Revision Notes Class 10th History: Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation

Important Dates

  • 1600: Establishment of the East India Company.
  • 1730: The earliest factories in England came up.
  • 1764: James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny.
  • 1771: Richard Arkwright created the first cotton mill.
  • 1776: A.D. Crompton invented ‘Mule’. It was a combination of Spinning Jenny and cotton mill.
  • 1781: James Watt patented the Steam Engine.
  • 1781: Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model of the steam engine.
  • 1830-1840s: Dwarkanath Tagore set up six joint stock companies in Bengal.
  • 1854: The first cotton mill was set up in Bombay.
  • 1855: The first jute mill was established in Bengal.
  • 1856: The first cotton mill in Bombay started production.
  • 1863: London Underground Railway started operation.
  • 1874: The first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began its production.
  • 1900: Music publisher E.T. Paull produced a music book.
  • 1912: J.N. Tata set up the first iron and steel plant in India at Jamshedpur.
  • 1917: Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman, set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta.

Important Terms to Remember

  • Industrialization: Industrialization is the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods.
  • Proto-industrialization: Period before or beginning of industrialization.
  • Industrial Revolution: The revolution that replaced the cottage industry by the factories.
  • Spinning Jenny: This machine was invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. It sped up the spinning process and reduced labour demand.
  • Gomasthas: They were the paid servants who were appointed by the East India Company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
  • Fuller: A person who ‘fulls’ i.e., gathers cloth by pleating.
  • Stapler: A person who ‘staples’ or sorts wool according to its fibre.
  • Sepoy: An Indian soldier in the service of the British.
  • Dyer: A person who dyes fabrics.
  • Jobber: A person employed by the industrialists to get new recruits for the mills.
  • Carding: The process in which fibres, such as cotton or wool are prepared prior to spinning.
  • Entrepreneurs: A person, who makes money by starting or running businesses, especially when this involves taking financial risks.
  • Guild: An association of craftsmen or merchants following the same craft. These guilds protected the interests of the members and supervised the quality of the product and work.
  • Metropolis: A large, densely populated city of a country or a state, often the capital of the region.
  • Vagrant: A person who has no home or jobs, especially one who begs.
  • Fly Shuttle: It is a mechanical device used for weaving, moved by means of ropes and pulleys. It places the horizontal threads (called the weft) into the vertical threads (called the warp).

The Age of Industrialisation

Summary

  • Proto-industrialisation was the stage when large scale industrial production took place in the absence of modern factories for international market.
  • Acquisition of colonies and expansion of trade in the 16th and 17th centuries led to greater demands for goods.
  • In 1900, a popular music publisher E.T. Paull produced a music book that had a picture on the cover page, which shows a goddess like figure bearing the flag of the new century, standing on a wheel with wings to symbolise time and her flight is taking her into the future. Floating about, behind her, are the signs of progress: railway, camera, machines, printing press and factory.
  • The history of industrialization is a story of development, and the modern age is the time of technological developments.
  • Before the factories were started in England and Europe, there was a large scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialization as proto-industrialization.
  • This proto-industrial system was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.
  • After the Industrial Revolution, the new machines and steam power were used in place of animal and manual power for producing the things. The revolution replaced the cottage industry by factories.
  • The earliest factories in England were set up in 1730.
  • Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. The most dynamic industries in Britain were cotton and metals.
  • Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation upto the 1840s.
  • The industrial workers were known as factory workers.
  • The worker in the mid-nineteenth century was a traditional craftsperson and labourer.
  • Textiles was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within domestic units.
  • Before the introduction of machines in industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles.
  • The process of industrialisation was rapid. It is evident due to the following reasons:
    • Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization.
    • Textile was a dynamic sector.
    • Ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making, and production of implements.
    • Technological changes occurred slowly. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape.
  • In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour. So industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs.
  • During this period, the upper classes—the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand.
  • In countries with labour shortage, industrialists were keen on using mechanical power so that the need for human labour can be minimised.
  • The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers.
  • Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without work.
  • The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.
  • When the Spinning Jenny was introduced to the woollen industry, women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines.
  • Silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles much before the advent of machine industries.
  • A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in the network of export trade – financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters.
  • By the 1750s, the Indian merchants lost their control on exports and the European companies gradually gained power by two ways:
    • By securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    • Through the monopoly rights to trade.
  • The trading ports of Surat and Hoogly declined and Bombay and Calcutta emerged as new ports which indicated the growth of colonial power.
  • In order to have regular supplies of goods for export, the East India Company first established political power so that it could assert a monopoly right to trade.
  • In order to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods, the East India Company took two steps–
    • They appointed a paid servant called the Gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
    • It prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by making it compulsory for those who took loans that they had to handover the cloth they produced to the Gomastha.
  • Due to the development of cotton industries in England, the industrial groups worried about the imports from the other countries and thus pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles.
  • The industrialists also persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well.
  • Cotton weavers in India faced two problems at the same time :
    • Their export market collapsed, and
    • The local market shrank due to Manchester imports.
  • When Civil War broke out, cotton supplies were cut off from US and thus Britain turned towards India.
  • The raw cotton exports from India increased which led to the inflation of prices which affected the weavers who were starved of supplies and were forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices.
  • The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later.
  • Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855.
  • In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
  • From the late eighteenth century, as you have read in your book last year, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England.
  • In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
  • In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India by accumulating their wealth from exports to China and from raw cotton shipments to England.
  • The European merchant-industrialists had their own chambers of commerce which Indian businessmen were not allowed to join.
  • With the expansion of factories, the demand of workers increased. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work.
  • Getting jobs was always difficult so the industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
  • A jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis.
  • The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power.
  • European Managing Agencies established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute.
  • As the Swadeshi Movement gathered momentum, nationalists’ mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth.
  • Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurizing the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
  • During the First World War, British mills became busy in the production of uniform for the army and thus, suddenly India had a big home market to supply.
  • Due to prolonged war, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items.
  • Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war.
  • Where the large industries were dominant in Bombay and Bengal, small scale industries were also growing up over the rest of the country.
  • Due to technological changes the weavers started using looms with a fly shuttle which increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
  • In order to market the cloth manufactured by the British in the Indian market, the Manchester industrialists used labels like ‘Made in Manchester’.

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