Case Study Questions Chapter 5 Outcomes of Democracy

What is Case Study Question / Paragraph Based Question?
A case study is a scenario in a particular academic / professional context which students are expected to analyse and respond to, guided by specific questions posed concerning the situation. In many cases, the scenario or case study involves a number of issues or problems that must be dealt with in a academic / professional workplace.

Why Case Study Questions are included in academics?
Case study assignments usually require students to identify problems and issues in a scenario, to demonstrate their developing knowledge of theories and academic / professional policies and to make decisions and recommendations based on these to either prevent or solve some of the issues in that scenario.

How to solve Case Study Questions?
There are several steps to writing an answer to a case study assignment:

STEP 1: Read the case study and questions carefully.

  • Read the case and associated questions carefully.
  • Highlight the main points of the case and any issues that you can identify.
  • Read the questions closely and analyse what they are requiring you to do.
  • Read the case again, linking the information that is relevant to each question you have been asked.

STEP 2: Identify the issues in the case study.
Case studies describe a situation which may arise in a particular profession or social context. They often involve a number of people in a complex situation. They will often describe a situation which is problematic, possibly in how it is dealt with, or in its complexity. An important part of your answer is to analyse the situation and to identify the issues/actions described in the case which may be problematic. The following questions may help you to do this:

  • What actions were taken in the case?
  • Were these actions the most appropriate and why?
  • Were there any consequences of the actions taken?
  • Was anything omitted or not considered?
  • Were actions/procedures in line with existing codes of practice, policy or theories?

STEP 3: Link theory to practice.
Use your knowledge of existing codes of practice, theories and/or other academic / professional documents and behaviours to decide what was done appropriately and what was not.

STEP 4: Plan your answer.
It can be useful to use the questions you have been set as headings and to answer each part in turn, reducing the chance of omitting set questions. You can always take out the headings before you submit if you wish. Lecturers usually set questions in a logical order, so answer in the order they are written in your question.

STEP 5: Start writing your case study answer (for theory only)
Like any assignment, you will need an introduction, body sections in which you answer the questions put to you regarding the case study, and a conclusion.

STEP 6: Edit and proofread.
Read through your paper yourself to detect and correct other errors and omissions.
Check you have answered all questions and backed up your answer with relevant passage.

Types of Case Study Questions / Paragraph Based Questions
Case Study Questions / Paragraph Based Questions can be broadly classified into two types:

  1. MCQs type: In this type, student has to tick the correct option from various options.
  2. Theory type: In this type, student has to write proper solution / answer in cotext to the case study.

Case Study/ Passage Based Questions Chapter 5 Outcomes of Democracy

Type 1: MCQ type

Case Study Question 01

Read the extract given below and answer the following questions:

Now look at the other side – democracy ensures that decision making will be based on norms and procedures. So, a citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures can find this out. Citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency. This factor is often missing from a non-democratic government. Therefore, when we are trying to find out the outcomes of democracy, it is right to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people. We can also expect that the democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in decision making whenever they think fit.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

Question.1. Which of the following is a useful device to see the transparency in government?

(a) RTE
(b) RTI
(c) ITR
(d) ITI

Question.2. Find out the incorrect statement about democracy:

(a) Government is accountable, responsible and legitimate.
(b) Transparency means people can witness the process of decision making.
(c) Citizens are most powerful and can know about every decision of government.
(d) Democracy is the only form of government where people can take part in decision-making.

Question.3. Which of the following is not the merit of democracy?

(a) Transparency
(b) Accountability
(c) Participation of people in decision-making.
(d) Lot of time is used to minimize mistakes.

Question.4. Which of the following is not a device used by government to keep watch on people?

(a) PAN
(b) Aadhar Card
(c) Right to information
(d) Bank account details

Ans.1. (b) RTI.
Ans.2. (c) Citizens are most powerful and can know about every decision of government.
Ans.3. (d) Lot of time is used to minimize mistakes.
Ans.4. (c) Right to information.

Case Study Question 02

Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:

We felt that democracy was better because it: Promotes equality among citizens; enhances the dignity of the individual; improves the quality of decision-making; provides a method to resolve conflicts; and allows room to correct mistakes. When we talk to people around us, most of them support democracy against other alternatives, such as rule by a monarch or military or religious leaders. Over a hundred countries of the world today claim and practice some kind of democratic politics: they have formal constitutions, they hold elections, they have parties and they guarantee right of citizens. While these features are common to most of them, these democracies are very much different from each other in terms of their social situations, their economic achievements and their cultures. Clearly, what may be achieved or not achieved under each of these democracies will be different. Our interest in and fascination for democracy often pushes us into taking a position that democracy an address all socio-economic and political problems. If some of our expectations are not met, we start blaming the idea of democracy. Or, we start doubting if we are living in a democracy. The first step towards thinking carefully about the outcomes of democracy is to recognise that democracy is just a form of government. It can only create conditions for achieving something. The citizens have to take advantage of those conditions and achieve those goals.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

Question.1. Identify the statement that reflects that democracy is a better form of government.

