With fast charging, you can charge your phone a lot faster than normal. That's useful if you're about to leave and notice that your phone is almost empty. After a quick charge, your phone will last another couple of hours.

The output of a charge is measured in amperage and voltage. Amperage (or current) is the amount of electricity flowing from the battery to the connected device, while voltage is the strength of the electric current. Multiplying volts by amps gives you wattage, the measure of total power.

To make a device charge faster, most manufacturers either boost the amperage or vary the voltage in order to increase the amount of potential energy. The majority of fast charging standards typically vary the voltage rather than boost the amperage.


Standard USB 3.0 ports output at a level of 5V/1A for smaller devices like wearables. Most phones and other devices are capable of handling 5V/2.4A. For fast charging, you're looking at something that bumps the voltage up 5V, 9V, 12V, and beyond, or increases amperage to 3A and above.

Keep in mind, your device will only take in as much power as its charging circuit is designed for. For fast charging to work, you need a phone or other device with a charging circuit capable of using one of the fast charging standards, and an adapter and cable enabled for that same standard.


Types of Fast Charging:

  • Quick Charge: Qualcomm’s Quick Charge is the most common fast-charging standard simply because lots of companies use Qualcomm chipsets.
  • Adaptive Fast Charging: Samsung Adaptive Fast Charging, by contrast, is found on most current-generation Samsung devices and uses a variance of Qualcomm’s Quick Charge 2.0 (QC2.0) protocol.
  • Apple Fast Charging: Apple mobiles supports Fast Charging.
  • Pump Express: MediaTek Pump Express is another fast charging standard. In this case, it relies on varying voltage while also bumping up the current. Smartphones using Pump Express include some from Xiaomi, Motorola, Nokia, and others.

Other fast charging standards include Oppo Super VOOC Flash Charge, OnePlus Dash Charging, and Huawei SuperCharge. Each requires a smartphone from the same company. Both the Oppo and OnePlus standard increases the current rather than the voltage, while Huawei’s technology varies the voltage and amperage.

Finally, there’s ANKER Power IQ, Which takes a different approach to fast charging in that it’s compatible with many of the others. In doing so, Anker offers supported products that operate using a single USB-C port. Doing so can adjust the voltage output based on the fast charging technology backed by the connected device.

A lie detector, also known as a Polygraph test works by detecting physiological changes due to a psychological stimulus. The earliest version of the instrument was developed in 1921 by John Larson who combined changes in respiration, heart rate and blood pressure as physiological changes that occur when a person is lying. The modern polygraph is a technologically advanced system that measures the same parameters with high levels of accuracy with computers.


The theory behind lie detection tests are that when people are lying they experience a different emotional state when compared to telling the truth, it is believed that in high stake scenarios, being anxious or afraid of getting caught when being guilty of an offense manifests physiologically. This is due to the sympathetic nervous systems response of flight and fight that releases hormones which increase heart rate, elevate body temperature and respiration.

The term polygraph originates from the use of multiple sensors on the person being monitored, poly stands for many and graph is the single strip of paper that the recording is done on. The sensors measure breathing, pulse rate, blood pressure and perspiration and in some cases even measure certain muscular movements of the arms and legs. A control test is first conducted to record the changes in these parameters when the person is saying the truth and then compared to questions related to the offense committed, a polygraph examiner than compares both graphs and sees if there was any significant change during the questioning of the offense.

The accuracy of polygraph tests have been questioned since its inception and many scientists believe that it is accurate only 75% of the time, while many experienced polygraph examiners and analysts argue that its accurate 87% of the time. This is the reason why polygraph tests are not admissible in trial in many countries. There have been case studies of innocent people failing the lie detector test out of nervousness and guilty persons clearing it by keeping calm. Polygraph is still employed by employers in federal agencies and in military industries but with a combination of other lie detection techniques and background verification.

A mobile phone jammer or blocker is a device which deliberately transmits signals on the same radio frequencies as mobile phones, disrupting the communication between the phone and the cell-phone base station, effectively disabling mobile phones within the range of the jammer, preventing them from receiving signals and from transmitting them. Jammers can be used in practically any location, but are found primarily in places where a phone call would be particularly disruptive because silence is expected, such as entertainment venues.


It might be hard to follow this process without first understanding cell phone signals. Cell phones work by sending signals to cell phone towers. The cell tower that receives the signal depends on the cell phone’s location. Cell towers divide their workload by honing in on specific areas. So when you travel with your cell phone, your cell phone sends signals to different towers.


The jamming device works by sending radio frequencies to the same tower. It will overpower the cell phone signal by mimicking your cell phone. Basically, it sends out a signal that is the same frequency as your phone. This signal is powerful enough to outmuscle your phone’s signal. The jamming device’s signal and your cell phone signal eventually collide. This process causes a lapse in communication between the cell phone and the cell phone tower.

A Moonbow (sometimes known as a lunar rainbow) is an optical phenomenon caused when the light from the moon is refracted through water droplets in the air. Moonbows were first mentioned by Aristotle back in 350BC, and there are certain parts of the world where you are more likely to see them, such as Hawaii.


The amount of light available even from the brightest full moon is far less than that produced by the sun so moonbows are incredibly faint and very rarely seen. The fact that not enough light is produced to excite the cone colour receptors in the human eye also compounds the difficulty we have in seeing Moonbows.


As nouns the difference between rainbow and Moonbow is that rainbow is a multicoloured arch in the sky, produced by prismatic refraction of light within droplets of rain in the air while Moonbow is (meteorology) a rainbow formed by moonlight diffracted by water droplets in the air, usually fainter than a daytime rainbow and with fewer distinguishable colours.

CMOS stands for “Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.” The CMOS battery powers the BIOS firmware in your laptop.


BIOS needs to remain operational even when your computer isn’t plugged into a power source. That’s where the battery comes in. When your computer gets unplugged, BIOS relies on the CMOS battery for power.


You’ll find CMOS batteries in both laptops and desktop PCs, but it’s used more frequently in a laptop. That’s because laptops are usually unplugged for a longer amount of time than desktop PCs. Most desktop PCs are unplugged from their power source very infrequently.


The CMOS battery gets charged whenever your laptop is plugged in. It’s only when your laptop is unplugged that the battery loses charge. Most batteries will last 2 to 10 years from the date they’re manufactured. The more you leave your laptop plugged in, the longer your battery will last.

An equinox is a date when the duration of day is equal to the duration of night. The Sun will pass directly above the equator, bringing nearly equal amounts of day and night on all parts of Earth. At the equator, an equinox results in about 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night. Equinox means "equal night" in Latin.

Solstice, an event that occurs twice a year, where the Sun appears to reach its northern most or farthest point from an observer on earth or southern most or the closest point from an observer on earth.


An equinox occurs midway between the two solstices, due to the position of the sun, solstice are dates when the duration of day is least equal to the duration of night.

The Summer Solstice is the longest day of the year, and happens around 21 December in the Southern Hemisphere and 21 June in the Northern Hemisphere. The Winter Solstice is the shortest day of the year, and happens around 21 June in the Southern Hemisphere and 21 December in the Northen Hemisphere.

In simple words, if today is the equinox, everyday from tomorrow will have less equal hours during the day in relation with the night until the next equinox.

Both equinox and solstices belong to "astronomical" seasons that occur due to the tilt of the Earth's axis. Like there are two solstices, Summer and Winter Solstices, there are two equinoxes, the Spring and Fall Equinoxes. One around March 21 and another around September 22, the March equinox is also called as the vernal equinox signaling the onset of spring and The September equinox is also called as the autumnal equinox signaling the onset of Fall.


The names of the equinoxes are reversed depending on which hemisphere you experience it!

Eggs are rich in proteins, the three main components are the egg shell, the egg white and the egg yolk. All proteins are made of building blocks called as amino acids arranged in chains, the specific folding a chain of amino acid undergoes gives a protein its properties.

Now this structure can be modified by various applications of heat or chemicals and the process of changing the original structure of a protein is called as denaturing. Denaturation in simple words, alters the bonds between the amino acids chains in the original or native structure of the protein, altering the bonds alters the properties of the protein.

In case of an egg, the egg white which is a semi-fluid state in its native form, on application of heat through boiling clumps together and hardens, forming the white exterior of boiled eggs, the egg yolk which is also in a semi-fluid state hardens forming the hard yellow yolk we find in a boiled egg.

However food scientists have found that boiling eggs for different duration of time leads in different extent of denaturation, enabling them to experiment with dishes that have a slightly runny yolk or a slightly soft texture to the boiled egg.

The main difference between green tea and black tea is that black tea is oxidized during production while green tea is not.

