Assertion Reason Biology Chapter 11 Organisms and Populations
Questions of Assertion Reason Chapter 11 Organisms and Populations biology CBSE Class 12 are very simple to understand as this chapter deals with Organisms and Populations. To solve assertion reason type questions of biology, deeper understanding of concept about Chapter 11 Organisms and Populations is required. In order to help the student in solving Assertion Reason type of questions, detailed process is explained.
How to solve Assertion Reason Type Questions?
In Assertion-Reason type of question, two statements are given, first is Assertion and second is called Reason. Student must have to think critically about both the statements in Assertion Reason Questions, since it combines multiple choice questions and true/false type of questions which requires a higher level of understanding.
How many types are there of Assertion Reason Type Questions?
Assertion-Reason type of questions can be asked either with four MCQ options or with five MCQ options. First four options are same in both the cases only one more options is being provided i.e. last one. One extra option increases the difficulty level of the questions.
In assertion reason type of questions, all 4 or 5 options are same for each question, which are as:
(a) Both assertion (A) and reason (R) are true and reason (R) is the correct explanation of assertion (A).
(b) Both assertion (A) and reason (R) are true but reason (R) is not the correct explanation of assertion (A).
(c) Assertion (A) is true but reason (R) is false.
(d) Assertion (A) is false but reason (R) is true.
(e) Both Assertion and Reason are false.
Then a question haunts in every student’s mind, which option is correct and when?
This can be understood clearly with the following table:
|Assertion (A)||Reason (R)||MCQ Options (Fixed for all questions)|
|If True||True||(a) Both assertion (A) and reason (R) are true and reason (R) is the correct explanation of assertion (A).|
|If True||True||(b) Both assertion (A) and reason (R) are true but reason (R) is not the correct explanation of assertion (A).|
|If True||False||(c) Assertion (A) is true but reason (R) is false.|
|If False||True||(d) Assertion (A) is false but reason (R) is true.|
|If False||False||(e) Both Assertion and Reason are false.|
Now, lets practice some Assertion Reason Questions of Biology : Chapter 11 Organisms and Populations
Read instructions carefully before answering the questions.
For question given below, two statements are given- one labelled Assertion (A) and the other labelled Reason (R). Select the correct answer to these questions from the codes (a), (b), (c) and (d) as given below:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Assertion: Tropical rain forests are disappearing fast from developing countries such as India.
Reason: No value is attached to these forests because these are poor in biodiversity.
Tropical rain forests have disappeared mainly due to man’s activities. Due to over population in countries like India, rain forests are cut to make place available for man to live and build houses. To build buildings and factories man has incessantly cut down trees. This has caused the depletion of rain forests.
Assertion: Flora contains the actual account of habitat and distribution of plants of a given area.
Reason: Flora helps in correct identification.
Assertion: Species are groups of potentially interbreeding natural populations which are isolated from other such groups.
Reason: Distinctive morphological characters are displayed due to reproductive isolation.
A group of individuals resembling each other in morphological, physiological, biochemical and behavioural characters constitute a species. Such individuals can breed among themselves but cannot breed with members other than their own to produce fertile offsprings. New species are formed mainly due to reproductive isolation.
Assertion: “The Biological Species” concept helps us to ask how species are formed.
Reason: The concept of biological species focuses our attention on the question of how reproductive isolation comes about.
Ernst Mayr proposed the biological species concept, which defines species as groups of actually or potentially inter-breeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
Assertion: Cold deserts too exist. e.g., Tibet, Gobi.
Reason: Desert can be hot, e.g., Thar, Sahara.
Desert can be cold (e.g., Tibet, Gobi) and hot (e.g., Thar, Sahara). The true desert is a place that has a rainfall of less than 12 cm/ yr while in extreme desert is less than 7 cm/ yr.
Assertion: Biotic community has higher position than population in ecological hierarchy.
Reason: Population of similar individuals remains isolated in the community.
The organisms of all the species that live in a particular area and interact in various ways with one another form biotic community. Biotic community is a grouping that is higher than population. It is an assemblage of all the populations of different organisms occurring in an area. The different populations of a community do not remain isolated. They show interactions and inter-dependence.
Assertion: Indo-Gangetic plains have high population density.
Reason: These have favourable climate and fertile soil.
Soils of Indo-Gangetic plains and the Indus valley are highly fertile and suitable for agriculture, so these areas have high population density. Favourable climate increases population density of a geographical area because it favours increase in population growth. High soil fertility favours population density.
Assertion: Living organisms are regarded as open systems.
Reason: Energy of living organisms can be lost or gained from external environment.
Living organisms are regarded as open system as they can gain or loose energy from external environment. All living organisms restore their energy either directly from sunlight or indirectly from food.
Assertion: Ecological equivalents possess similar types of adaptations.
Reason: Ecological niche is the total interaction of a species with environment.
Organisms occupying similar ecological niches but living in different regions are called ecological equivalents. Ecological equivalents possess similar types of adaptations but belong to different taxonomic groups. For example; succulents of American deserts are cacti while those of African desert are euphorbias.
Assertion: Heliophytes, generally have low photosynthetic, respiratory and metabolic activities.
Reason: This is an adaptation of heliophytes to high intensity of light.
Plants have special traits that help them to enlarge their tolerance limits to light regimes. Heliophytes are the sun adapted plants which are adapted to high intensity of light, and have higher temperature optima for photosynthesis, as well as have high rate of respiration. On the other hand, shade adapted plants also called as sciophytes generally have low photosynthetic, respiratory and metabolic activities. Plants such as ferns and several herbaceous plants growing on the ground under the dense canopy of trees, are shade tolerant plants.
Assertion: Leaf butterfly and stick insect show mimicry to dodge their enemies.
Reason: Mimicry is a method to acquire body colour blending with the surroundings.
Leaf butterfly is green in colour and stick insect also mimics in order to escape from the enemies and also to catch prey. The camouflaging mechanism helps the organism to get adapted to its surroundings. The Leaf butterfly is seen more near the leaves while the stick insect camouflages with its surroundings by living on the branches.
Assertion: Animals adopt different strategies to survive in hostile environment.
Reason: Praying mantis is green in colour which merges with plant foliage.
Assertion: Thick cuticle is mostly present in disease resistant plants.
Reason: Disease causing agents cannot grow on cuticle and cannot invade the cuticle.
Assertion: Daphnia populations in a water body, at different seasons of a year showed marked variations in their body morphology.
Reason: Cyclomorphosis in some organisms is influenced by the variations in temperatures prevailing in their water-bodies at different seasons.
In Daphnia the cyclomorphosis (cyclic change in morphology) is seen. The morphology depends upon the temperature variation in water. So at different seasons of the year the Daphnia shows different morphology.
Assertion: The prickly pear cactus introduced into Australia in early 1920s caused havoc by spreading rapidly into millions of hectares of land range.
Reason: When certain exotic species are introduced into a geographical area, they become invasive and start spreading fast because the invaded land does not have the natural predators.
The introduction and spread of exotic plant and animal species in Australia has impacted on the environment, native biodiversity and local communities, transforming the landscape. The most widespread invasive weed in Queensland was a group of cactus species from the Americas, collectively known as prickly pear.