(a) Not many would be satisfied with the democracy in practice.
(b) Allows room to correct mistakes.
(c) Less developed countries with dictatorial government have better economic growth.
(d) Decision-making is delayed in a democracy.

Question.2. Which feature is common in democracy?

(a) They guarantee rights to citizens.
(b) There is no dignity of individual.
(c) Right to vote remains with the taxable group.
(d) Power is in the hands of one party.

Question.3. How are democracies very much different from each other?

(a) Some do not have voting rights.
(b) Some nations have only one ruling party in power over years.
(c) In terms of their social situations, economic achievements and their cultures.
(d) In terms of scientific developments and their culture.

Question.4. What is the first step towards thinking carefully about the outcomes of democracy?

(a) Democracy always has to work to protect the minority community.
(b) In a democracy, economic growth is strong.
(c) In a democracy, there is no inequality.
(d) To recognise that democracy is just a form of government.

Ans.1. (b) Allows room to correct mistakes.
Ans.2. (a) They guarantee rights to citizens.
Ans.3. (c) In terms of their social situations, economic achievements and their cultures.
Ans.4. (d) To recognise that democracy is just a form of government.

Case Study Question 03

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

In a democracy, we are most concerned with ensuring that people will have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision making that affects them all. Therefore, the most basic outcome of democracy should be that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens. Some people think that democracy produces less effective government. It is, of course, true that non-democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about majorities and public opinion. So, they can be very quick and efficient in decision making and implementation. Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place.

Democracy ensures that decision making will be based on norms and procedures. So, a citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures can find this out. She has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency. This factor is often missing from a non-democratic government. There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

Question.1. What is the most basic outcome of democracy?

(a) A government that takes fast decisions and action without any opinion of the citizens.
(b) A government that takes quick and efficient action with the help of opposition.
(c) Produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.
(d) Produces a government that holds citizens responsible for all the actions it takes.

Question.2. Why is there a delay in decision-making in a democracy?

(a) Democracy is on the idea of deliberation and negotiation.
(b) Democracy is enhances the dignity of the individual.
(c) Democracy is promotes equality among the citizens
(d) Democracy is provides a method to resolve conflicts.

Question.3. How can you say that a democratic government is transparent?

(a) The government holds elections every five years.
(b) The citizens have the right and means to examine the process of decision-making.
(c) It addresses socio-economic and political problems.
(d) A democratic government will take more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision.

Question.4. In which respect a democratic government is better than its alternatives?

(a) Most democracies will fall short of elections that provide a fair chance to everyone.
(b) Democracies often ignore the demands of the majority.
(c) Democracy is a guarantee of economic development.
(d) It is a legitimate government.

Ans.1. (c) Produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.
Ans.2. (a) Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation.
Ans.3. (b) The citizens have the right and means to examine the process of decision-making.
Ans.4. (d) It is a legitimate government.

Case Study Question 04

Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

If you consider all democracies and all dictatorships for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly higher rate of economic growth. The inability of democracy to achieve higher economic development worries us. But this alone cannot be reason to reject democracy. As you have already studied in economics, economic development depends on several factors: country’s population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.

However, the difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible. Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. Parallel to the process of bringing individuals into the political arena on an equal footing, we find growing number of economic inequalities. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes. Not only that, their share in the total income of the country has been increasing. Those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon. Their incomes have been declining.

In actual life, democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. The poor constitute a large proportion of our voters and no party will like to lose their votes. Yet democratically elected governments do not appear to address the question of poverty as you would expect them to. The situation is much worse in some other countries. In Bangladesh, more than half of its population lives in poverty.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

Question.1. What type of nation have higher rate of economic growth as reflected between 1950 and 2000?

(a) Democracy
(b) Dictatorship
(c) Monarchy
(d) Communist

Question.2. The difference in the rates of what type of development between less developed countries with dictatorship and democracies is negligible?

(a) Social development
(b) Political progress
(c) Historical development
(d) Economic development

Question.3. How are democracies based on political equality?

(a) Democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities.
(b) Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.
(c) All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives.
(d) It promotes dignity and freedom of the individual.

Question.4. In which country more than half of population live in poverty?