Tea is an addictive beverage we all love. It is true that green and black tea varies in colour and taste. These differences are a result of their manufacturing process. During the process of black tea production, manufacturers first roll the tea leaves and then expose the tea leaves to air to enhance the oxidation process. Consequently, the leaves become dark brown, and the flavors get more intense. However, green tea has a relatively light colour and a milder taste than black. This is mainly because manufacturers focus on avoiding oxidation during the processing of green tea. Despite these differences, both varieties provide significant benefits to your health.

Green tea is a common variety of tea produced using the evergreen Camellia sinensis plant. In processing green tea, the manufacturers heat the leaves of green tea just after harvesting them in order to avoid the process of oxidation.

Geographically, green tea plantations can be mainly found in China and Japan. When it comes to brewing, we usually use water with a relatively low temperature to prepare green tea (at or around 175 degrees). Some Japanese green teas, such as Kabusecha and Gyokuro, require a much lower temperature, around 140 degrees.

Black tea is another variety of tea prepared by the leaves taken from the same plant Camellia sinensis. However, unlike the leaves of green tea, the manufactures completely oxidize the black tea leaves right after harvesting them. The process of oxidation turns the leaves into a dark brown or a black shade, unlike the green tea leaves, which preserve their natural green shade.

Currently, different varieties of black tea are mainly grown in India and China. Some of the world-famous black tea varieties are Assam, Golden Yunnan and Darjeeling. Further, Vietnam and Nepal are the other two large-scale black tea producing Asian countries in the world.

In contrast to green tea, when brewing black tea, we use boiling water at or around a temperature of 212 degrees. Moreover, we steep black tea for about 3-5 minutes.

Refresh rate is the frequency at which the screen updates with new images each second, measured in hertz (cycles per second). The content may look steady on the display, but what the viewer can’t see is how fast the content is changing — up to 360 times a second. The higher the refresh rate, the smoother the visual quality.


Super high monitor refresh rates aren’t all that important for office workers focused on lighter computing like word processing, spreadsheets and emails. But in more visual professions like creative production and game development, a high refresh rate for monitors is invaluable.


The standard refresh rate for desktop monitors is 60Hz. But in recent years, more specialized, high performing monitors have been developed that support 120Hz, 144Hz and even 240Hz refresh rates, which ensure ultra-smooth content viewing, even for the most demanding visual processing needs.


Just buying a high refresh rate monitor doesn’t mean the display quality will magically improve. The monitor’s refresh rate reflects the maximum rate at which the display can change the visuals. What happens on the screen depends on the frame rate of the output — the number of video frames that are sent to the display each second.


The majority of Movies, for example, are shot and produced at 24 frames per second (fps), so a 60Hz monitor will easily offer smooth playback. But having a 120Hz monitor (or even faster) won’t provide any visible benefit to playback quality.


Refresh rate is a measure of how many frames a monitor can refresh every second. FPS, however, is a measure of the ability of the graphics card to draw a number of frames on the display each second. While both are a measure of different things, they are directly related and affect each other.

Microneedling is a cosmetic procedure, that involves puncturing or pricking the skin using sterilized needles. The micro wounds caused by this procedure stimulate your body to produce more collagen and elastin which repair the punctures made giving your skin a smoother more younger appearance.

Dermatologists would recommend microneedling to patients suffering from acne, hyperpigmentation, alopecia, scarring, stretchmarks and wrinkles. The procedure is non-invasive, cheaper than laser therapy and takes around 10-20 minutes depending on the area of skin required to be microneedled.

The Doctor first applies a numbing cream to the region of skin that is to be microneedled, next a roller or a pen containing sterilized micro needles is applied on the area, finally a cream or serum is applied to ease the pain and promote healing.

Most individuals require 4-6 sessions before seeing any difference, though considered as a safe procedure, since the skin is being pricked or punctured, there are risks of allergic reaction, infection and scarring if the procedure is conducted inaccurately or if the patient works in environments rich in antigens like swimming pools, lakes and oceans.

In simple words, Morse code is a language that communicates through a series of on-off signals, this can be tones, clicks or light flashes. Morse code is a system of communication developed by Samuel F.B. Morse for electrical telegraphy in the 1830's.

It represents letters of the alphabet, numbers and punctuation marks as a series of dots, spaces and dashes. The shortcoming with the original morse code was that it was unable to transmit non-english text since it lacked code for letters with diacritic marks (letters that contain apostrophe marks), to remedy this a variant called the International Morse Code was developed in 1851.

Also called as the continental morse code, since its inception, except for a few changes made in 1938 the code remains the same. It incorporated uniform dash lengths and eliminated the use of spaces in letters being communicated.

Morse code was employed heavily in the communication of World War II and is used even today for various military communications. An amateur radio communication operator is required to learn fluency in this language to obtain a license to operate a radio apparatus from home. Morse code though has dropped in its popularity due to other systems of communication still finds its use in disaster prone areas and disaster management as well as to communicate remotely in the absence of other systems of communication.

Tetrapod, in Greek means “four legged.” If you observe a tetrapod you will see four legs protruding from a middle structure just like a star fish. These four-legged tetrapods are nothing but concrete made structures used to prevent coastal erosion. The name has become so famous that now even the three-legged concrete structures are also known as tetrapods.

The tetrapods are designed in such a way that they dissipate the force of incoming waves by making the water flow around rather than against them. They also reduce displacement by allowing the random distribution of tetrapods to mutually interlock. Due to their weight and design, tetrapods can remain stable even under the most extreme weather conditions. A number of tetrapods arranged together form an interlocking, porous barrier that dissipates the power of waves and currents.

The wave pool is the most popular traditional project in the current water park, and it belongs to the artificial simulation of the sea wave environment. It is generally the largest pool among all swimming pools in the water park, and it is also the most creative atmosphere. Artificial wave pool is a multidisciplinary and comprehensive equipment engineering involving aerospace, wave mechanics, mechanics, electrical control systems and many other disciplines. The transmission of waves is a process of diffusion and energy consumption. Therefore, the design of deep water is often high in wave height and small in area. The shallow water area has small wave height and large area. The normal water depth is 0 m to 1.6 or 1.8 m, and the bottom slope is less than 8%. The shape of the wave pool The design is very important. The good shape of the pool is conducive to the resonance, propagation and superposition of the waves, which in turn affects the shape of the waves. The same wave-making equipment has different sizes due to different pool shapes.The undulating layers of waves on the water always bring the excitement of the visitors, so that some foreign water parks have only build such a large pool to make the visitors happy. At present, most of the parks use wave generation methods such as air blow waves, vacuum waves and plate-type waves.

White fabrics acquire a slight color cast after use (mainly grey or yellow). Since blue and yellow are complementary colors in the subtractive color model of color perception, adding a trace of blue color to the slightly off-white color of these fabrics makes them appear whiter. Laundry detergents may also use fluorescing agents to similar effect. Many white fabrics are blued during manufacturing. Bluing is not permanent and rinses out over time leaving dingy or yellowed whites. A commercial bluing product allows the consumer to add the bluing back into the fabric to restore whiteness.On the same principle, bluing is sometimes used by white-super people in a blue rinse.

Bluing has other miscellaneous household uses, including as an ingredient in rock crystal "gardens" (whereby a porous item is placed in a salt solution, the solution then precipitating out as crystals), and to improve the appearance of swimming-pool water.

Laundry bluing is made of a very fine blue iron powder suspended in water (a colloidal suspension).

Blue colorings have been added to rinse water for centuries, first in the form of powder blue or smalt, or using small lumps of indigo and starch, called stone blue. After the invention of synthetic ultramarine and Prussian blue it was manufactured by many companies.

In many places, it has been replaced by bleach for its primary purpose.

A Nit (nt) is a unit that represents the intensity of visible light. Nits are commonly used to describe the brightness of video displays, such as LED panels. The name nit is believed to have come from the Latin nitere, a word meaning 'to shine'.

One nit is equal to one candela per square meter. You may have seen light measures like candelas, lumens, lux, and others. But the nit, because it is a measurement of luminous intensity over a given area, makes it more useful for comparing relative brightnesses of displays even if they're not all the exact same size. It is the measurement you are going to see most.

Another common measurement of light intensity, the lumen, is often used in rating projectors, so you may run across it. It is a measurement of reflected light at a distance from the reflecting surface. And because projectors are still often used in indoor venues, comparing nits and lumens can be useful. In round terms, 1 nit is equal 3.5 lumens (3.426 to be more exact).

A simple way to remember the difference between nits and lumens is that the nit is analogous to sunlight, direct light; while the lumen is more like moonlight, or reflected light.

A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the skin in your chest to help control your heartbeat. It's used to help your heart beat more regularly if you have an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), particularly a slow one. Implanting a pacemaker in your chest requires a surgical procedure.

