they can cover those very socks.

The touching myth of the hedgehog hoarding apples and mushrooms for its babies was created by Pliny the Elder. According to him, the hedgehog is able to "deliberately" cling to grape berries, or, in some cases, to apples.

In reality, the hedgehog is not physically capable of riding on its back while piercing fruit with its needles. Moreover, most hedgehogs have no interest in apples. When you meet a hedgehog, treat him not with milk and fruit, but with earthworms, bird eggs, and canned dog meat.

Still, young hedgehogs do not mind peeking into the garden and eating grapes and overripe plums. A couple of rotten fruits may well fall on their backs and get caught in the needles.

Cinema tickets in Germany are expensive, they can cost around €10. That's why it's a good deal for film lovers to buy a monthly pass for €23.


Yet you have to pay for extra minutes of film: a subscription includes films of 120 minutes, and time over this limit is paid separately. There is even a special term for this phenomenon: Überlängenzuschlag.

On the carvings of the New Cathedral of Salamanca, built in the 16th-18th centuries, you can find the figure of an astronaut in a spacesuit.

Nothing mystical here: according to a local tradition, every time buildings are restored, elements reflecting modernity are added. One of the craftsmen chose the astronaut during the next restoration in 1992.

Vandals have since damaged the hand and face of the figure, making it look as if it has survived the centuries.

Thus, even the very thick trunk of the strongest tree, once it gets to a height of a couple of hundred meters, either it cannot support its own weight, or it will fall under a gust of wind. If the trunk were not a column, but a cone with a very wide base, the tree would be able to grow up to 500 meters.

As for trees, they use the so-called turgor pump to transport nutrients, which uses osmotic pressure and water molecules that "bind" to each other by surface tension, or cohesion. However, soon after 130 meters of ascent, the turgor pump will stand up.

Besides, the efficiency of photosynthesis decreases in a tall tree: such a giant cannot have a sprawling crown commensurate with its size.

The reason is that it is high above the ground. The flight altitude of a civilian airliner is about 10 kilometers. It takes about that much time for the view behind the window to change noticeably. At a normal speed of 700-900 km / h (200-250 m / s) for this requires almost a minute.

A car moves on the highway 10 times slower, but the distance to the trees does not exceed ten meters, and the picture behind the side window is updated on average twice a second. Therefore it seems that the plane "drags" in comparison with the car.

However, the illusion disappears as soon as the plane descends, although when landing its speed is about three times less than at altitude.

Electron-beam screens (with the volumetric kinescope box behind) could theoretically damage the eyes, because the electron bombardment of the phosphor layer produces weak X-rays. There were special protections on such screens. But these monitors are practically out of use, and they have never been used in portable devices.


Modern liquid crystal screens do not emit anything but visible light, and the eyes can get tired when working with them, just like when reading a book, for example.

Morphine and the other narcotic alkaloids of the opium poppy are virtually volatile under normal conditions. They evaporate only when heated strongly, such as in smoking devices.

So even a full day's work in a poppy plantation cannot produce a dose capable of causing any noticeable narcotic intoxication.

The banana is a perennial herb, not at all the palm that it so resembles.

The stem reaches a length of about 8-10 meters in height and is about 35-40 centimeters in diameter. The fruits take an average of two to six months to mature.

Initially they grow downwards, but under the influence of growth hormone the fruits bend upwards and curve under the pressure of their own weight.

By the way, in Cuba bananas are deep-fried, in Indonesia they are served with fish, in Australia bananas are a great side dish to a nutritious steak.

Morocco is the only country where goats do not graze on the ground but on trees. The reason is an acute shortage of grass. The goats climb the argania trees that grow there, where they eat the leaves and fruits. The task of shepherds is usually not only to drive the goats from tree to tree and control the herd, but also to collect bones from the argania fruits, which the goats spit out.

They produce valuable argan oil, used in cosmetology and cooking.

Few trees grow on clean sand because it quickly loses moisture. The tree needs the proximity of groundwater, or a long root that can reach the aquifers. Another problem is the lack of mineral nutrition, especially nitrogen nutrition.

Trees growing on sand have to make do with scarce nitrogen compounds dropped out of the atmosphere during thunderstorms and bird droppings. Almost all trees on sand grow more slowly than on richer soils and grow smaller.

In Great Britain, the Dalmatian became known as a carriage dog. Their carriage escort, strength, endurance and fearlessness made them the constant companions of the English nobility. The dogs ran under the front axle of the carriage and could travel long distances on a par with horses.

During the halts the faithful animals, caressing and entertaining their masters, did not forget to vigilantly guard their peace. At the slightest danger, they bravely fought both wild animals and forest robbers.

This is why "carriage" dogs had their floppy ears cropped, which suffered most during fights. The first official "Dalmatian Club" was established by the British in 1890 and they also developed a show standard for this breed.