(a) Bangladesh
(b) India
(c) Japan
(d) Poland

Ans.1. (b) Dictatorship
Ans.2. (d) Economic development
Ans.3. (c) All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives.
Ans.4. (a) Bangladesh

Case Study Question 05

Read the extract given below and answer the following questions:

Take the case of dignity of women. Most societies across the world were historically male dominated societies. Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society. That does not mean that women are actually always treated with respect. But once the principle is recognised, it becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally. In a non-democratic set up, this unacceptability would not have legal basis because the principle of individual freedom and dignity would not have the legal and moral force there.

The same is true of caste inequalities. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. Perhaps it is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens values their democratic rights.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

Question.1. The reason behind the discrimination of women in all fields is:

(a) They are less literate.
(b) They never claimed their rights.
(c) Most of the societies are patriarchal.
(d) They are less efficient as compare to men.

Question.2. Why democracy is having better chance to remove caste discrimination?

(a) In non-democracy, rulers are not getting the feedback.
(b) In democracy, people are having rights to express their feelings.
(c) In democracy, they can claim for equality and dignity.
(d) In democracy, people are more aware about caste related problems.

Question.3. Which of the following is not correct about Indian caste system?

(a) Casteism is present in the society from ancient time.
(b) Now, condition is better than before.
(c) Laws played important role to remove caste based discrimination.
(d) More stringent laws are needed for total removal of casteism.

Question.4. Find out the incorrect statement from the following:

(a) Now the condition of women is much better.
(b) Men have easily accepted the changes in the society.
(c) Still gender based discrimination is a big challenge.
(d) Feminist organisations have played important role to establish gender equality.

Ans.1. (c) Most of the societies are patriarchal.
Ans.2. (c) In democracy, they can claim for equality and dignity.
Ans.3. (d) More stringent laws are needed for total removal of casteism.
Ans.4. (b) Men have easily accepted the changes in the society.

Type 2: Theory Type

Case Study Question 06

Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows:

Source A-Dignity and freedom of the citizens
Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings. Often conflicts arise among individuals because some feel that they are not treated with due respect. The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracies throughout the world have recognised this, at least in principle. This has been achieved in various degrees in various democracies.

Source B-Non-democratic Regimes
Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings. Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes. It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion.

Source C- Strength of Democracy
Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision making that affects them all. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. Perhaps it is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

Source A-Dignity and freedom of the citizens
Question.1. What are the basis of democracy?

Source B-Non-democratic Regimes
Question.2. Why democracy is considered as the superior form of government?

Source C- Strength of Democracy
Question.3. How does the Indian democracy strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes?

Ans.1. The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy.
Ans.2. The democracy is considered as the superior form of government because it promotes dignity and freedom of the individual.
Ans.3. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity as they are able to participate in decision making that affects them all.

Case Study Question 07

Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:

Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings. Often conflicts arise among individuals because some feel that they are not treated with due respect. The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracies throughout the world have recognised this, at least in principle. This has been achieved in various degrees in various democracies. For societies which have been built for long on the basis of subordination and domination, it is not a simple matter to recognize that all individuals are equal. Take the case of dignity of women. Most societies across the world were historically male dominated societies. Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society. That does not mean that women are actually always treated with respect. But once the principle is recognised, it becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally. In a non-democratic set up, this unacceptability would not have legal basis because the principle of individual freedom and dignity would not have the legal and moral force there. The same is true of caste inequalities. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. Perhaps it is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

Question.1. What the Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes?

Question.2. What is the characteristics of a non-democratic set up?

Question.3. Why do democracy called best form of government?

Ans.1. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for two things:
(i) Equal status.
(ii) Equal opportunities.
Ans.2. In a non-democratic set up, any unacceptability would not have legal basis because the principle of individual freedom and dignity would not have the legal and moral force there.
Ans.3.
(i) Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.
(ii) It also promotes equality among citizens.

Case Study Question 08

Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:

Over a hundred countries of the world today claim and practice some kind of democratic politics: they have formal constitutions, they hold elections, they have parties and they guarantee rights of citizens. While these features are common to most of them, these democracies are very much different from each other in terms of their social situations, their economic achievements and their cultures. Clearly, what may be achieved or not achieved under each of these democracies will be very different.

Question.1. Explain the fascination for democracy amongst various countries.

Question.2. Explain democracy on the basis of expected and actual outcome.

Ans.1. (i) Fascination about democracy amongst various countries is because:
1. It gives its people freedom of life and freedom of speech.
2. A democratic country has a strong economic system and all the people get equal opportunities.
Ans.2. The actual democracies on the basis of expected and actual outcomes are explained below:
1. Regular, free and fair elections, open public debate on major policies and legislations.
2. Citizens right to information about the government and its functioning.

Democracies on the basis of actual outcomes are explained below:
1. Holding elections that offer a fair chance to everyone.
2. Not all decisions are discussed in a public debate.
3. Sharing information with people rarely happens.
4. Democracies have never been free of corruption and government has failed to pay attention to the needs and expectations of people.

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