Types of pacemakers:- Depending on your condition, you might have one of the following types of pacemakers.

  • Single chamber pacemaker- This type usually carries electrical impulses to the right ventricle of your heart.
  • Dual chamber pacemaker- This type carries electrical impulses to the right ventricle and the right atrium of your heart to help control the timing of contractions between the two chambers.
  • Biventricular pacemaker- Biventricular pacing, also called cardiac resynchronization therapy, is for people with heart failure with abnormal electrical systems. This type of pacemaker stimulates the lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles) to make the heart beat more efficiently.

When a bundle of light hits a flat surface, it becomes polarized, or is reflected horizontally. The bundle becomes concentrated and is blinding anyone observing it. This is referred to as blinding glare.

These reflections can be uniform, which is light reflected from a smooth service. Uniform reflections would be light reflected off the road, or off a car’s bumper or back window. They can also be non-uniform, which is light reflected from an uneven surface. An example of this would be light reflected off running water or a patch of ice on the road.

No matter what the case, the desired result is to filter out the distracting reflected light and provide a clear viewing experience for the wearer.

A Ball point pen is a pen that uses a small rotating ball made of brass, steel, or tungsten carbide to disperse ink as you write. All of the pens that preceded the ballpoint -- whether quill, metal or fountain -- used a watery, dark india ink that fed through the pen using capillary action. The ink can flow unevenly.

The ball is located in between the ink reservoir and the paper by a socket, and while it's in tight, it has enough room to roll around as you write. As the pen moves across the paper, the ball turns and gravity forces the ink down the reservoir and onto the ball where it is transferred onto the paper. It's this rolling mechanism that allows the ink to flow onto the top of the ball and roll onto the paper you're writing on, while at the same time sealing the ink from the air so it does not dry in the reservoir.

The earwax is very useful substance which keeps our ears healthy and is produced naturally in the ear. This wax is found not only in humans, but also in animals. It cleans, protects and lubricates the ears. Let us study through this article about earwax, its function etc.

The scientific name of the earwax is cerumen. It is formed in the outer part of our ear canal where there are thousands of glands. It is sticky and shiny substance. It coats the ear to moisturize it and fight against infection. Earwax also prevents from dust, dirt, and insects from entering the ear.

It also works like a natural antibiotic, i.e. it contains anti-microbial properties. According to some researchers, cerumen contains a lysozyme antibacterial enzyme which is capable of destroying the walls of the cells of bacteria.

With the help of earwax, you can tell which family you belong to. People have wet or dry wax. Although, both the wax is made up of chemicals. But it depends upon the family that the wax will be wet or dry in your ear. This is detected by the gene. This gene is called ABCC11. If the gene G is replaced by gene A, then, the wax in the ear will be dry and its odour will also be different.

Earwax works by: Protecting and moisturizing the ear canal skin, Preventing dry & itchy ears, Utilising special chemicals that help ward off ear infections. Shielding the eardrum. Trapping dust, dirt, water and other things that can enter your ear, so they don’t travel any further. Earwax is essential to good ear health. However, build-up can easily be problematic for your overall quality of hearing.

Digital Thermometers are slowly replacing the conventional mercury thermometer due to the ease of taking reading. People often have the misconception that it contains mercury. Digital Thermometers are mercury free. These thermometers contain thermistor inside the tip which is used to measure the temperature. They provide quick and highly accurate results over the body temperature range.


These thermometers are easy to read with LCD display on them. They are equipped with beep alarm & memory function and can record a wide range of temperature. Doctor’s thermometer which are mostly used can read temperature between 94°F and 105°F (35°C and 42°C). It is three in one thermometer as it can record oral, auxiliary and rectal temperatures.


The tip is said as the heart of the thermometer. It is the placed closed to the body part to measure the temperature of the body. The tip of the Thermometer contains thermistor to measure temperature. It is a ceramic semiconductor which is bonded in the tip with temperature sensitive epoxy. It is covered with a cap so to prevent it from the outer world. The cap may be made up of metal or stainless steel. Thermistor is responsible for converting the physical temperature into electrical signals.


Thermistor is a special kind of semiconductor in which the value of resistance changes with the change in temperature. Due to change in resistance value, the output voltage changes and the temperature change is detected.

Doctors listen to heart sounds by stethoscope. Normally heart sounds like "lub-dup". So there are two sounds : first heart sound (S1) and the second heart sound (S2). Sometimes a water flow like (whooshing or swishing) sound accompanies the "lub-dup". This is called heart murmur.

Heart murmurs are produced by turbulent blood flow across an abnormal heart valve, septal defect of heart or outflow obstruction from heart; or they may be produced by increased volume or velocity of blood flow through a normal heart valve.

Murmurs are produced both in normal and abnormal heart. Heart of pregnant woman and athletes may produce murmurs. These are the examples of "Innocent murmurs".

Other causes of heart murmur are : Valvular heart diseases (mitral stenosis and regurgitation, tricuspid stenosis and regurgitation, aortic stenosis and regurgitation, pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation), Patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect etc.

A Reflector refers distinctly to an equipment used by photographers and cinematographers to bounce light in a certain direction. It acts as a medium to bounce light and redirect light to illuminate the subject more effectively! A reflector can be either artificial or natural, natural reflectors are objects in the environment that naturally reflect light - cars, walls, buildings, roads and other reflective surfaces are natural reflectors.

Artificial reflectors are used by photographers to control the brightness and intensity of available light and to counteract harsh over exposure due to available light. The artificial reflector is made up of two parts, the reflective material and the frame. The purpose of the frame is to keep the reflective material taught at an angle that directs the reflected light to a specific direction.

There are many different reflective surfaces used, the most common being, white, silver and gold. Depending on the specific reflective material used, a different effect is achieved by varying the distance from the subject and angle of reflected light. Black colored reflectors are used to absorb light and introduce shadows.

Reflectors empower the photographer to control the quality of light and also gives them control over the overall contrast and shadows created by reflecting natural or artificial light from a light source. An additional use of reflectors is when it is coupled with a studio strobe. it varies the angle at which the light is emitted out. Reflectors vary in size and shape and depending on the particular need of the photographer or cinematographer to light a scene, a particular type of reflector is used.

Orthopedic shoes, also known as custom-made therapeutic shoes, are designed for patients with significant deformities. They are made to fit specifically to their morphology. This equipment aims to improve the functions of walking, particularly thanks to the orthopedic insoles called plantar orthoses.

Orthopedic shoes feature orthotic insoles that provide good arch support. The main purpose of the arch support is to eliminate excessive pronation, which affects foot function and is the main cause of foot and heel pain.

Orthotic insoles help reduce pressure on the heel and the ball of the foot by transferring a substantial portion of body weight to the arch. In shoes without good arch support, the arch area doesn’t participate in distributing the pressure under the foot.

Excessive pronation causes the leg to internally rotate, putting stress on the knee, hip and lower back. Orthotic insoles with good arch support play an important role in alleviating stress on the knees, hips and lower back as well in improving foot and leg alignment.

Automobile engineers have been developing and marketing hybrid vehicles since the late 1800s; however, due to the higher cost involved in producing it on a massive scale, its popularity in the market still remains low. But car manufacturers continue to research and develop newer hybrid technology to comply with strict emissions norms.

A hybrid vehicle gets its energy simultaneously from a gasoline engine and an electric motor. The engine and the motor work together to power the car; this helps to increase your fuel economic rating (i.e. how many miles you can travel with one gallon of gasoline). The engine also uses gasoline to help recharge the vehicle’s battery, which powers the electric motor.

A plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) also uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor, but in different ways. The plug-in hybrid runs primarily using its electric motor, powered by the battery. A plug-in hybrid won’t tap into your gas tank until the battery runs out of power. Instead of the electric motor and the engine working together at the same time, a plug-in hybrid uses its engine as a backup plan.The distance you can travel before this happens is often advertised as a vehicle's all electric range. Once the battery runs out of power, it has to be charged using a plug-in electric charger; the engine does not recharge a plug-in hybrid’s battery.

Zoom is a term that is often used in photography which signifies a change in the apparent distance between the camera and the subject. Zooming in photography is generally of two main types optical zoom and digital zoom. Both the methods use different technologies and produce different qualities in the results.

The main difference between optical zoom and digital zoom is that optical zoom involves a physical camera lens movement, which changes the apparent closeness of the image by altering its focal length whereas in digital zoom, the pixels are enlarged at the center of the screen and the scene being clicked is magnified.

Optical zoom is caused by the physical movement of the lens of the camera. It helps to magnify the scene without affecting the quality of the photo. Optical zoom provides clearer and zoomed photos. Optical zoom works by altering the focal length of the lens, thus bringing the image closer.