The sloth got its name because of its sedentary, half-sleeping lifestyle. The animal has poorly developed hearing, but this drawback is largely compensated by its sense of smell and sight, as well as the presence of two extra vertebrae, which allow it to turn its head by 270°.

The sloth's long, shaggy, often piled fur grows toward its belly, and in its "grooves" live and multiply two kinds of algae, which give the animal a greenish-brown color.

This "camouflage suit" allows the animal to live relatively quietly, remaining unnoticed in the jungle among numerous predators.

Since even in sleep the brain analyzes sounds, and the sleeper wakes up if the sound is unexpected or has a signal meaning (call, name calling). A person may also be awakened by the absence of a sound, for example, if a night train, which constantly passes by his house at the same time, for some reason did not pass by.


At the same time, the loud but familiar noise does not bother the person, which is known to anyone who has fallen asleep in the subway. Here, too, the snorer's brain does not perceive snoring as an unexpected sound.

The flight crew turns off the main cabin lights during take-off and landing for the safety of the passengers in case of an emergency.

It is done so that passengers' eyes become accustomed to the dark, not for comfort but for safety reasons.

If passengers need to be evacuated immediately, their eyes will be better prepared for darkness or smoke. In addition, emergency signs will be more visible.

Since the glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica.

When the salty ocean water evaporates, it turns fresh and falls as precipitation. In Greenland and Antarctica, the fallen snow compacts under its own weight and slides off the edges of the land. A so-called ice shelf glacier is formed, and huge pieces of icebergs break away from the edges of the glacier.

Many fruits retain their flavor and some of their color when dried, such as hot peppers. The insides of saffron blossoms are used as a food coloring because of their resistance to drying. But in general, the smell is really more persistent than the taste and color.

The reason for this is that the aroma of plants is determined by the presence of essential oils, esters and higher alcohols, which are chemically stable even in the absence of moisture. And color and taste depend on substances that are usually stable only in aqueous solutions. When they dry out, they break down or combine with other substances, losing their properties.

Drinking water itself has no expiration date - unlike the containers in which it is stored. When liquids are stored for long periods of time, plastic containers release chemicals that affect the taste and safety of the product. This does not mean that the water immediately becomes poisonous, but it gradually loses its freshness and can become stale.


It is believed that water in glass bottles retains its taste longer.

Early cameras didn't have fast central shutters, so they used shutters with moving shutters to take pictures of moving objects. This caused pictures of cars on the move to have oval wheels.


But this was not seen as a defect, as it was believed that such photos could not better emphasize the swiftness and speed. Later that is why artists of comics and cartoons often depicted cars with oval wheels.

The premiere of Wagner's Parsifal in Bayreuth was warmly received by the audience, but the composer, wishing to set the mood for serious applause, asked not to call the performers to their feet after each act, but only at the very end. The audience was confused and stopped even applauding, which confused Wagner himself. But it was too late - avoiding applause until the end of Parsifal had become a tradition in Bayreuth.


At one performance Wagner, seated in the auditorium himself, shouted: "Bravo!" to which he heard his neighbors hiss. In some theaters, such as the Metropolitan Opera, the audience supports this tradition; in others they applaud as usual.

It's all about refraction - the curvature of the path of light as it moves through layers of air of varying density. This causes the light to twist slightly, allowing you to "look beyond the horizon”.


In summer, refraction at the horizon is about 0.5°, but in winter the cold air becomes denser and refraction increases, rarely reaching 2°. Then you can see more distant objects.

The filament of an incandescent bulb heats up to about 2000 °C. It oxidizes and degrades quite quickly in the air at this temperature. That is why the air is evacuated from the bulbs.

Yet if a small crack appears in the bulb through which air penetrates, it heats up sharply when the lamp is turned on and the increased pressure can destroy the bulb. Almost at the same moment the coil, which was in the air environment, burns out.

Object surfaces are not perfectly flat. Groups of atoms and molecules form a topography with protrusions and depressions. When the protrusions of two parts come close together, they can catch on each other mechanically or get bound by the forces of intermolecular attraction.

As a result, the atoms on the surface of the sliding parts first shift slightly from their equilibrium positions, and then, when the shift becomes too great, the bond between them is broken, and they, like on springs, return to their original position. In doing so, they gain speed and push neighboring atoms, causing them to move chaotically.

And the chaotic motion of the atoms is heat.

Gargling with salt water is a common treatment for sore throats. According to otolaryngologists, gargling with a solution consisting of half a teaspoon of salt and a quarter cup of warm water relieves the pain caused by inflammation. Similarly, if soda is added to salt water, the solution can break down dense mucus.

The solution cleanses the mouth, temporarily washing away bacteria and pus.

Circumstantial evidence of this is the characteristic habit of goats to rub their beards with the secret of their under-tail glands (which are absent in females), which contain sex pheromones.

As zoologists assume, it is a "physiological calendar" that allows congeners to determine the age, condition and also to become an individual.

This feature plays an important role for contacts between members of the same species.

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