On the other hand, digital zoom is a type of inbuilt processing software in the camera that the user can use to zoom in after the picture has been clicked. It is done by enlarging the pixels in the center of the screen therefore it causes a decrease in the quality of the image and less resolution.

When searching for protein powders, you may have encountered the whey protein vs whey isolate debate. Whether you're looking to build muscle or you’re after the best protein powder for weight loss, you'll come across these two whey-based proteins a lot. Both come from dairy; whey is a byproduct of cheese production. But there are several differences between the two.

Whey isolate is just whey protein but with the lactose, a sugar commonly found in dairy, removed. As a result, whey isolate tends to have a lower fat and calorie content and a higher protein intake per serving than whey protein, which has a higher calorie and fat content due to the lack of additional processing.

Whey isolate tends to have a slightly higher protein content than simple whey protein powder, as the process which removes the lactose from the powder also concentrates the protein somewhat.

Whey isolate tends to have a lower calorie, carbohydrate and fat count, which makes isolate ideal for mixing with water for a low-calorie, high-protein drink. Great for building lean muscle. Whey protein is still a very efficient way to cram more protein into your diet, whether you’re making shakes or pouring scoops of the stuff into pancake mix, oats or your morning yoghurt. However, it does come loaded with a few extra calories.

If you’re just after a drink to add more protein to your diet without additional calories, fat or triggering any digestive issues with lactose you may have, whey isolate is what you’re after. However, whey protein, as a more common supplement, is often seen on offer and at far greater varieties of flavour.

Negative ion technology embeds negative ions in personal products and is currently being advertised as a means to maintain health, balance energy, and improve well-being. This technology is used in certain silicone wristbands, quantum or scalar-energy pendants, and kinesthesiology tape.

Negative ions are also made when sunlight, radiation, air, or water break down oxygen. The minerals that produce these negative ions often include naturally occurring radioactive substances such as uranium and thorium.

It is believed that negative ions create positive vibes and uplift the mood. They show the various mental and physical health benefits, such as stress reduction, better sleeping, respiration etc. whereas these ions may also act on pollutants, make them negatively charged and get them collected on surfaces.

The difference between polarized and nonpolarized sunglasses lies in how they impact your eyesight while in the sun. Polarized sunglasses have the ability to reduce the amount of glares and sun hazes you’ll experience while in sunny environments, while nonpolarized sunglasses will not.

Polarized sunglasses contain polarized lenses. These lenses are treated with a special coating that gives them enhanced anti-blur and anti-haze protection, keeping your vision in the sun clearer than ever. This coating is where the magic happens and helps make polarized eyewear the premier choice of lens type for drivers, hikers, and athletes.

Non polarized lenses reduce the brightness of all kinds of light. This way they make it easier for us to see in strong light but they don’t do anything to help with the glare we can experience. They basically just reduce the amount of light getting to your eyes, which is definitely helpful but might not be the perfect solution to specific sunwear woes.

A Car Brain Box is an electronic device that incorporates micro processors for controlling multiple functions in a vehicle, such as cruise control, automatic gear shift, climate control, engine running, emission control, fuel injection, collision avoidance, Powered mirror, seat & rear mirror controls etc.

The Brain Box is also known as the PCM (Power-train Control Module), ECM (Engine Control Module) or the ECU (Engine Control Unit). A brain box is usually much more complex than this, doing lots of complex calculations and taking complicated decisions to run the vehicle maximally.

Before manufacturers switched to using engine control modules and a large network of computers to control the vehicles functions, everything was manual. Typically the only non-mechanical item in an older vehicle was the radio. Windows, door locks, and all the basic functions drivers now expect in their vehicles were manually operated.

One of the primary functions of an ECU is monitoring a series of a cars actions to register errors with how it is operating. If an error is detected the ECU will generate a trouble code. Once the ECU notices the problem and generates the trouble code, it will cause the check engine light to come on. So if you ever think of your engine as the heart of your vehicle system, then you should consider the Brain Box as the Brain.

The coining of the term “Metaverse” is credited to author Neal Stephenson from his science fiction novel “Snow Crash” in 1992. The novel envisioned the next internet iteration where lifelike virtual avatars connect with one another through virtual reality environments and realistic 3D buildings. Since then, technology advancements have enabled the beginning development of the metaverse with a combination of computers, wearable technology, and machinery, such as virtual reality headsets, augmented reality glasses, motion sensors, and game consoles where users are able to “live” within a digital universe.

Our current contemporary internet experience is two-dimensional where you scroll through and browse everything on a screen. The metaverse on the other hand is 3D, allowing you to “walk” through the two interwoven worlds via connected glasses or headsets that allow you to construct or participate in any universe you desire in the digital world.

In simple words "The Metaverse" is a collective, virtual, open space, created by the combination of virtually enhanced physical and digital reality. An example of an already existing Metaverse some would argue are platforms like Minecraft, Roblox or even fortnite which featured in-game concert featuring travis scott.

Imagine studying, working, interacting, attending concerts, earning money, and playing games in an online realm that is both an extension and a fusion of the real world. Besides, meetings with clients, digital entertainment, work training, and even online study are all expected to be available online in the future, thanks to the Metaverse. This is why so many businesses are investing in the Metaverse.

The Great Green Wall is an African-led movement with an epic ambition to grow an 8,000km natural wonder of the world across the entire width of Africa. A decade in and roughly 15% underway, the initiative is already bringing life back to Africa’s degraded landscapes at an unprecedented scale, providing food security, jobs and a reason to stay for the millions who live along its path.

The Wall promises to be a compelling solution to the many urgent threats not only facing the African Continent, but the global community as a whole, notably climate change, drought, famine, conflict and migration. Once complete, the Great Green Wall will be the largest living structure on the planet, 3 times the size of the Great Barrier Reef.

The Great Green Wall isn’t just for the Sahel. It is a global symbol for humanity overcoming its biggest threat – our rapidly degrading environment. It shows that if we can work with nature, even in challenging places like the Sahel, we can overcome adversity, and build a better world for generations to come.

A map and a globe are very much different. While a map gives a two dimensional presentation of certain regions in the world, a globe gives a three dimensional presentation of the entire world. A map is easy to use and portable, whereas a globe is not. The regions can be easily identified in a map than in a globe.

A map presents the physical features of a particular region of the earth on a plane surface. Maps come with various symbols and signs related to the geographical and physical features. A globe can be called as a duplicate earth. It is round in shape and shows accurate areas, distances, directions and relative shape and size.

A map presents a distorted view as it is flat. On the contrary, a globe presents a less deformed view as it is round in shape. When talking of accuracy, a globe is more accurate than the map. Maps may have wide gaps between regions, that are not seen in globes that only give the right measurements. In a map, one can see that the land towards the North Pole is shown larger than they are. It can also be seen that Antarctica is stretched shown as a stretched continent when it is actually round.

If a person is looking for more details, the map is the best one as it features a lot about specific regions. A map may include the boundaries, rail routes, climatic conditions, latitudes, longitudes and a lot more. Moreover, there are also various types of maps like geographical, physical, weather, tourism and transportation maps to name a few. Globe does not have all these minute details and also does not have many variations.

A thermobaric weapon, also called an aerosol bomb, a vacuum bomb or a fuel air explosive, is a type of explosive that uses oxygen from the surrounding air to generate a high-temperature explosion. The fuel–air explosive is one of the best-known types of thermobaric weapons. Thermobaric weapons are controversial because they are much more devastating than conventional explosives of similar size, and have a terrible impact on anyone caught in their blast radius.

This can be launched as a rocket or dropped as a bomb from aircraft. When it hits its target, the first explosive charge opens the container and widely scatters fuel mixture as a cloud. This cloud can penetrate any building openings or defences that are not totally sealed. A second charge then detonates the cloud, resulting in a huge fireball, a massive blast wave and a vacuum which sucks up all surrounding oxygen. The weapon can destroy reinforced buildings, equipment and kill or injure people.

They are used for a variety of purposes and come in a range of sizes - including weapons for use by individual soldiers such as grenades and hand-held rocket launchers.


Huge air-launched versions have also been designed, specifically to kill defenders in caves and tunnel complexes - the effects of this weapon are at their most severe in enclosed spaces.

Given their devastating impact, and their usefulness against defenders who are dug in to buildings or bunkers, thermobaric bombs have mainly been used in urban environments. There are no international laws specifically banning their use, but if a country uses them to target civilian populations in built-up areas, schools or hospitals, then it could be convicted of a war crime under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.

Corns are smaller than calluses and have a hard center surrounded by inflamed skin. Corns tend to develop on parts of your feet that don't bear weight, such as the tops and sides of your toes and even between your toes. They can also be found in weight-bearing areas. Corns can be painful when pressed.

Corn caps are medicated bandages containing salicylic acid in the centre. Corns are thicked area of skin that appears mainly on the skin.

Salicylic acid is a keratolytic agent and it acts by dissolving keratin which forms the thick skin or corn. It increases the moisture of the skin and makes it soft.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance caused by the ovaries (the organ that produces and releases eggs) creating excess male hormones. If you have PCOS, your ovaries produce unusually high levels of hormones called androgens. This causes your reproductive hormones to become imbalanced.

As a result, people with PCOS often have erratic menstrual cycles, missed periods and unpredictable ovulation. Small cysts may develop on your ovaries (fluid-filled sacs) due to lack of ovulation (anovulation). However, despite the name "polycystic," you do not need to have cysts on your ovaries to have PCOS.

PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility. It can also increase your risk for other health conditions. Your healthcare provider can treat PCOS based on your symptoms and if you have plans for having children.

Hydrogen is considered a fuel of the future. So how do hydrogen-powered cars work? Molecular hydrogen is a gas. As a chemical element, hydrogen is the most common element on Earth. And it contains a lot of chemical energy.

The fuel cell is a device that takes chemical energy, in the form of hydrogen, and turns it into electricity that can power an electric motor, just like a battery. So, a hydrogen-powered car is powered with an electric motor.

First, hydrogen stored in a tank (that is thick-walled and crash-tested, and usually under the rear seat) is mixed with air and pumped into the fuel cell. Inside the cell, a chemical reaction extracts electrons from the hydrogen.

The leftover hydrogen protons move across the cell and combine with oxygen from the air to produce water. Meanwhile the electrons create electricity, which charges a small storage battery used to power an electric drivetrain (just like in an electric vehicle).

This is why the vehicles are called Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV), as compared to the battery electric vehicles (BEV) which are seen increasingly on our roads already.

In the 1940s and 1950s, the Soviet Union and US space programmes sent numerous species of animals into space, including monkeys, mice and dogs. However, these were suborbital flights, which meant the spacecraft passed into outer space before falling back to Earth without making an orbit.


The first animal to make an orbital spaceflight around the Earth was the dog Laika, aboard the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 on 3 November 1957. Laika and two other dogs (Albina and Mushka) were placed in increasingly smaller cages over several weeks. With her calm temperament and grace under pressure, Laika was chosen. Vladimir Yazdovsky, the leader of the Soviet space mission, described Laika as “quiet and charming.”

Laika’s spacecraft, Sputnik 2 was fitted with a variety of innovative devices to keep her alive. There was an oxygen generator which absorbed carbon dioxide, a heat-activated fan to regulate the temperature and the capsule was stocked with enough food to keep the dog alive for seven days.

Officially named the Academy Award of Merit, the statuette is better known by its nickname, Oscar. Throughout most of Academy Award history, the Oscar statuettes have been crafted of solid bronze and plated in 24-karat gold.

Oscar statuettes are 13.5 inches tall and weigh eight-and-a-half pounds. That's a hefty little metal guy to be clutching when you're emotionally overwhelmed and being broadcast live around the world. But for three years during World War II, Academy Award winners bore a lighter load when they accepted their statuettes.

However, due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated versions. The design of the statuette depicts a knight standing on a reel of film, holding a sword.

When those first fat drops of summer rain fall to the hot, dry ground, have you ever noticed a distinctive odor? Of course rain itself has no scent. But moments before a rain event, an “earthy” smell known as petrichor does permeate the air. People call it musky, fresh, generally pleasant.

Petrichor is the term coined by Australian scientists in 1964 to describe the unique, earthy smell associated with rain. It is caused by the water from the rain, along with certain compounds like ozone, geosmin, and plant oils.

Petrichor is a combination of fragrant chemical compounds. Some are from oils made by plants. The main contributor to petrichor are actinobacteria. These tiny microorganisms can be found in rural and urban areas as well as in marine environments. They decompose dead or decaying organic matter into simple chemical compounds which can then become nutrients for developing plants and other organisms.

A byproduct of their activity is an organic compound called geosmin which contributes to the petrichor scent. Geosmin is a type of alcohol, like rubbing alcohol. Alcohol molecules tend to have a strong scent, but the complex chemical structure of geosmin makes it especially noticeable to people even at extremely low levels. Our noses can detect just a few parts of geosmin per trillion of air molecules.

When raindrops fall on the ground, especially porous surfaces such as loose soil or rough concrete, they will splatter and eject tiny particles called aerosols. The geosmin and other petrichor compounds that may be present on the ground or dissolved within the raindrop are released in aerosol form and carried by the wind to surrounding areas. If the rainfall is heavy enough, the petrichor scent can travel rapidly downwind and alert people that rain is soon on the way.

Explosive reactive armour (ERA) is a type of armour that is used in modern tanks and other armoured vehicles to protect them from projectiles that employ shaped charged warheads. An ERA is extremely effective on HEAT and HESH rounds. It also protects the vehicle from APFSDS rounds up to some extent. However, some APFSDS rounds with tungsten or depleted Uranium cores are able to penetrate most of the modern ERAs.

Explosive Reactive Armour is a peculiar type of armour that uses explosive charges to defend from other explosives which are fired at it. So let us understand how it works.

Most of the well-protected tanks like the British Challenger, American Abrams, German Leopard and Indian Arjun use composite armours made of high strength materials like depleted uranium. Often these armours are covered by explosive reactive armours to complement the armour’s protection.

So now let us understand how the Explosive armour works. A typical explosive reactive armour consists of plastic explosives like C4 sandwiched between two metal plates. These are mounted on the top of the regular tank armour. When the warhead hits the upper plate, it ignites the explosive. The shockwave created by the explosion scatters the molten metal jet away. the upper plate flies in the outward direction and thus helps in scattering the molten metal jet.
The ERAs are often mounted on the areas which are most likely to hit like the front part of the hull, the entire turret, side skirts covering the tracks etc. ERAs are extremely useful in urban warfare where the RPGs and other anti-tank missiles carried by the infantry soldiers pose a maximum threat to the tanks.

While you are stepping through the metal detector, your carry-on items are going through the X-ray system. A conveyor belt carries each item past an X-ray machine. X-rays are like light in that they are electromagnetic waves, but they are more energetic, so they can penetrate many materials. The machine used in airports usually is based on a dual-energy X-ray system. This system has a single X-ray source sending out X-rays, typically in the range of 140 to 160 kilovolt peak (KVP). KVP refers to the amount of penetration an X-ray makes. The higher the KVP, the further the X-ray penetrates.


In a dual-energy X-ray system, the X-rays pass through a detector, a filter and then another detector.


After the X-rays pass through the item, they are picked up by a detector. This detector then passes the X-rays on to a filter, which blocks out the lower-energy X-rays. The remaining high-energy X-rays hit a second detector. A computer circuit compares the pick-ups of the two detectors to better represent low-energy objects, such as most organic materials.


Since different materials absorb X-rays at different levels, the image on the monitor lets the machine operator see distinct items inside your bag. Items are typically colored on the display monitor, based on the range of energy that passes through the object, to represent one of three main categories:

  • Organic
  • Inorganic
  • Metal

While the colors used to signify "inorganic" and "metal" may vary between manufacturers, all X-ray systems use shades of orange to represent "organic." This is because most explosives are organic. Machine operators are trained to look for suspicious items -- and not just obviously suspicious items like guns or knives, but also anything that could be a component of an improvised explosive device (IED). Since there is no such thing as a commercially available bomb, IEDs are the way most terrorists and hijackers gain control. An IED can be made in an astounding variety of ways, from basic pipe bombs to sophisticated, electronically-controlled component bombs.

If you’ve watched the Olympics, you may have wondered to yourself: Are Olympic medals real gold? And if they are, how much is an Olympic medal worth if an Olympian chose to sell theirs? We break down those answers ahead.

Olympic gold medals have some gold in them, but they’re mostly made of silver. According to the International Olympic Committee (IOC), gold and silver medals are required to be at least 92.5 percent silver. The gold in gold medals is in the plating in the outside and must consist of at least 6 grams of pure gold. As fans may have noticed, many gold medal winners will pose with their medal in their mouth on the winner’s podium, as if they’re about to take a bite out of it. While real gold dents, viewers won’t see much of a difference in Olympic gold medals as they’re made of mostly silver.

Silver medals, on the other hand, are made of pure silver, while bronze medals are 95 percent copper and 5 percent zinc. The shape of medals is usually circular with an attachment for a chain or a ribbon. The minimum diameter is 60 millimeters, and the thickness is a minimum of 3 millimeters. Medals should weigh between 500 and 800 grams (17.64 to 28.22 ounces). Gold medals weighing about 556 grams in total, while silver medals weigh 550 grams and bronze medals weigh 450 grams.

While many flights into space may have accidentally carried bacteria and other forms of life on board, the first living creatures intentionally sent into space were fruit flies. These were transported aboard a V2 rocket on 20 February 1947.


The fruit flies were launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico as part of a research mission. The unnamed rocket travelled 67 miles into the air before parachuting back to Earth. NASA currently recognises the altitude of 66 miles (100km) as the point where space officially begins. Therefore, the fruit flies are considered the first animals ever to reach the final frontier.


The V2 rockets were the world's first long-range guided missiles and were used by Germany during World War II. The missiles could fly at a top speed of 3,500 miles per hour and strike targets over 200 miles away. Following the war, the US seized many of these rockets and used them for research purposes, laying the groundwork for future space launches. Wernher von Braun, who designed the V2 was even involved in the designing of the Saturn V rocket for NASA.


The flies were the perfect passengers for the flight as their compact size, and relatively light weight made their storage easy and conserved on fuel consumption.


At the time, little was known as to the effects of cosmic radiation on organic matter. As fruit flies have a similar genetic make-up to humans, they were seen as an eligible subject for testing and research. On the safe recovery of the flies' capsule, the scientists found that the flies' genetics had not been mutated by the radiation, which paved the way for future human spaceflight.

According to capacity, applications of the electrical cables different types of powder are used such as talcum powder, magnesium oxide (MgO) Powder, Swellable powder, Chalk Powder, etc.

  1. Talcum Powder in Electrical Cables: Talcum Powder is used in some low current-carrying cables such as computer power cable to make it flexible, to stop the internal wires from getting stuck to the outer rubber casing. When a cable is used over a long period of time, its outer rubber gets sticky and can be broken down. So to prevent this problem talcum powder is used in some electrical cables.
  2. Magnesium Oxide Powder in Electrical Cables: Magnesium oxide powder is used in high current carrying cables, Mineral Insulated (MI) cables. Magnesium oxide powder has two very useful properties that are high thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity. Magnesium oxide powder gives a lot of features and advantages in an electrical cable which are given below:
    • When a high current flowing through a cable, heat produced which can damage the cable. Due to the high thermal conductivity property, Magnesium oxide powder can conduct the heat from inside of the cable to outside and prevent the damaging of the cable from the heat.
    • Due to low electrical conductivity property, magnesium oxide powder provides good electrical insulation.
    • Magnesium oxide powder provides good lubrication to electrical cables.
      Magnesium oxide powder makes electrical cables fireproof.
    • Magnesium oxide powder makes electrical cables flexible.
  3. Swellable Powder in Electrical Cables: Swellable Powder is used in electrical cables to block the water and to eliminate the moisture issue. These powders can form a gel-like material when contacting with water and block the flow of water. These powder swell and expands to block the water permanently.
  4. Chalk Powder in Electrical Cables: Chalk Powder used in some cables to provide fire resistance. To prevent wires inside a cable from fire, chalk powder is used in some electrical cables.

Hydroponics comes from the ancient Greek formation of “hydro”, meaning water, and “ponics”, meaning labor. The water is doing the work here and enabling the fast growth of plants.

At its core, hydroponics is a method of growing plants. But instead of using soil, hydroponics depends on a water-based nutrient-rich solution. The idea may seem like a novel “hack”, but has actually been around for thousands of years and helped to enable population growth as the availability of arable land decreases.

As we discussed earlier, the ability to not use soil and instead use organic substances like perlite, coco coir, rock wool, clay pellets, peat moss, or vermiculite has provided numerous benefits to growers everywhere. Increased growth results from allowing the roots of each plant to come in direct contact with the nutrient solution. This is further enabled by the increased access to oxygen compared to its soil counterpart.

In the past, there was no connectivity to mobile towers few hundred feet above the ground (after takeoff). Travelers have to wait until the aircraft lands at the airport to use their Smartphone.


This is an old story, technology has been changed a lot since then.


Similar to our mobile network, Inflight Wi-Fi connectivity requires a base station to send and receive signals. It works in two modes; Ground based connectivity and Satellite based connectivity.

  1. Air to Ground (ATG) Ground based connectivity: Ground based connectivity also known as Air to Ground connectivity works exactly like our conventional mobile network. It has a base station on the ground with antenna arrays facing upwards to maintain signal connectivity to moving airplanes.
    • Network of base stations are required to cover a large geographical area.
    • Transceiver antenna module will be installed on the belly of an airplane.
    • Latency is lower since the airplane is only 35000 feet above ground (average approximation).
    • Less complex compared to satellite based system.
    • Operators can make use of existing network for this task.
    • Cost effective solution and infrastructure.
    • Easy to maintain the system.
  2. Satellite based connectivity: Satellite based connectivity uses a network of satellites dedicated to provide data connectivity to moving airplanes.
    • Transceiver antenna module will be installed on top of airplane.
    • Each satellite can server more number of aircrafts at same time.
    • Fast network using higher bandwidth signals compared to ground based system.
    • More immune to atmospheric changes.

Even for major catastrophes like losing a head, cockroaches don’t bleed very much. Unlike humans, they have an open circulatory system: A system for distributing blood through their bodies that doesn’t depend on a closed network of arteries and veins. Their blood doesn’t pump under pressure like ours, but just sort of sloshes around, making its way into the cockroach’s tissues.

The great thing about this system, if you’re someday going to be headless is that when a major wound occurs, blood doesn’t suddenly get forced out. For a cockroach that loses its head, the blood just clots at the neck. The cockroach will have a nasty scab for sure (where its head used to be), but it won’t die from loss of blood.

Unlike humans, cockroaches don’t breath through a nose or their mouth. Instead they breathe through small holes in their bodies called spiracles that don’t need a brain to direct them. No nose, no mouth, and no need for a brain to regulate your breathing means that you can breathe all you want to without a head.

But it is going to die from being unable to eat. And well before that, it’s going to die from thirst. A headless cockroach has no mouth to drink with and will be dead from dehydration in less than a week. Which brings the total day count from the moment it loses its head to the moment it loses its life to somewhere around 7 days or less.

The trucks carrying explosives have a metal chain touching the ground ,True. This is all because of the charges produced by the friction which is generated by the tires moving. When the tires move they create certain amount of charges which are enough to blow up the explosive tank. The main motive is to do earthing so that the charges flow down in the earth and prevent the truck from getting blown up or you can also say preventing the explosives to blast.

The Black Box or Flight Data Recorder of an Airplane is an instrument which records all the activities of the airplane during its flight. From the security point of view, this box is generally kept at the back side of the airplane. This Box is made of Titanium metal and is enclosed in a Titanium box which gives it strength to withstand any shock if it falls in sea or falls from the height. It can work for 30 days without any electricity. It can withstand a temperature of 11000°C. When this box is lost anywhere, it keeps on emitting the waves along with a beep sound for about 30 days. This voice can be identified by the investigators from a distance of about 2-3 Kilometers. An interesting fact with regard to Black box is that it can emit waves from the depth of 14000 feet in the sea.

Venom and Poison are both toxic substances. Still, some animals are called venomous and others are poisonous. The only difference between being called poisonous or venomous is in the way these animals deliver the harmful substance.

  • Venom: When animals like snakes use their sharp fangs to bite into the flesh and let the toxic substance move into the body of their prey, through the punctured skin, they are called venomous animals. To deliver venom an animal has to use tools like fangs or stingers.
  • Poison: Poison is something that can get inhaled, ingested or seeped into the skin directly. For example, if you accidentally touch a brightly colored poison dart frog, you will transfer the toxins it secretes from its skin, to your own skin. And then the poison will seep into your blood stream.

The two most commonly recognized smoke detection technologies are ionization smoke detection and photoelectric smoke detection.


  1. Ionization smoke alarms are generally more responsive to flaming fires.
    • How they work: Ionization-type smoke alarms have a small amount of radioactive material between two electrically charged plates, which ionizes the air and causes current to flow between the plates. When smoke enters the chamber, it disrupts the flow of ions, thus reducing the flow of current and activating the alarm.
  2. Photoelectric smoke alarms are generally more responsive to fires that begin with a long period of smoldering (called “smoldering fires”).
    • How they work: Photoelectric-type alarms aim a light source into a sensing chamber at an angle away from the sensor. Smoke enters the chamber, reflecting light onto the light sensor; triggering the alarm.

For best protection, it is recommended both (ionization and photoelectric) technologies be used in homes. In addition to individual ionization and photoelectric alarms, combination alarms that include both technologies in a single device are available.

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is a protocol that elicits a muscle contraction using electrical impulses that directly stimulate your motor neurons. This stimulation creates muscle contractions that can be quick and frequent, fast with long pauses, or contractions that are held for several (uncomfortable) seconds or minutes at a time.

Normally, it is your body that fires your muscles by sending electrical impulses from your brain through your central nervous system (CNS). But an EMS device allows you to engage in deep, intense, and complete muscular contractions without actually activating (or stressing) your CNS not to mention your joints and tendons.

The bumps or nipples found on the F and J keys on the keyboard helps users correctly position their left and right hand on the keyboard without having to look at the keyboard. For example, without looking at your keyboard you should be able to feel the keyboard and correctly position your left index finger on the F and the right index finger on the J. From this position, you should be able to locate the remainder of the keys on the keyboard.

A phone having a hardware numeric keypad has something similar. The digit 5 also has a bump. It is also used for the same purpose. One can easily and quickly enter the digits without having a look at the keypad.

CE stands for Conformité Européenne. It's French for European Conformity.

CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in, or designed to be sold in, the EEA. This makes the CE marking recognizable worldwide even to people who are not familiar with the European Economic Area. It is in that sense similar to the FCC Declaration of Conformity used on certain electronic devices sold in the United States.

The earth pin on a plug is longer than the live and neutral pins. This means the earth pin is the first to connect and the last to disconnect.

When inserting the plug, the earth connection is made before the current carrying contacts of the plug become live. When withdrawing the plug, the current carrying contacts shall separate before the earth connection is broken. Thus, the earthing connection is always maintained to improve safety.

Many wall sockets have safety shutters (see image) on the live and neutral lines to prevent children from inserting conducting materials which may result in electric shock. Insertion of a longer (earth) pin helps in opening the shutters, facilitating the insertion of other two pins. These are called Earth-pin operated shutters.

Though it is impossible to insert the plug into the socket upside down, one may try to insert the plug top in a misaligned position (for e.g. trying to insert the earth pin into the phase socket with the other two pins further down out of the socket). Hence, the earth pin is made thicker so that even by mistake it cannot be inserted into the live or neutral hole of the socket. This prevents earth pin from establishing an electrical contact with the live terminal.

Carbon footprint, amount of carbon dioxide emissions associated with all the activities of a person or other entity (e.g., building, corporation, country, etc.). It includes direct emissions, such as those that result from fossil-fuel combustion in manufacturing, heating, and transportation, as well as emissions required to produce the electricity associated with goods and services consumed. In addition, the carbon footprint concept also often includes the emissions of other greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide, or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).


The carbon footprint concept is related to and grew out of the older idea of ecological footprint, a concept invented in the early 1990s by Canadian ecologist William Rees and Swiss-born regional planner Mathis Wackernagel at the University of British Columbia. An ecological footprint is the total area of land required to sustain an activity or population. It includes environmental impacts, such as water use and the amount of land used for food production. In contrast, a carbon footprint is usually expressed as a measure of weight, as in tons of Carbon dioxide or Carbon dioxide equivalent per year.

It's amazing how much water weighs! A gallon of water weighs 8 pounds, and a pint of water (16 ounces) weighs 1 pound (in metric, 1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogram). This means that if you drink a 1-liter bottle of soda, you instantly gain 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) from the water. That's a big weight change, and it can happen very quickly.

The main thing affecting overnight weight change is the amount of water in your system. Water weighs an amazing amount. In other words, if you drink a 1-liter bottle of soda, instantly you will gain 2.2 pounds, just from the water.

Overnight, two processes cause you to lose water gradually: breathing and sweating. In respiration, each time you exhale, you lose a small amount of water. If you exhale onto a cool piece of glass you will see this moisture. Through sweating, also called transpiration, you lose water through the skin. Over the course of one night, both of these processes eliminate more water than you might think.

Also contributing to the weight loss is the tradition of using the toilet prior to the morning weigh-in. That process alone can eliminate up to a pound of water. The average person eliminates about 1.2 liters of water just in urine every day. Another liter a day is eliminated through perspiration and respiration. That's 2.2 kilograms (or almost 5 pounds) throughout the day.

While most other mammals can sprint faster than we can (a perk of having four legs), humans have basically evolved to be endurance runners. The theory is that this made us more efficient hunter-gatherers. So what does this have to do with sweat? Well, if it weren't for how efficiently we produce and dissipate sweat, our ancestors wouldn't have been able to run long distances while hunting and we probably wouldn't be able to do things like run marathons.

Sweating gets a bad rap, and, sure, it is sort of gross. But sweating is vitally important for body temperature regulation and your overall health. A person's internal body temperature generally hangs around 98 degrees Fahrenheit. There's flexibility here, but if your body gets too hot, whether it's due to the temperature outside, being physically active or having a fever, bad things can happen, for instance, heat stroke. Fortunately, your body has very sophisticated mechanisms for sensing and regulating body temperature.

As soon as your body's internal temperature starts rising, your hypothalamus (a small region in your brain) tells eccrine sweat glands distributed all over your body that it's time to start cooling you down by producing sweat. Cooling down, however, isn't as easy as this sweat just dripping off of you. Some of this sweat has to evaporate off of your skin for this process to actually work. That's because cooling your body via sweating relies on a principle of physics called "heat of vaporization."

It takes energy to evaporate sweat off of your skin, and that energy is heat. As your excess body heat is used to convert beads of sweat into vapor, you start to cool down.

The other trade off here, though, is that you also lose water as you sweat and water is critically important for just about every organ in your body. This means that when you're sweating, you also need to make sure you're drinking plenty of water. so you can replace the water you lose with water you can use.

The flame at the top of an oil rig is an iconic image for the Oil & Gas Industry, yet few people understand why companies choose to burn natural gas. By burning excess natural gas, flaring protects against the dangers of over-pressuring industrial equipment.

A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, flare boom, ground flare, or flare pit is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants and natural gas processing plants.

Flaring is undertaken as a way to remove dangerous gasses with lower harm to the environment. It is used in safely regulating pressure in chemical plants, as well as handling natural gas release in wells. Alternatives, such as piping the gas to a plant or on-site capture and use, are of great interest.

Red, green, blue and black are the shades that control the universe of passports and all of these have a good reason for it. There are some reasons to attribute to the choice of passport colors. The colors of the passports are limited, nations keep testing with the shades of these four main colors that may be attributed to "many possible scenarios."

  • Blue: Countries having blue colored passports are supposed to be the part of the so-called 'new-world' League of Nations. These nations are India, North America, South America and Australia among others.
    Red: Red is supposed to be the color of the communist movement in all over the world. This color usually belongs to countries, which are known for having a communist history or still have its influence. Key examples of this type are China, Russia Serbia and Latvia.
  • Green: As per the Business Insider, religious faiths play a role in the color of the passport. This is the reason; Islamic nations like Saudi Arabia and Pakistan choose the different colors of green for their passport. Green is the color that Islam connects with Prophet Muhammad. Shades of green are also used in West African countries like Nigeria, Niger and Senegal, where it indicates their belonging to ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West African States)."
  • Black: Black is the most unique color used in a passport. One of the major nations to have black passports is New Zealand. The country chose this shade to be in sync with its national color. Other countries that also have black passport are mainly African countries, including Zambia and Angola.

It should be noticed that while the standard colors of passports are definitely four, but the shades and variations of these colors create hundred different shades. But it is not mandatory that all nations have the above mentioned reasons for having particular color on their passports. In fact, US has seemingly, tried all four colors for passports. The temporary passport of Canada is white in color. This is also an exception.

Web 3.0 is a term that is used to describe many evolutions of web usage and interaction among several paths. In this, data isn’t owned but instead shared, where services show different views for the same web / the same data.

The Semantic Web (3.0) promises to establish “the world’s information” in a more reasonable way than Google can ever attain with their existing engine schema. This is particularly true from the perspective of machine conception as opposed to human understanding. The Semantic Web necessitates the use of a declarative ontological language like OWL to produce domain-specific ontologies that machines can use to reason about information and make new conclusions, not simply match keywords.

Web 2.0 refers to worldwide websites which highlight user-generated content, usability, and interoperability for end users. Web 2.0 is also called the participative social web. It does not refer to a modification to any technical specification, but to modify the way Web pages are designed and used. The transition is beneficial but it does not seem that when the changes occur. Interaction and collaboration with each other are allowed by Web 2.0 in a social media dialogue as the creator of user-generated content in a virtual community. Web 1.0 is an enhanced version of Web 2.0.

Web 1.0 refers to the first stage of the World Wide Web evolution. Earlier, there were only a few content creators in Web 1.0 with a huge majority of users who are consumers of content. Personal web pages were common, consisting mainly of static pages hosted on ISP-run web servers, or on free web hosting services.

Spiders produce silk threads to build their webs.

The silk is produced in silk glands with the help of the spider's spinnerets. Spinnerets are special organs that allow the spider to decide what type of thread it needs for the web.

The silk threads can be thick or thin, dry or sticky, beaded or smooth. The threads a spider uses to construct its web begin as liquid, but they dry quickly in the air.

When a spider begins a web, it releases a silk thread. It anchors the thread to some object — a branch, a corner of a room, a doorframe — wherever it builds its web.

As the spider moves back and forth, it adds more threads, strengthening the web and creating a pattern. Lines that go from the center of the web outward are called "radial lines." They support the web. Threads that go around and around the web are called "orb lines."

When a spider catches prey in the sticky strands of its web, it approaches the trapped insect and uses its fangs to inject venom. The venom either kills or paralyzes the prey, allowing the spider to enjoy its dinner in peace.

Not all spiders use webs for food, however. Some don't build webs at all. Other spiders chase their prey. Some even make sticky nets, which they throw over their prey when it gets close enough.

Both 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines are widely available in the market but for a large ocean-going merchant vessel, a 2 stroke engine is more commonly used as the main engine and has a much better market.

Even with a wide variety of advantages that 4 stroke engine offers like the compact size of the plant, much more RPM or speed etc, a 2 stroke engine outshines with few but vital advantages.

  • Fuel Selection: The fuel prices have gone sky high and better grade fuel is adding higher costs to vessel operation. A two-stroke engine can burn low-grade fuel oil and hence reduce the running cost of the ship.
  • Efficiency: The thermal and engine efficiency of 2 stroke engine is much better than that of a 4 stroke engine.
  • Power: Most of the 2 stroke engines are now large stroke engines that produce more power. Hence they have high power to weight ratio as compared to 4 stroke engines.
  • More Cargo: Ship can carry more weight and hence more cargo with 2 stroke engines because of high power to weight ratio.
  • Reliability: Two stroke engines are more reliable in operation as compare to 4 stroke engines.
  • Less Maintenance: The maintenance requirement of the two-stroke engine is much lesser than 4 stroke engine.
  • Direction control: Direct starting and reversing are easier with two stroke engine.
  • No reduction attachments: As two stroke engines are low-speed engines, there is no requirement of reduction gear or speed reduction arrangement as required for high-speed four-stroke engines.

When the human body begins to metabolize a medication, different organs process the ingredients before they are finally released in the bloodstream. While the process may sound straightforward, different drugs dissolve at different rates, different formulas, and dosages breakdown differently and, everybody’s body metabolizes medication uniquely. These are just a few of the many complexities behind the nature of drug absorption and metabolism.

The vast majority of medications are taken orally and are broken down within the gastrointestinal tract. Once the medication arrives, it is broken down by stomach acids before it passes through the liver and then enters the bloodstream. Certain medications may stay in the bloodstream longer, it all depends on the dosage and drug family consumed.

Gastric acids may prevent or slow the breakdown of certain medications. Additionally, when a medication is metabolized in the liver, its potency will decrease along with its effectiveness before the therapeutic reaches the bloodstream.

The method of drug consumption affects the rate at which the medicine travels throughout the bloodstream. The solubility of the medication also affects how long it will take for the medication to dissolve. In general, it typically takes approximately 30 minutes for most medications to dissolve.

When a medication is coated in a special coating, which may help protect the drug from stomach acids, often times it may take longer for the therapeutic to reach the bloodstream. For example, aspirin may dissolve in a matter of minutes, while gelcaps may take much longer, due to their gel coating. These pills may also be easier to swallow, so it is important to weigh the pros and cons of different medications.

The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency (spiciness or "heat") of chili peppers and other spicy foods, as recorded in Scoville Heat Units (SHU) based on the concentration of capsaicinoids, among which capsaicin is the predominant component. The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville, whose 1912 method is known as the Scoville organoleptic test. The Scoville organoleptic test is the most practical method for estimating SHU and is a subjective assessment derived from the capsaicinoid sensitivity by people experienced with eating hot chilis.

An alternative method, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be used to analytically quantify the capsaicinoid content as an indicator of pungency. As of 2011, the subjective organoleptic test has been largely superseded by analytical methods such as chromatography.

Electronic ink is a liquid substance, in development at MIT's Media Lab in partnership with a company called E Ink, that responds to electrical impulses to enable changeable text and image displays on a flexible surface. Electronic ink will be used for applications such as e-books, electronic newspapers, portable signs, Colour changing cars and foldable, rollable displays. Electronic ink consists of millions of tiny capsules filled with dark dyes and containing negatively charged white chips, floating in a substance like vegetable oil.

The microcapsules, which are roughly the width of a human hair, contain positively charged white particles and negatively charged black particles.

Applying a negative electrical field causes the white particles to rise to the surface. Conversely, applying a positive electrical field causes the black particles to rise to the surface. By applying different fields at different parts of a screen, e-ink produces a monochromatic text display.

E-ink displays are especially popular because of they resemble printed paper. In addition to being easier on the eyes than other display types, e-ink consumes less power, especially when compared to backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) screens.

Footings are an important part of foundation construction. They are typically made of concrete with rebar reinforcement that has been poured into an excavated trench. The purpose of footings is to support the foundation and prevent settling. Footings are especially important in areas with troublesome soils.

The construction of footings is best left to the pros that can assess the soil conditions and decide on the proper depth and width for the footings as well as the proper placement. The dimensions of footings also depend on the size and type of structure that will be built. Placement of footings is crucial to provide the proper support for the foundation and ultimately the structure.

Concrete footings may also be needed for projects such as a deck, pergola, retaining wall or other types of construction.

Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney. The procedure is done to treat kidney cancer as well as other kidney diseases and injuries. Nephrectomy is also done to remove a healthy kidney from a donor (either living or deceased) for transplantation.

There are two types of nephrectomy for a diseased kidney: partial and radical. In partial nephrectomy, only the diseased or injured portion of the kidney is removed. Radical nephrectomy involves removing the entire kidney, along with a section of the tube leading to the bladder (ureter), the gland that sits atop the kidney (adrenal gland), and the fatty tissue surrounding the kidney.

When both kidneys are removed at the same time, the procedure is called bilateral nephrectomy. The procedure used to remove a healthy kidney from a donor for the purpose of transplantation is called donor nephrectomy.

We have three groups of neurons in the hypothalamus, at the base of the brain, that are responsible for regulating body temperature: a hypothalamic thermostat that monitors skin temperature (via incoming signals from nerve fibers) and blood temperature; a heat-promoting center that raises body temperature; and a heat-losing center that lowers body temperature.

An infection stimulates the immune system to produce chemicals called endogenous pyrogens. These and prostaglandin E2 raise the set point of the hypothalamic thermostat (like turning up the thermostat in your house). The heat-promoting center constricts blood vessels near the skin surface so more heat is retained in the body, and if that’s not enough, it stimulates shivering to generate more heat, until the body temperature reaches the new set point.

The elevated temperature makes it harder for bacteria and viruses to multiply, so the immune system can overwhelm these pathogens faster than they reproduce and rid the body of the infection. Fever is thus a healthy mechanism that enables the body to recover from infection more quickly.

Bluetooth uses radio waves instead of wires or cables to transmit information between electronic devices over short-distances. Unlike your cellphone, which uses radio waves to communicate with a cell tower several miles away, the radio waves Bluetooth products use are 1000 times weaker and only travel small distances between the two communicating devices, usually 10 feet or less. If you have a wireless Bluetooth keyboard for your computer, and you take the keyboard to a friend’s house but leave the computer at home, your keyboard won’t be able to communicate with the computer over such a distance. And if you type on it, nothing will appear on your computer screen at home.

When Bluetooth-enabled devices are close enough, they can connect with each other through a tiny computer chip inside them that emits the special Bluetooth radio waves. But first, you have to turn on this chip, which you can usually do by pressing a specific button or flipping a marked switch. Then, the communication between the two Bluetooth devices happens over a short-range network called a piconet (pico means really really small in the metric system). This piconet is essentially a network of Bluetooth connected devices. If you’ve connected your computer to a Bluetooth-enabled keyboard, monitor, mouse and speakers, all these devices will form their own Bluetooth piconet. But they won’t be talking to each other individually. One device in this case the computer will be the main device with which all the others are connected.

Piconets are established automatically. So once you have a device, like your keyboard, installed and in range of the piconet, it will automatically connect. But if it is not in range the keyboard will automatically leave the piconet. When you bring the keyboard back home, where it is in range again, it will automatically reconnect.

It isn’t hard to see why Bluetooth technology has become so popular in recent years. Now everyone can feel like Lieutenant Uhura in the original Star Trek television series as they press their finger to their ear and activate their Bluetooth earpiece in order to receive an incoming phone call, leaving their hands free to help save the starship Enterprise or drive a car.

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